This sample will let you know about:
- What is Organizational Behavior and Impact on Teams?
- What is Power Culture?
- Discuss Impact of Power.
Organization behavior is considered as a study related human behavior as well as all the actions of an individual that are related to the organization. It focuses on the study that are related to the behaviors of the human primary focuses on their organizational roles. It determines the influences of the individuals within the working environment on motivation, job structure, leadership and many more. The situation becomes worst when the two employees are not thinking within the same manner. Primark is well reputed Irish fashion retailer. It's headquarter is in Dublin, Ireland . This firm is a subsidiary of retail firm Associated British foods and food processing firm. It was founded within the year 1969 by the Arthur Ryan. It has around 78,000 employees and served within the nation Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and many more (Cook, 2018). This report focuses on Politics, culture and power impact over behavior and performance of team and individual. It also lay emphasis on motivating employees and teams so that they can easily accomplish goals. It focuses on Content, process and other techniques of motivation. Furthermore, it lay emphasis on Effective team and an ineffective team as well as Concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior (Podsakoff, Mackenzie and Podsakoff, 2016) Need Assignment Examples?Talk to our Experts!
Culture, politics and power which can influence performance and behaviour of individual
There are several factors that impact on individual and team performance to great extent. Culture, power are considered as most essential components that can influence the working of persona and can also influence the performance of business unit as well.
Impact of culture
Handy's model of organizational culture- This model was given by Charles Handy who had a leading authority in the culture of organization. This model is divided into four parts of culture (Hauser and et.al., 2018).
- Power Culture- This aspect of culture states that there are few rules and regulations in this culture. Primark selects only a few people and assign them with power which allows them to take decisions that no one else can. People who have high power in the Primark influences other employees in the Primark to have this kind of power. Employees are judged on the basis of their achievements rather than their reactions and process of work in accomplishing the task. This leads to take quick decision making which may not help the Primark to achieve growth in the market. It means that they will chose what's best for them not for the benefit of the Primark which can help them in the long run. This type of culture is considered as one of the strongest culture as compared to others but it can be toxic as employees can broke the ethics to pursue this power (McShane and et.al., 2018). If power is in the hand of single person and only one person can make decisions then it can affect performance of employees because if top management of Primark is taking decision and promoting biasness then it may demotivate others hence performance of other employees will get down and they will fail to work well in team hence that would impact negatively on team performance. If employees are not working well in team, then it would hamper organizational performance to great extent (Zhang, 2020).
- Role Culture- It is the culture in which interaction between each team members in highly controlled by specific company’s rule. Many companies have adopted this culture as this gives a Primark highly controlled structure and employees working in the Primark is aware of their roles and responsibilities. Power in this aspect of culture is judged by what position an individual is working in the company. This culture is suitable for companies such as Primark as their structure is tall with a long chain of command. The process of implementing this culture takes too much time. If there are strict rules, then people feel under pressure which indirectly impact on their working performance. By this way team goal is not achieved and entity fail to meet its organizational goal timely (Corr and et.al., 2016).
- Task Culture- This culture helps companies to solve a problem by forming up a team for a specific period of time or until the task is finished. Power in this culture is determined on the basis of potential of the team members or status of the problem. Companies who are adopting this culture must make sure that their employees are highly skilled and have abilities such as leadership and decision making so that they can accomplish the task in productive manner (Muchiri, Shahid and Ayoko, 2019). As person has to perform their allotted work and this task is allotted by considering their capabilities hence employee feel comfortable in doing that task which help in raising their performance level. If workers are incapable of doing allotted work then they fail to meet the standards hence team efficiency will be affected which will create complex situation of firm and Primark will get failed to meet the organizational goal. It is also known as the Athena culture such as Apollo that can be known for her wisdom. Tasks culture also provides teams on temporary basis as here cooperation is high as this hierarchy power is not connected to a particular person here also results are more crucial than rules.
- Person Culture- Companies who follow this culture has employees who feel that they are superior and unique in the company. Primark provides everyone the same level of opportunities but people who achieves more goals or have a different attitude feels they are the ones because of which Primark is able to earn profits (Majumdar, 2018). As person culture is the type of culture where person think for own self and think own self supervisor. Hence person fail to coordinate with other team members which affect team performance and individual performance both. By this way entity gets fail to work well in market and its sometimes create problem in accomplishing its objectives successfully. Within a person culture number of individuals are small as here the centered focus is individual. It is often unclear regarding that who has the final responsibility as in most of the cases the person culture is short lived within firms that can be gradually shift from other typologies
Primark follows task culture where managers of the Primark ensure to give task to each person, properly that can be managed by them, this aids in raising their working capabilities and meeting the organizational goal as well.
