This sample will let you know about:
- Discuss about the four types of organizational cultures.
- Discuss about the Tuckman's Team Development Theory.
- Discuss about the Organisational behaviour.
Organisational behaviour (OB) is the specific study of individual and team performance. OB is also knows as “human behaviour's study”. There are different types of employees working in a company to achieve same goals. These all employees come from different background. So, their motivation and mindset also different. The management of the company study organizational behaviour only for systematically managing people or employees in the workplace. Employees are the biggest resource to the company which are helpful in gaining high profit in the market. Study of organization's behaviour is too necessary to the company for improving all employees' performance in the operations (McShane and et.al., 2018). This report discusses the organisational behaviour of Primark. It is an Irish retail company established by Arthur Ryan in 1969. The company is very successful in its business expansion process. This report covers many important topics related to OB such as Culture, Power and Politics of an organization, content and process theory of motivation, factors which makes an effective team and also an ineffective team, team and individual development theory, and lastly various philosophies and concepts of OB. These concepts highly impact organization's behaviour in both terms i.e., positively and negatively. Mainly organizational behaviour promotes a happy and healthy work environment within any the Primark.
P1: Culture, Power and Politics of organization
Culture, power and politics of Primark are currently highly influencing its team and individual behaviour and performance. These all are completely managed by the top-level management of company. Culture is a system where values and beliefs of people are completely existing (KOPP, 2019). It is also an environment where all employees come together for achieving same goals. Power, is an ability to command people or employees within the company. The management has the highest power in the Primark company. The manager uses this power for giving specific orders to their employees. Lastly, the Politics is unofficial and informal efforts of top-level management. A company use politics to influence their employees and also for achieving decided targets. Order assignment help from our experts!
Influence of Culture
Culture of the company highly influence all employee’s performance and behaviour in both terms positively and negatively. The management of Primark always try to maintain good culture within their business environment to get effective work from individual and team (Werner, 2016). Handy's culture model is mentioned below which systematically described various cultures of an oragnisation. According to the Charles Handy, there are four types of organizational cultures influence team and individual performance and behaviour.
- Power: Power culture refers, each person is responsible to take decisions one the basis of their power in the company. They also need to take some effective decisions (Brenyah and Obuobisa-Darko, 2017). For example; the manager has the highest power to take most decisions within business operations.
- Task Culture: This culture refers, all people within the company are need to follow their own tasks. Task culture plays great role in removing various errors at workplace (Safi, Azouri and Saliba, 2018). Each one is responsible to complete its task on time as well. It is also focuses on develop current behaviour and performance of individual and team.
- Person Culture: All employees within the company are independent, they deserve dignity for their work. A person or employees is need to be honest also at their job role (Elsmore, 2017). According to person culture, the management is responsible to appreciate their employees, because this appreciation is helpful in improve performance and behaviour of all employees.
- Role Culture: According to role culture, all employees are responsible to focus on their roles which the management gives them. Individual and team plays different roles within company's operations for achieving same goals.
Primark has very positive work culture (Senyo, Liu and Effah, 2018). The management of company uses this culture to influence individual and team positively. For example; the management respect their employees in the Primark. In this case, employees feel valued by the management. Then these employees try to put huge efforts in the workplace. The company is able to achieve great profit in the market with the support of these efforts.
Influence of Power
The management of Primark uses their power of positively influence their employees. The manager takes various important decisions on the basis of their power (Chinomona, 2016). Power gives authority to the manager for giving specific orders and direction to their employees. Currently the company has effective brand value in the market, in which power of the management plays great role in maintaining this brand value. There are 'Three Forms of Power' model mentioned below which highly influence team and individual;
Expert Power: Proper knowledge and high experience of business build this power in any person within the organization.
The manager of Primark use its knowledge and expertise to influence their lower-level management. A manager always wants an effective workforce, in which it shares its knowledge with their employees through this power. Then employees become capable to improve their behaviour and performance in the Primark. These factors are too important to this company.
Referent Power: A person is able to use this power who have high respect and reputation in the organisation. The person can easily influence anyone with the help of their high reputation.
The manager of Primark use this power to build take effective work from their followers or employees. (Ahmadi and et.al., 2019) This power within the company influence individual and team to develop their behaviour and performance.
