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Organisational Cultures and Workforce Motivation

University: Regent College London

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 18 / Words 4515
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 289
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • What is Organisational Cultures?
  • Explain Workforce Motivation.
  • Discuss Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Waitrose

INTRODUCTION

The term, organisational behaviour can be considered as one of the crucial element for every single company, as it impacts upon individuals, performance of firm and team behaviour as well. In other words, this type of behaviour mainly focuses on developing an engaging and positive environment for staff at workstation (Bester, Stander and Van Zyl, 2015). This directly aid companies to maximise different aspects for themselves like profits and opportunities for business companies, skills improvement of individual and team development and so on. In both the sections of this report (Part 1 and Part 2), organisation that has been taken into consideration is Waitrose, which was found in the year of 1904 by Wallace Waite, Arthur Rose and David Taylor.

This organisation is dealing in the market as British supermarket which conducts business within retail industry. Company is one of largest employee owned type business. At present, there are around 353 retail outlets that Waitrose is holding in United Kingdom. Apart from this, report is going to be enclosed with organisation’s power, culture and politics and can influence team behaviour, performance level of company and individual's performance as well. Including this, concepts and philosophies of Organisational Behaviour and lastly content and process theories of motivation, effective team, as opposed to an ineffective team will be discussed.

ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

Organization culture is system which consist of general believes, values and standards of an organization which are stated by management. This have a strong impact on the people of organization which stimulate there act like how to dress, behave, react and work in firm(Bharathy, 2018).

Culture

Culture can be defined as environment influence on an individual in which they exist. It consist of values, theories, believes, living style, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of individual. In context of firm, culture can be said as the ideology of their employees . There are four cultures which are present in enterprise and can be analysed with respect to Waitrose. Culture have direct impact on Waitrose as it helps in maintaining productivity and by its positive implementation it working conditions will also get better.Need Assignment Samples.Talk to our Experts!

  • Role culture : In this culture the main objective is to allocate roles to individual according to there ideologies or culture. The major power are given according to competence & skills of there employees. In context of Waitrose this type of culture can be useful as company can execute it easy and giving roles to employee will lead in fulfilling self esteem needs which directly boost employee motivation by changing its behaviour. It also leads in group cooperation which impact on organisation performance. It can used by Waitrose to increase employee participation by providing them roles and task for there motivation these roles are for short as well as for long term .
  • Task culture : Task culture is formed in organization when teams are made for performing a specific task in firm. Task is an important thing that's why power will flow according to task organisation. This type of culture is useful for enterprise like Waitrose because giving tasks always leads in formation of group & teams, and acquisition of authority which ultimately leads in group development of employees as well as enhance their performance for long run (Burrell and Morgan, 2017).Firm can imapiment this on there staff by providing them different task with some time limit.
  • Person culture : Personal culture in the firm arise when some person in it start thinking that they are superior then organisation. In context of Waitrose this culture has both positive as well as negative impact on firm. If this culture is used in top level management than it have positive impact as they have superior level authority & responsibilities which will motivate them. and but if it arise in low levels than it will impact negatively because employee might get over confident which leads in bad performance.Personal culture can applied by Waitrose in there organtional structrue by prociding opportunities to there staff.
  • Power culture : Power culture in firm is that culture in which powers will remains in hands of few people like top level management . In Waitrose this concept will impact negatively as it will demotivate employees of it which will leads in change in behaviour. Performance of those personnels will also effected adversely as less power will lead in delaying of decision related to work. Power culture can be used by firm where it needed to control flow of powers and authority.

Politics

Politics refers to that process which deals with the governance of enterprise, it involve the activities and decisions related to management of the organization. It is mainly two type positive & negative . Positive politics include positive decision like employees telecommute, take leaves, work in rotational shifts etc. negative politics is related to talking behind someone's back, and not telling someone important information, spreading rumours etc. In Waitrose positive politics will impact in better coordination and employee motivation which influence the behaviour of individual employee. It also impact on positively on team behaviour because of better coordination which ultimately leads in better performance (Christina and et. al., 2014). Negative politics has bad impact on individual and team behaviour as well as demote the performance of Waitrose in long run. For example Waitrose have easy leave structure which provide easy leaves to there employees.

Power

Power can de defined as authority of a person to take decision, make commands and regulate people of the organisation . These belongs to top level management. There are five type of power in an enterprise which are stated below in context of Waitrose.