Impact of Power
- Coercive Power- When someone in the Primark is forced to do something against their own will then it will be considered as this form of power. People such as bullies, dictators have this type of power. This power affects the feelings of people. Primark has made it sure that this power is not used at any level of management in the company. If such kind of power is applied by management then it makes employees negative and it hamper their work quality and team performance as well. By this Primark may get fail to meet the organisational goal successfully. It is the ability of manager to force staff members to follow order in order to threaten the staff member accompanied by punishment if the staff members are unable to comply (Wood and et.al., 2016).
- Reward power-It is known as simply power of a manager to provides the type of rewards to the staff members as it means to impact the workers to act. Rewards can be tangible or intangible. This power states that when Primark exchanges reward and ask them for something in return. If the employees of the Primark follow the instructions which are given by the leaders then they will be rewarded for their loyalty (Kayes, Kayes, and Elsbach, 2016)
- Legitimate Power- It is a power that can be derived from the position that an individual that can hold within an organization. With legitimate power it is considered as position that provides an individual power. It can be underpinned through rules or even laws. This aspect of power is on the basis of position that individual hold in the Primark and according to that they are allowed to take decisions which is limited to their areas (Joo and Bennett 2018).
- Expert Power- It is a power that can based on the perception of the staff members that a manger or a workers have the high knowledge regarding a particular field that the other employees do not have. This type of power is gained by the employees of the Primark with time, practice and experience of work which helps them to face different challenges (Pastra, Gkliatis and Koufopoulos, 2017).
- Referent Power- It is considered as a form of power that can be reverence gained through a leader that has a strong interpersonal skills. It is the capacity of all leaders to cultivate the admiration and respect of his followers within a way that they wish to like him. It is crucial for the managers to be more aware regarding cultural differences .This power is demanded by many people but only some of the people such as celebrities has them. Companies also has some role models which the people looks after and take inspiration which helps the Primark to achieve growth (Vaughan, 2019).
- Informative power- This power is consist of passing on the information to someone in order to help someone or change their perception towards things so that they can help the Primark to bring new methods. Companies such as Primark has managers for this work who help their team at every step (Maio and et.al., 2019).
Primark implements legitimate power , it ensures that managers promotes each person equally and motivate them. This aids in retaining talent and improving their work efficiency. By this way firm can meet its organisational goal successfully.Order assignment help from our experts!
Impact of Politics-
Chantal's characteristics of political behaviour- Primark has taken help of this aspect so that they can handle the situation of political barriers which is affecting their business.
- Favouritism- Primark is preferring those individuals who are performing above average and generating more revenues for the company. This is leaving negative impact on other team. Apart from this managers of the Primark is giving flexibility and other benefits to those employees which is leaving a negative impact on other teams. The positive impact of this behaviour is that some employees in the Primark is trying to perform their best so that even they can get those benefits and have flexibility in work (Wood and et.al., 2016). if favouritism is here then person may feel uncomfortable because their performance is not appreciated in business unit hence they do not perform well hence such kind of politics affect individual and team behaviour to great extent.
Content, process and other techniques of motivation
Motivation is considered as essential tool which aids business in retaining staff and making them able to work hard. There are various approaches and theories of motivation.
Content theory is concerned with dealing with those drivers which helps them to remain motivated. Apart from that this theory focuses on the needs of individual.
This aspect of need theory states that in order to survive humans required basic amenities to be fulfilled such as health, food, water, shelter. In order to go ahead and increase the level of need first people need to achieve their basic needs. This needs works as an internal factor of motivation for the people. If these are not fulfilled then they won't be able to work with focus, energy and be efficient for anyone. This is the reason why Primark tries to fulfill the needs of those employees who have been working with them for a long period of time. This will lead to workers of the Primark to work with more energy and clear state of mind which will help the Primark to achieve growth (Vaughan, 2019).
After the achievement of physiological needs, safety needs develop in humans. They need a security that their families are being looked after. They work with stress as calamities are unpredictable and anything such as natural disaster, war, racism can make them loose their job. To make them feel safe and secure Primark provides their employees with benefits of health care and life care insurance which helps them to work stress free and focus on another important areas. These type of needs include personal, financial, emotional and health security. Primark always provide secure environment to workers and give them job security that motivate them and they like to work in business for longer duration that help business in meeting organisational goal successfully (Tian and Peterson, 2016).