Reward Power: A employee gain this power within an organization by its good performance. Upper management give any power to the employee in a reward form.
The Primark always give reward to good performers within their business environment (de Vasconcelos and et.al., 2016). The company motivates employees to improve current performance and behaviour with the help of this reward power.
The Primark using these three forms of power for improving their employees performance and behaviour. The company currently has effective workforce, because it uses these powers in very productive manner. Need example assignments, Talk to our experts!
Influence of Politics
Organisational politics influence team and individual performance and behaviour in the both terms positively and negatively. Mostly people use politics within the company for fulfilling their personal needs (Pasian, 2016). Suppose a leader want to be highlighted for gaining their upper management's attention. In this case, that leader use politics to become highlight in the workplace. Politics promotes informal and unofficial behaviour within individual and team. Many times a manager or a leader use politics for achieving organizational success as well. Many employees use politics for increase their power at workplace.
Positive politics of Primark currently increasing performance of employees in the workplace, because the aim behind this politics is to achieve high goals in the market (Odor, 2018). In this case, leaders and managers within the company taken many productive steps for gaining huge advantages from politics. These steps promote progressive environment within the organization, and at the final result it will increase performance and behaviour level of individual and team. The company influences team and individual behaviour Positively. Top-level management to lower-level management there are employees use politics in ethical manner, because the upper management has high control on politics aspect within business environment. This politics help to the company for achieving its decided goals.
The management of Primark need to maintain good work culture for employees to gain high success in the market (Subba and Rao, 2017). There are culture, power, motivation and politics completely interrelate with each other. It is prime responsibility of the manager to use their power in ethical manner, because ethical work environment build high trust of company within employees. Then employees will improve their current performance and behaviour to put great efforts in the workplace. Positive use of culture, motivation, power and politics is always helpful to the company for achieving their goals in the market.
P2: Theories of Motivation
There are content and process theories of motivation very important for the company to improve their employees' performance. The management uses these theories for gaining high competitive advantage in the fashion market.
The content theory is basically described the concept of 'what things motivate team and individual'. It is helpful in identifying an employee's needs within company's operations (Alqahtani, 2018). The management is able to influence behaviour of their followers or employees through this theory. Content theory of motivation include various theories, one of which is Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory which is discussed:
Maslow's Need Hierarchy: This theory of motivation introduced by Abraham Maslow. It is a framework to the company for understanding the power needs. These needs highly motivate people, in which all needs are explained below in a hierarchical form.
- Physiological Needs: These are basically basic needs of people or employees, like; Air, Food, Water, Sleep, etc. A person can't survive without fulfilling these needs, because these are major needs of humans on the earth (Selamat, Nordin and Fook, 2018). Currently each person want to eat good food, in which it works effectively to fulfil these needs, so employees within Primark also take various steps towards fulfil these needs.
- Safety Needs: According to safety needs, all people take various steps for creating a safe zone around them. An employee effectively work in the Primark to fulfil safety needs, in which this effective work of employee will indirectly help to the Primark for achieving its goals.
- Social Needs: These needs including love, belongingness, appreciation, dignity and affection etc. So, these needs are also useful to the Primark for gaining its goals, because employees work hard in the company for take appreciation from their seniors (Abdullahi, and et.al., 2017). Many employees increase their performance level within the Primark for fulfilling dignity needs. Dignity help to employees within the company to improve their performance.
- Esteem Needs: A person or employee wants to fulfil their esteem needs as well. There are Self-confidence, self-respect, personal worth etc. included in these needs. An employee always tries to work hard in the Primark for achieving personal worth in society.
- Self-Actualisation Needs: In these needs, an employee takes various steps for maximizing their potential and efficiency (Mitonga-Monga and Cilliers, 2016). These are also too helpful to the Primark, because when an employee maximizes its potential in the workplace, then their high potential will automatically contribute in the growth of the Primark. Then this company will able to improve its all over performance.
So, here is the content theory of motivation is too important to the company, because an employee always need to put high efforts in the workplace for fulfilling these all needs. In this case, when employee put high efforts in the workplace, then it automatically improves all over performance of the company (Mansouri, Singh and Khan, 2018). The management can easily influence other's behaviour through content theory. At the final result the Primark will enable to achieve its goals with the help of this theory.