  1. Coercive : these are those power which manger conveyed by establishing fear in mind of employees .This power is gotten through threatening others. This power will impact negatively on individual & team behaviour of Waitrose just because it follow autocratic leadership style. This will also lead in decreasing performance firm as there might be the situation of threat in mind of employees(Dawson, 2018).
  2. Reward : This power is related to management of reward of workers. In this power the employee who perform according to standards will be rewarded by manger . Reward may be monetary or non monetary incentive. In context of Waitrose this approach will impact positively on employee behaviour as incentives will boost their morale and bring positive behaviour. This will also leads improvement of organisation performance as motivated employee help in increasing profitability of firm (Coccia and Cadario, 2014).
  3. Legitimate : legitimate powers are those power which lies with top level of management like CEO, CAO etc. these power come with position in firm . In Waitrose context these power might be impact negatively on individual as well as team behaviour if leaders only believes in their decision and not include employee's suggestions(De Vasconcelos, Gouveia and Kimble, 2016).
  4. Expert : Expert power is experience of an person in particular area . This power influence Waitrose positively as this power helps in boosting up performance of organization as it posses expert view which helps it in doing various tasks. This will also bring positive change in behaviour of individual employees with the help of experience(Maio and et. al., 2019).
  5. Referent : Referent power come when other people started trusting & believing in individual. This will lead to increase in performance of Waitrose but it has a adverse impact on output of the whole team as there is decrease in performance just because individual start focussing on getting referent power then the attainment of organisation objectives (Cooke, 2018).

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory

The following theory developed by Geert Hofstede in year 1980. this theory helps in identifying various cultural difference arccos different country. There are various methods which business can use to deal with such cultural differences.

There are six categories which a re part of this theory as discussed below:

Power Distance Index: In this power index, there is high power which means there is bureaucracy and respect for authority and rank. For example CEO of Waitrose have high authority with powers.

Individualism vs. Collectivism: In this there has to be attainment of goals. Individual focus on attainment of individual objectives and collectivism focus on achievement of collective objectives . For example Waitrose employee focus on there goals by matching organisation goals.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index: If the index is high then tolerance power might be low. Which is related to risk taking, strict rules and the other situation is vice versa.

Masculinity vs. Femininity: In the index, it can be advised that there is a tough situation, which is having preference for society which is related to sexuality, equality, behaviour, achievement, attitude .

Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation: In this theory the long term objectives and short term objectives must be linked to each other for facilitating effective control (Dawson, 2018).

Indulgence vs. Restraint: There are two terms which is focussing on consideration towards society towards the extent of society and to fulfil the desires. Theses all can use by Waitrose in formation of culture of there organisation with the help of proper analysis and implementation.

After critical analysis on Waitrose culture it is funded that Role culture & Task culture have only positive impact on performance of business as well as employees behaviour but Person culture might have positive as well as negative impact on firm so it should be play smart on implementing this culture in their organisation. Power culture can become dangerous for this organization as it have negative impacts on organization . Positive politics has more optimistic impact on Waitrose. Powers have different impact on individual as well as group behaviour in enterprise . Like Coercive which has negative impact because of autocratic leadership. Legitimate & referent have also negative impact on business. So Waitrose can focus on Reward & Expert powers for attainment of performance standards and good behaviour of individual & team.Want to get Assignment help? Talk Our Expert Now!

Motivation is that process which help the business to get there work done by there employees in efficient manner. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. It is that function of management which help in stimulating individual as well as group or individual to work in a diction to achieve the organization goals(Odor, 2018).

Motivational theories : these can be identified as those theories which a manger use to motivate employees in organisation for getting the work done. These theories help a manger in identifying needs of personnels and treating them according to it . These theory are further divided in two categories which are content & process theory (Jansen and Samuel, 2014).

Content theory: This theory deals with the satisfaction of employees by matching their expectations. These expectation are basic needs of a human being. It includes Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory (Two-factor theory), McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Need theory and ERG theory With regard, one of motivational theory will use ERG motivation theory in the context of Waitrose. These theory will help organisation in maintaining good environment in there organisation.

ERG motivation theory

This theory was developed by Clayton P. Alderfer by further developing Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. He categorised Maslow's five point theory in three points which are existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs. These needs are fulfilled by establishing and maintaining relationships

  1. Existence needs : These types of need includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs like air, food, house, health care ,clothing, water etc. Waitrose can use these techniques for motivation of there personas by providing basic facilities like healthcare police, monetary and non monetary incentives. When such needs are met then it will motivate the worker to work with increased power for accomplishing objectives of firm.
  2. Relatedness needs : Relatedness needs are those needs of an individual which are affiliated to social interaction like relationships , love, affection maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family, peers or superiors) and getting public fame and recognition. This needs can be full fill by Waitrose by establishing informal groups in the firm.
  3. Growth Needs : These needs include personal development and self growth advancement. This needs can be used by Waitrose by providing training to its staff which leads specialisation in work and directly influence behaviour of individual.