This is the third level of need which states that people needs someone to talk to or share their feelings so that they do not feel alone. This needs include friendship and family so that they can fulfil their emotional needs. In order to fulfil their this need Primark assigns every new joiner into a team so that they have someone to talk to about work and share the knowledge of work with someone so that one does not feel alone in the office. If these needs are not achieved then many people suffer from clinical depression, anxiety of not having someone etc. which will not be beneficial for the company. This will help them to keep the culture of the Primark is positive which will help them to achieve objectives of the Primark (Kitchin, 2017).
The term is used to focuses on to describe the overall sense regarding self-worth or in other words how much a person can appreciated by himself as well as like by himself. It is known as the personality trait that means it tends be enduring and stable.
These type of needs relates with ego and status of people. At this stage people feels that they must get recognized for their work and get respect from others. This makes them feel that they are valued by others. For fulfilling this need of their employees Primark has made a rule for everyone that is to treat everyone with respect irrespective of their designation, qualifications or achievement in the company. This will remove the factor of ego and status which will increase team work in the Primark irrespective of their position. This way Primark can achieve their expected results (Wilder and et.al., 2018).
It is the desire for the self fulfilment as it the tendency to actualised what a person is potentially. It is consider as the final step as it occurs when an individual take the full benefits of their talents and also able to being mindful regarding their limitations
This need is the last aspect of theory by Maslow and this aspect of theory states that in order to fulfil this need they want to achieve things according to their potential, only this will help them to pursue the need of self-actualization. Different people have different stages to reach and succeed (Jagannathan and Camasso, 2017). For instance someone wants to be a successful athlete or someone want to be a ideal parent. But in an organization all of them want to reach on the highest post. For this Primark evaluates everyone at a certain period of time and conduct a meting with the board of directors of the Primark at that time the select their employees for the position of CEO, COO which helps them to meet their need of self actualization. Enterprise ensure that need of getting promotion of each person is fulfilled hence people work hard in Primark so that they get development opportunities. By selecting the right man for the job the Primark will be able to achieve their goals. (James, 2017).
Process Theory of Motivation
This type of theories are concerned with the process of motivation and to deal with how motivation occurs. In order to understand this theory VROOM model has been used.
This aspect of theory will help to understand that what are the expectations of the employees according to the position they are working on and the efforts they are putting in the job. Primark understands the analysis so that they can know what strategies will be required in order to motivate their employees so that they can work by putting all of their efforts. It is not easy to obtain the analysis of this theory (Sheedy, Garcia and Jepsen, 2019). Employees of Primark want to get promotional opportunities and Primark give them that opportunities. Hence they believe that entity fulfil their desire which supports organisation in making them positive and enhancing their workplace performance. By this way people work hard to meet organisational goal as well.
Primark analyse the performance and working pattern of their employees so that they can achieve their goals and objectives. It is not difficult for the Primark to analyse the gaps and how much contribution is made by each individual as this theory simplifies the work for them. In order to keep them motivated Primark needs to award bonuses and promotion. This will also help the employee of the Primark to know about his current worth in the company. This will help him to reduce the gaps and work on improving their performance. This process requires transparency then only Primark will be able to meet their goals and objectives. Primark gives rewards to its workers hence employees are confident that they will receive adequate amount of profit if they work hard. Hence they are very positive and this improves their performance level as well. By this way Primark becomes able to retain skilled people and meeting the organisational goal successfully (Wilson, 2017).
At the final stage Primark values the contribution and efforts made by the employees. For example by showing appreciation for their work will boost their morale and will be beneficial for the company. Primark gives promotions to workers time to time which make them feel that Primark is giving value to them and their expectations are met hence they perform well in business unit and contribute well in raising business performance.
Many companies prefer content theory of motivation over process theory as it is simple to understand, implement in their structure and helps the Primark to get effective performance from their employees (Jacobs and Manzi, 2019).
Effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
These teams use interdependence in a positive way which helps them to achieve the goals of the company. (Cook, 2018)
Interdependence is not used in the right manner which limits the growth of these teams (Hilton, 2017).
Here, team members motivate and support one another in completion of tasks and activities (Kitchin, 2017).
Here, members do not encourage and help each other in achieving goals (Wilder and et.al., 2018).