Process theories of motivation helps to understand the process of motivation. This theory focuses on behavioural and psychological process of individual to increase efficiency of them and by satisfying their needs and wants (Wan, 2016). Primark must use this theory to understand the behavioural changes of employees after satisfaction of their needs to increase their efficiency in organization and achieve their objectives effectively.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
This theory is based on assumption that personal skills, personality, knowledge, experiences are the factors which helps to decide the performance of employees of the organization (Madhukar and Sharma, 2017).
- Valence- This is the internal value of employees which they put in achieving the objectives with positive attitude. This value of employees is interconnected with rewards or job satisfaction which help to increase their productivity in achieving their objectives within the Primark.
- Expectancy- It is the ideology in which employees are provided extra workload to increase their performance and improve their quality of work (Kuo and Tsai, 2019). More efforts will provide better results to company to achieve its objectives. Primark needed to increase this ideology in company's culture to implement change effectively and adopt the technology by increasing skills and knowledge. This theory is really helpful for the Primark.
- Instrumentality- This is a probability reward factors which helps employees to increase their performance by selecting one alternative which leads to better growth and opportunities of employees (Chopra, 2019). This also helps Primark to improve high performance workforce who are efficient in evaluating the alternatives which could lead them to expected results effectively.
Primark must use this theory as it increase team performance and motivation of employees to adopt technological change in company and increase its efficiency in market. This theory help employee to increase their belief that their efforts is related to their outputs.
Adam's Equity Theory
Equity theory focuses on the equality in distribution of reward to employees according to their efforts and performance in the organization (Yusof and et.al., 2019). This also helps to increase their motivation as due to uniformity in the system which helps to provide better quality of environment to achieve objectives. This theory focuses on the proper orientation of inputs and outputs of employees of Primark to decrease discrimination among employees. This theory is divided into three relationships.
- Overpaid Inequity- This is the situation when the employees have more output than his inputs and in relation to other employees then the reward should be increased as per the outputs of employees to increase the motivation and help them to increase the performance (Hughes and et.al., 2019). Primark has analysed that there is a tendency of employees to do social comparison to understand their level of inputs and outputs to demand fair reward.
- Underpaid Inequity- In this situation, the employees who receive fewer outputs as compared to his efforts or inputs (Wesselink, Blok and Ringersma, 2017). This increases demotivation of employees and generate turnover of employees.
- Equity- It is the situation where outputs and input of employees are equal also with relation of other employees. Primark need to adopt this factors which help to increase the efficiency of employees and reduce cost of operations.
Adam's equity theory helps to increase value of employees by fair pay according to efforts to increase their motivation to increase their efforts to gain more pay. This helps Primark to increase productivity of organization's culture which helps to implement technology effectively in business organization.
P3: Effective Team and Ineffective Team
There are various factors discusses below which makes an effective team and an effective team.
An effective team or teamwork always give great contribution in the growth of the company. It is basically a productive asset to the company which give high input in daily operations. Some major factors behind an effective team are mentioned below;
- Effective Leadership: A effective leader always tries to make the team more productive in the company's operations (Schatz, 2019). Effective leadership is one of the biggest reasons behind an effective team, because it uses their skills to systematically manage all teamwork.
- Good Communication: Good communication is the key to the company to makes an effective team, because all employees within the teamwork are able to understand each other with the help of good communication. It is useful in removing various errors within team.
- Skilled Employees: Skilful employees are also very helpful to the company to makes an effective teamwork. Suppose a team has highly qualified and skilled employees, in which this team will gain high success than other teams. So, the management of Primark is responsible to hire some skilled employees in their business environment.
An ineffective team is always poor in achieving its target, because it is completely unfocused and distrust from its goals. The management taken many steps within the Primark for avoiding makes an ineffective team. Some factors behind ineffective team are mentioned below;
- Lack of Cohesion: Lack of cohesion is a big reason behind an ineffective team. In case when employees not trust each other within teamwork, when they follow only self-decisions without listen others etc. these kinds of conditions convert a team into an ineffective team.