Process theory

Process theory is that examination of individual which focus on change in its behaviour by the tools of motivation. Adam's equity theory is widely used in process theory which is stated below.

Adam's equity theory

This theory has main purpose of maintain the reward system in organization. in this theory John Stacey Adams has stated that a individual will only get rewards according to its output & input for the organization. This have three focus points that are stated below.

  1. Overpaid Inequity : When an individual's outcomes are more than its input in comparison with outers .
  2. Underpaid Inequity : when in business the output of employee is lower than the input than it will be the situation of underpaid inequity.
  3. Equity : An individual perceives that his outcomes in relation to his inputs are equal to those of others it is equity situation.

Waitrose can use this theory as a tool of motivation but it have also some drawback in it as this theory says that employees of same department must be paid same which can demotivate those employees who are working more efficiently in firm. Which is not good for the organization.

After usage of theory of motivation like ERG theory & Adam's equity on Waitrose it can be analyse that company will have the option to impact the general conduct of people in a constructive way, it is likewise been broke down that this trademark will help being developed of people in reasonable manner. Adams value hypothesis helps in advancing balance between the people however this has a disservice that this hypothesis says that representatives having a place with comparative division needs to paid comparative which implies loss of endeavors of increasingly skilled labourers and acquire demotivation office. satisfaction of ERG needs may prompt upgrade of the inspiration level of faculty however at same time it might likewise prompt lower level of inspiration in the staff who may have performed better in future as the entirety of their needs have just been met and such needs can not propel them further.

Implementation of positive politics & culture (like role& task culture) powers such as reward, referent and expert are those power which have positive impact on organization and if a good motivation is provided on all of these than it will work as betterment in organisation performance.

Team Dynamics and Organisational Behaviours

In present business world, a team can be considered as a group of potential staff individuals that performs number of tasks with a specific purpose, which could be anything from attaining a common goal and so on.

Including this, if it is talked about Waitrose, then the company is dealing with a number of issues in relation to Team Dynamics and Organisational Behaviours. This made them to make decisions on dividing two different categories of teams (effective and ineffective), where, effective teams are those which consists of a set of employees who are having clear guidance and direction with regards to what work has to be done. On the other hand, effective teams are the ones which deals with various issues like less attainment of targets and so on. It is needed by Waitrose to consider ineffective team and take decisions to imply In context to Waitrose, differences among both ineffective and effective team are mentioned underneath:

Basis

Effective Team

Ineffective team

Decision making

Within Waitrose, an effective team gets equal opportunities to take decisions for betterment of their own and of company as well. This lead to enhancement of performance level of Waitrose and of team as well (Natvig and Stark, 2016).

Due to less motivation an ineffective team within Waitrose, would not become able to attain the desired targets as they are specifically not given any authority or considered within decision making process of the company.

Goals

An effective team would directly lead Waitrose to attain different desired goals, as it would lead company to gain competitive advantages, improvement of organisational structure and so on.

If it is talked about Waitrose's ineffective team, then it is needed by company to specify different goals and objectives so that they could perform well. It will improvise their confidence level to improvise their performance level.

Team Dynamic

As mentioned in Lencioni's theory, there are five specific key elements that plays an important role for Waitrose, as they lead organisation to consider various aspects in relation to development of cohesive and effective teams. All these five elements are given underneath:

  • Trust: As a team for a particular task in Waitrose would require to develop trust for each other while executing the plan.
  • Healthy Conflict: Another element, which would lead Waitrose's team to consider in order to become effective in nature, where all group members will participate in solving a number of conflicts.
  • Commitment: Waitrose's team for a specific task would require to commit to themselves and to company as well so that goals can be achieved within a stipulated period of time.
  • Accountability: accountability is must for any team for effectiveness in there work and Waitrose have there main focus on establishing accountably in there team management .
  • Result focussed: Another major element that came in front is result focused where, aim of Waitrose's team is to focus on practicality of work which is done in beginning .

Types of teams

Considering the present business environment, there are a range or types of teams that Waitrose could develop, which would help firm in attaining a good value in the market through fulfilling the requirements of staff, customers and of organisation itself. Some of these types of teams are mentioned underneath:

Project team: Since Waitrose, is dealing at international level, it usually develops a number of projects on both national or international level on particular time intervals, in order to bring modifications within the existing products or for some other reasons as well. This is where, this type of team can be taken into consideration when it comes perform well at market in uncertain situation .