The roles are assigned to each one and they all work together to attain common objectives (Tian and Peterson, 2016).
In this roles are not assigned properly to each one. they work individually to achieve goals (Vaughan, 2019).
They communicate their idea, feelings and with each other which helps them to maintain the clarity (Hosain, 2019).
Communication is not maintained two ways which ignores the sharing of idea (Hunter, 2018).
Any conflicts are resolved with the help of negotiation (James, 2017).
Conflicts are ignored which makes them uncomfortable to work with each other and lose their efficiency (Kitchin, 2017).
There are various types of team that have unique features and they all work in different directions.
Project team is group of people where people are hired for specific project only, once project is completed then they get involved with other task. Experience people are involved those who have capabilities and experience to do it (Taylor, 2018).
Functional team is permanent in nature and managers are responsible to handle all the people those who are allotted different function in business unit, They handle every day work and line management is responsible to control all workers. But sometimes there is communication gap occur and decision making take time (Vaughan, 2019).
Characteristics of effective team formation
- Leadership: if leaders guide people well in Primark then employees will be able to resolve their issues and would be able to perform well. This will support Primark in forming an effective team and meeting team goal as well.
- Team size: if there are large number of employees in one team then communication gap may take place and chances of conflict may also get increased hence leaders have to build a stable team size which will help in forming an effective team (Zhang, 2020).
- Culture: if culture of Primark is not good then Primark’s employees will not be able to work in group which will create problem in forming an effective team.
Bruce Tuckman's Theory- This theory is divided into four areas.
At this stage employees of the Primark are highly dependent on their leaders as they seek guidance and direction. The reason behind this was roles and responsibility is not made clear by the management of the company. Leaders of the Primark must present a proper orientation which must include all the areas to be highlighted such as objectives, purpose, relationships. Members of the Primark tests the level of tolerance of the leaders of the Primark and its system. These type of people helps to look after the employees that if or not they are working as a team and how efficient they are for the company. They are flexible and perspective. Their like to be popular among their group (Wilson, 2017). These people have one weakness which the Primark needs to keep in mind and that is that they are not able to take decisions. They maintain their status, skills and abilities with pride. These people have committed themselves to a specific area.
It is not easy to take decisions in the company. Employees of Primark compare themselves with other team and leaders of the Primark so that they might receive challenges from the other members of team. Purpose of the Primark is clear but there are a lot of uncertainties in the way. In order to achieve the goals of the Primark they need to focus and avoid getting distracted by making relationship with other members and other emotional issues. In order to make progress they will need to compromise (Taylor, 2018). These people guide the team and help them to achieve their goals and objectives. They listen to the problems of the team and help them. They make the employees of the Primark feel valued. They delegate the tasks and work calmly. They are innovative and explore different areas so that they can find out new options and make new contacts for business purpose. (Hosain, 2019).
At this stage the roles and responsibilities of the employees are clear. The decisions which are of big level are taken by the leaders of the Primark but decisions which are of small levels are taken by individuals or groups who are working in the company. This stage is concerned with developing the style and processes of working. Employees of the Primark begin to respect their leaders and the team starts to participate in other social activities These people evaluate that there are no errors or mistakes and that it has been completed on time. These people never miss deadline for any task (Balwant, 2018). These type of people are also known as perfectionists. These type of people helps the Primark to work with new ideas and strategies. They cannot control even a bit of criticism. These types of people don't like to bond with others rather they work in isolation on their own. These people are not good in communicator.
Till this stage the team of Primark is clear about the role and responsibilities and the purpose of the company. Employees of the Primark can take on any challenge without the guidance from the leaders of the company. The focus of employees is to achieve goals and take decisions for the Primark on the basis of criteria. There are cases of disagreements and conflicts on some issues but it is easily resolved. Employees of the Primark work together as a team and look after each other. They demand tasks which are delegate without the assistance of higher level of management (Hunter, 2018). They are conservative and disciplined for their work as they work everything in a proper process and make things well organized. They are not comfortable with change but whenever Primark wants to get something they prefer these people. They work with enthusiasm so that they can achieve their objectives. On the other hand they tend to see everything with optimism and loose the enthusiasm rapidly
This stage was an extension to this model and it is also known as mourning and deforming. This stage is the break up stage of the team members, when the members of the team completes the task every employee goes on their own way to find new things. At this stage employees of the Primark begin to feel insecure These people helps the Primark to complete the task in the right manner (Miao and et.al., 2019). They convert the concept and ideas into a practical approach. These people help the Primark to analyse and evaluate the ideas of other people. Before taking the final decision they evaluate all the pros and cons of the idea. They think with a strategic approach in a critical way. They are not good at motivating and they don't tend to get attached with emotions (Hilton, 2017).