- Poor Communication: This is also a major factor which makes an ineffective team (Kakabadse and Bank, 2018). For example; when a leader not carefully listen their employees, when team members' no has any interaction values, etc. these are also reasons behind an ineffective team.
- Lack of Knowledge: Proper knowledge is too necessary in any the teamwork for completing each task in systematic manner. In this case, suppose employees within teamwork has zero knowledge, then this reason also promotes an ineffective team (Schatz, 2019). To makes an effective team, the team leader need to provide specific knowledge to their all team members.
The company is able to maintain effective teamwork within their business environment by using some theories of team and group development. The “Team Development Model” of Bruce Tuckman is the one of the finest team and group development theories which discusses below;
Tuckman's Team Development Theory
Bruce Tuckman introduced this theory of team and group development in 1965. He mentioned four (Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing) stages of development in his theory (Rezaei, Allameh and Ansari, 2018). These stages are used by the many organizations in their teamwork to makes an effective team.
- Forming: It is the first stage of team development, where a leader a responsible to share all major aspects of the teamwork with their team members. For example; objectives, existing skills, available resources (Kiweewa and et.al., 2018). Timeline, rules and regulations, role of each team member, etc. With the help of this stage the leader is able remove many errors within the teamwork.
- Storming: This stage is specially focuses on good relationship between team leader and team members. In this stage, the leader need communicate with their employees for take some specific ideas from them (Jones, 2019). The leader is responsible to take members' opinions also during making any decision within teamwork. This stage helps to the team leader to take effective decisions.
- Norming: In the norming stage, the leader is responsible to create such culture within the teamwork where all members appreciate each other's work. This stage promotes high performance in within teamwork (Hosseini, Barzoki and Isfahani, 2018). This stage is very helpful to the Primark to increase its all over performance in the market.
- Performing: In the performing stage all team members are become high motivated, familiar and confident within the teamwork. The team leader need to celebrate its teamwork success with their employees under this stage (Rezaei, Allameh and Ansari, 2018). With the help of this stage the company is able to gain an effective team or workforce for the future projects.
This development theory is effective to the Primark, because with the help of this theory the company is able to improve team and individual performance and behaviour within its business environment.
P4: Concepts and Philosophies
Analysing, understanding and predicting an individual or group's behaviour, activities and performance within an organization is called organizational behaviour. It is performed to clarify any misunderstanding, conflicts between individuals in the organization. Though there are many organizational behaviour philosophies, Primark operates on the Autocratic model of organizational behaviour, which stipulates that the power to form and implement decisions resides with the owner and managers (Wood and et.al., 2016). This model argues that, for productive output of organization, employees need to obey and perform all duties assigned to them by managers diligently. This model has its own pros and cons, as it is quite simple to learn and implement, and provides Primark with a clear, direct chain of command for efficient communication within organization. Employees give optimum performance either because of their own personal drive, promise of a good reward, relationship with their boss or because of some other factor. However, its main disadvantage is its high human cost, where employees feel dependent, frustrated and insecure of their superiors. To boost an employee's motivation, satisfaction levels and maximize their productivity within an organization, Path-Goal Theory is used.
Path-Goal theory is a leadership theory which stipulates that in order to achieve the objectives of the business efficiently, the leadership must specify their behaviour, attitude to match the work environment and employees. In essence, it says that a manager with flexible approach to leadership based on their work environment and employees will fare better than an inflexible manager. Implementation of this theory helps Primark as it provides a defined scheme for managers to discern how their leadership style regulates their subordinates motivational and productivity levels (Farhan, 2018). It also emphasizes that the primary role of a manager is helping and guiding their subordinates to maximize their performance. But it should not be implemented carelessly as it can be very complicated to understand and may require multiple styles of leadership for different situations. It also assumes that the manager thinks rationally and doesn't have flaws.
The appropriate leadership approach to be implemented depends upon the nature and requirements of a particular situation and the employees at Primark. The path-goal theory specifies four leadership styles namely Directive, Supportive, Achievement-oriented and Participative leadership.