Functional team: This group consists of a number of individuals that belong to diverse business function of Waitrose where information shifts from top level management to lower level. They are formed to perform specific function in organisation that will help in getting work done with full use of resources.

Virtual team: Considering the team, Waitrose would easily integrate personnels who belong to various different location but work together. This is present in company's customer service centre. These teams are those which are used for those where there is no requirement of personal contact.

Tuckman Team Development Theory is being considered as hypothesis, which would help Waitrose in continuously developing different range of products, it consists of different stages and are defined below:

Forming: This stage includes orientation of people together for a particular team formation with a common objective of achieving organization goals. Company can implement this on there structure by collecting different people for common task.

Storming: Storming is the stage where the relationship between selected team member is establish for knowing each other . This can be use by Waitrose by esstablishing informal groops in organisation.

Norming: It is third stage where in development of team where all member of team integrate with each other an get to know qualities of each other. Conflict also arise in this stage . This also happen in Waitrose. As they provide effective training to there employess and make them perfect for there job.

Performing: Performing is second last function of this theory in which all employee combine there effort to achieve objective of this organization. Here the whole team have to perform the task with full coordination.

Adjourning: Adjourning is not the compulsory step it strictly depends upon purpose of team. In this stage the team will be adjourn after the completion of task . Waitrose have to this step as they have to perform different task which requires teams.Get Best Behavior Management Assignment Help from our management experts!

Classification of Path Goal Theory

This theory states that leaders have their own style of leadership. They can choose the style which is most preferable. Also, selection of correct style is crucial to analyse the clear path goal. Main objective of this theory is to increase employee moral and motivation which will direct have a impact on organisation productivity as well as final output. Thus, with adoption of this theory by Waitrose leaders will be dynamic in nature and change in the enterprises will be easily attained by both the parties; firm as well as subordinates.

It is the theory which mainly consist of 3 main elements which are going to be discussed as follows:

Employee Characteristics: In this, leaders analyse behaviour of personnel in order to motivates and enhance their effort in achieving the desired goal in organisation. In context to Waitrose, leaders can transform subordinates attitude and behaviour in an effective and appropriate manner to achieve desired goal (Peralta and et. al., 2018).

Task & Environment Characteristics: This states that leaders behaviour reflects the enterprise climate. So, leaders and employee behaviour depends on environment factors such as locus of control, perception etc. In Waitrose, leaders are flexible and supportive in nature thus, their subordinates become more clear about goal path. Leaders are subordinates both are dependent on each other (Testa and Lee, 2018)..

Leadership Behaviour: It depicts that leaders attributes are dynamic in nature and it depends on behaviour, attributes and perception to select the most appropriate style in organisation. In context of Waitrose, its leaders in firm follows the democratic style. In this, everyone takes participate equally. Thus, chances of conflicts reduces, presence of friendly environment and no discrimination is done with subordinates. This style has been considered as one of the most effective method which have a direct impact on employees productivity and efficiency. These all will apply on organisation with the help on managers as he is the one who have to guide employees of organisation. This guidance will be direction of goals of organisation.

Philosophies of OB

Philosophies are crucial for every organisation because they reflects the culture and climate of enterprises. In organisational behaviour, they play important role in deciding to achieve the desired objective in an appropriate manner with value, belief and ethics. In context to Waitrose, contingency theory is chosen because their leaders believes in adoption of change. This flexible nature and situational behaviour of leaders has enhanced the subordinates readiness.

Leadership Theory related OB

System leadership theory

This theory states that every organisation should provide its leaders to develop certain conditions which assist employee with a better work environment from where best output will be generated within the enterprises. In relation with Waitrose, every personnel gets equal opportunity to put their best effort to achieve the specified goal. Hence, employee motivation and morale increases.

Organisational behaviour is broad concept which is needed to be examined. After analysing the impact and importance of path goal theory and system leadership it is crucial to know which style is most effective and beneficial for the organisation. Thus, path goal theory is to be considered as one of the best effective strategy which is used by the leaders in firm

This theory is developed for effective team building & development in the firm . This theory mainly consist of four stages which are forming, storming, norming and performing This was given by Bruce Tuckman who is a psychologist . This theory help in achievement of goals & objectives .

CONCLUSION

Considering the above information, it is being summarised that business companies consists of specific type of conduct (behaviour) which is influences development of the business. There are by different components which influences the worker's behaviour towards accomplishment of different desired number of targets and objectives. Including this, it is needed by management to break down all the parts of association and as indicated by the desires for their staff individuals different administration styles have been created which help in smooth running if elements of the association. Away with this, it is also concluded that different group advancement theories could effectively lead firms to grab a good position within the market.

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