Theory of Tuckman helps to know about the employees of the Primark from beginning to end. At the stage of beginning they learn to work together as a team and at the final stage they separate and take their own path (Jacobs and Goodman, 2018). Order Thesis Help from our experts!
Concepts and philosophies of organizational behaviour
Path Goal Theory for development of team
This theory states that behaviours of some leaders are tested and selected according to the suitability of employees in relation with their needs and wants. They work with their leader because they believe that if there is any complex case they can take the guidance from the leaders of the Primark so that they can pursue the right path which is beneficial for achieving the day to day operations of the company. This theory states that leaders of the Primark has to prepare for different conditions which will require different techniques depending on the challenges and the condition of the situation. If the leaders of the Primark will be able to guide them to the right path then they can make sure that the goals of employees are similar to the goals of the Primark and they will not work for their own benefit instead they will focus on attaining the objectives of the company. Primark’s leaders always ensure to tackle each situation in effective manner, they adopt various ways to get positive outcome towards business unit. Leaders of Primark evolve the employees by guiding them to the right path so that they can achieve success by working on improving their performance (Chumg and et.al., 2016). This theory has 4 different parts-
The directive path goal theory
This theory helps to clear the behaviours of leaders on the basis of situation they are facing. It is believed that this aspect will help the Primark to get positive outcomes (Cook, 2018). Primark leaders give clear direction to staff members, they make them aware with their responsibilities and time to time guide them so that employees can do their work effectively. This aids business in retaining talent and minimising workplace issues.
This type of leaders are present when they have set challenging goals and objectives for their employees. The reason behind this is that they expect them to throw their best and check how much they can achieve in a given time to meet the desired results. This theory has been proven beneficial in areas such as entrepreneurs, sales consultant, scientists, engineers and jobs which are for technical department (Pereira, Malik and Froese, 2017). Leaders of Primark always appreciate people those who successfully met goal, leaders show their confidence which encourage workers to do well. By this way entity becomes able to meet its goal successfully.
The participative leader
These type of leaders works on a theory and that is what is best for their employees and what do they think, expect, suggest, believes and feels for task. All of their opinions are respected. They consider them all before taking a final action. It is suitable for the employees who are highly involved in the working pattern of the Primark and spare no time for himself. Leaders of Primark involve employees and make them comfortable so that they share their feeling and give necessary feedback that may help in improving workplace quality (Hilton, 2017). This leadership style aids business in improving performance of employees and meeting organisational goal.
The Supportive Leader
These type of leader works on satisfying their employees, their needs, wants, taste and preferences. Leaders of Primark apply positive approach for the employees of the Primark so that they can maintain them in a healthy and psychological manner. It helps when the team working in the Primark is new and they do not have a experience regarding work. Apart from this decisions taken by the members of the team are not effective then this theory will be helpful for the company. This helps to bring clarity in vision of the employees and make their role and responsibilities clear (Balwant, 2018).
From the above report it had been summarized that Handy's model of organizational culture. Power Culture-only a few people and assign them with power in accomplishing the task aspect states that companies have adopted this culture aware of their roles and responsibilities and Task Culture-helps companies to solve a problem by forming up a team. Person Culture provides every one the same level of opportunities but people who achieves more goals or have a different attitude Coercive Power-forced to do something against their own Reward power ask them for something in return. Primark factors will disrupt the employees Productivity-to decrease in GDP loose their focus and morale Physiological Needs- humans need their basic needs such as health, food are not fulfilled won't be able to work with focus. Safety Needs-security that their families (Hosain, 2019). To make them feel safe and secure Primark provides their employees with benefits of health care and life care insurance Social Belonging- can fulfill their emotional needs. needs are not achieved then many people suffer from clinical depression, anxiety Self Esteem-that they are valued by others Self Actualization want to achieve things according to their potential. It also focused on the theory states that behaviors of some leaders o that they can pursue the right path guide them to the right path they will not work for their own benefit theory helps to clear the behaviors of leaders throw their best proven beneficial in areas such as entrepreneurs, These type of leader works as They think with a positive approach helps when the team working in the Primark those who challenge their team to improve best available alternative to a problem that can work as a solution (Hunter, 2018).