The managers instruct employees on their duties and functions, providing guidelines on when and how to perform an exercise, coordinating and scheduling their work in regard to deadlines and supervising their progress. This approach is suitable when employees are hesitant about their jobs and uncertain of their skills (Bell, Dodd and Mjoli, 2018). Implementing this style at Primark will help provide structure to unregulated tasks, as leaders will be able to share their knowledge and experience with inexperienced team, guiding them along the way for higher productivity. As this style emphasizes following rules and regulations, it’s also suited to be exceeder where room for error is small and certain procedures and laws have to be followed. In contrast, it discourages and restricts initiatives taken by employees, avoids collaboration with experienced people other than manager. It can also create feeling of personal dissatisfaction as employees are instructed on everything and reduce overall team morale. This approach is also highly dependent on skilled leaders who can manage burden of increased workload.
The manager shows interest in the life and well-being of their employees and creates a pleasant working environment for everyone by being amicable and inviting. This approach is suited to situations where employee feels demotivated or unsatisfied which is currently a major problem in Primark. It is also perfect for jobs which place physical, emotional or psychological stress on employee’s life and their relationships (Phillips and Phillips, 2016). Implementing this style at Primark will help improve team-management relationship, make the workforce feel valued and appreciated, increasing employee motivation and satisfaction level which, which in turn raises employee loyalty and productivity.
Although, not every situation would benefit by this leadership style. When a manager gets over-friendly with employees, he relinquishes authority and control which are necessary tools to maintain proper workplace decorum (Olowoselu, bin Mohamad and Mohamed Farag Mohamed Aboudahr, 2019). For example, a manager on great terms with one of his employees might feel awkward to reprimand him for inappropriate or unproductive behaviour. It is even arduous for such a manager to fire said employee, thus increasing the burden on their shoulders. Ask for Coursework Help from our experts!
The manager fixes demanding objectives for their subordinates and expects optimum performance and productivity in return. They show trust in their problem-solving skills and confidence in their ability to meet his expectations. Employees who are skilled and able to work productively without supervision are suited to this leadership style. It is also suited to jobs where achievement is the end objective such as sales, scientific research or entrepreneurship. Implementing this style at Primark helps in eliminating communication gaps between leaders and workforce as all objectives, deadlines, incentives are provided from the beginning (Bickle, 2017). Workforce can also manage their time productively. In contrast, achievement-oriented leadership tends to suffer from high turnover rates, employee burnout, reduced creativity and innovation and no concern for workforce welfare.
The manager deems it necessary to consult and work with their subordinates, taking their suggestions, and ideas into consideration during the decision-making process. This style is suited to situations where the workforce is highly trained, involved or possesses unique knowledge making them invaluable assets for productivity (Banjarnahor, H. and et.al., 2018). Implementing this approach at Primark will improve overall teamwork and communication of the workforce, create meaningful relationships between the employees and increase employee's motivation and satisfaction. In contrast, participative leaderships find time management difficult and are not suited to deadline pressures.
In conclusion, Primark being a fashion brand would benefit greatly by implementing in particular, achievement-oriented leadership approach would greatly help its sales department as it provides employees the freedom to achieve objectives on their terms (Famakin and Abisuga, 2016). However, Primark's designs department would benefit from participative leadership approach as it would get everyone in the team to contribute towards designing fashion accessories and unleash their creativity.
It can be concluded that there are culture, power and politics of the Primark is highly influencing behaviour and performance of all employees. The top-level management is responsible to perfectly manage these all aspects within the organization. Otherwise, these all aspects will decrease the performance and behaviour level of their employees. There are content and process theory of motivation are very helpful to the Primark to achieve effective goals in the market. These theories of motivation are too useful in improve current work efficiency of all employees. Some major factors are mentioned above which makes an effective team and also an ineffective team (Maio, and et.al., 2019). With the help of Tuckman's team development theory, the company is able to maintain effective teamwork within business environment. This theory providing various productive ways to the leader which too useful in makes an effective team. There are many concepts and philosophies are also included which influence organizational behaviour in both terms positively and negatively. The management need to create a happy and healthy work culture for all employees, where they able to improve their current skills and workability. A good work culture always promotes a positive behaviour within the organization. With the support of healthy organizational behaviour, the Primark will able to gain huge competitive advantage in the market.
Read More - Counselling of Mental Health