This sample will let you know about:
- What is organisational behaviour?
- Discuss Positive & Negative impact of various types of culture.
- Discuss Features of Motivation.
The study of behaviour as well as attitude of an individual & team members is termed as organisational behaviour. This interface takes place between team & individuals prevailing in the organisation. Along with this, study of organisational behaviour assist higher authorities to identify performance level of employees working in an association (Alexander, 2019). This include many factors like motivation, job structure, leadership, communication and many more. The study focuses on developing positive culture at workplace that leads to attainment of growth opportunities for the company. Apple is taken into consideration for the present report. The company was established by Steve Jobs in the year 1976. Apple offer products such as iPhone, iPod, watch, Macintosh, TV and many more. It offer services that includes Apple card, Apple store, iCloud, iTunes, Mac, App store etc. At present, the company has more than 500 retail stores globally. The present report discusses about the affect of culture, power as well as politics on the behaviour of individuals and teams. In addition to this, the report describes about process and content theory of motivation. Along with this, difference among ineffective & effective teams is cover in the report. In the last, concepts & philosophies of organisational behaviour is discuss in the report. Need Assignment Examples?Talk to our Experts!
Analyse the impact of power, culture and politics on individual & Team behaviour
The main motive to study behaviour of individuals and team is to gain an insight about the performance of staff members working in the organisation. It helps an entity to fulfil the needs of employees that leads to enhancement in efficiency and productivity level of staff members of a company. It also helps companies to make employees valued and important part that leads to employee retention. The higher authorities of organisation is identify that company is performing well but faces tough competition in market with its rivals (Ayoko and Ashkanasy, 2019). For this, company is determining the affect of power, culture & politics on behaviour of teams and employees prevailing in organisation. The impact is defined below:
Culture: This include values, beliefs, traditions, opinions, value of a people which directly affect on its behaviour. Culture plays vital role in every organisation and influence positively & negatively on the organisation. The forms of culture in relation to company is defined below:
Task culture: According to this culture, project task is divided between the staff members so that it is completed within the given time period. With reference to culture, its higher authorities can adopt task culture at workplace as it assist them to finish project on stipulated time frame that leads to raise in profit and revenue of company.
Power culture: As per this culture, decision-making authority related to project is in the hands of few members of the organisation. As they manage and control all activities related to project in a effective manner (Brands, Menon and Shea, 2019). In relation to Apple, acquisition of power culture may arise problems as well as disputes among staff members that affect negatively on the performance of company. This also leads to decline in profits which in turn affect on market share of Apple in a negative manner.
Role culture: Herein, the responsibilities and duties is assigned by the managers to the staff members of company according to their knowledge, competencies, qualifications and skills. In context to Apple, adoption of role culture brings out positive outcome to the company which in turn affect positively on overall behaviour of individuals and groups of organisation. Moreover, employees are working with full potential if task is given to them as per their interest. This will lead to enhancement in performance of subordinates that directly affect on profits of Apple in a positive and effective manner.
Person culture: Herein, higher authorities focuses on attitude, behaviour as well as characteristics of staff members of the company. In context to Apple, by following person culture it is easy for managers to build positive environment at workplace. Moreover, employees seek growth as well as development opportunities that leads to increase in effectiveness of Apple.
From the above discussion, it is determined that acquisition of role culture is feasible and suitable for company as it increases efficiency and profitability of Apple.
Power: It is defined as willingness of a people to assign duties to employees of the company (Cheng, Wei and Lin, 2019). In context to Apple, its higher authorities have power to take decision and then delegate it to employees of organisation. The different types of power is defined below:
Reward power: The power of giving rewards to staff members of their effective performance is termed as reward power. This power assist company to motivate and keep them encouraging so that organisational goals is achieve within time period. With reference to Apple, its higher authorities should give rewards to employees and teams of their good performance so that they can work with full potential that leads to enhancement of performance of company.
Coercive power: The managers force staff members to follow rules & instruction given to them in a effective manner. If the instructions is not followed by staff members, higher authorities have the power to punish them (Kim, 2019). Adoption of this type of culture by top level management of Apple impacts negatively and build negative mindset of employees towards company.
Referent power: Companies adopts this type of power at workplace in order to motivate, influence & inspire staff members which directly leads to raises in productivity of company. It assist authorities of Apple to gain higher growth and development that leads to increase in market share of company.
Legitimate power: According to this power, organisation mangers, owners as well as CEO have authorities to take decision. In relation to Apple, this form of power declines creativity level of employees as they have no chance to share their thoughts and ideas to senior management of company. This will also create negative mindset of staff members that leads to decline in efficiency level of Apple.
Expert power: As per this power, the right of taking decision is in hands of experts of that particular field. It assist Apple to boost confidence level of staff members and teams a they are working under the guidance of an expert.
By analysing the above forms of power, it is determined that adoption of reward power at workplace encourage employees that leads to increase in productivity of staff members which in turn positively affect on performance of company.
Politics: It is termed as a set of activities that take place at the time of interaction and
communication among two person prevailing in the organisation. Politics affect positively as well as negatively on environment of a company (Latham, 2019). There are two types of politics that is negative and positive politics. Positive politics in organisation leads to higher performance and productivity. If it is talked about negative politics, this lowers the confidence level of subordinates due to which companies is not able to achieve their desired goals and objectives.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimension Theory: This theory was proposed by Geert Hofstede in the year 1980 with an aim to gain knowledge in culture difference across countries. Along with this, this theory is adopted by companies in order to distinguish among various national cultures and its impact on organisation setting goals. It define culture into six categories which is mentioned below:
Power distance Index: This index is defined as the level to which power as well as inequality are tolerated. Higher power index signifies that power & equality differences motivates bureaucracy and accept by the culture. The lower power index states that culture influence a company structure which are decentralized and flat. The higher authorities of Apple believes in maintaining equality at workplace as it motivates employees towards their work that leads to raise in image of company.
Individualism vs Collectivism: The extent to which societies are involved into groups & develops mutual relationship within a specific community (Lee, Schwarz, Newman and Legood, 2019). In relation to Apple, it gives rights as well as freedom to employees in order to implement activities in a proper manner.
Uncertainty Avoidance: it is defined as an extent to which uncertainties & ambiguity is tolerated. In order to deal with, it is important for an organisation to make employees efficient so that they can easily cope up with any situations. Apple provide training sessions to employees which help them to trained staff members in order to accept any uncertainties that in turns affect positively in future.
Femininity vs Masculinity: It includes the involvement of societies towards achievement, equality, sexuality and so on. If it is talked about Apple, its managers believe in recruiting man and women both that leads to equality at workplace.
Short term vs Long term orientation: It is signify as rules of society that is based on old customs as well as traditions. Apple alter its products and services according to the new trends in order to cope up with changing technology.
Indulgence vs Restraint: It states the extent of freedom that is given to citizens by societies in order to satisfy their basic human needs. The mangers of Apple ensures that need of its employees is satisfied that encourage them to work with full zeal towards organisational desired objectives and goals.
Positive & Negative impact of various types of culture:
Positive impact : For achievement of objectives in organisation such as Apple, culture can be very helpful as it will lead to dividing of activities accordance with experiences and skills . The present culture is very supportive for all employees and it results into achievement of organisations objectives.
Negative impact: Many times there are situation where management is not able to make decision that is extended to culture of the organisation. It can result into facing of many problems. Some times there can be instances where adoption of culture like person, task and role culture may hamper overall productivity of a organisation like Apple.
Critical analysis of culture, politics and power:
Power politics and culture has a great impact on every business organisation and all individuals. It is used for various constructive purposes and is also very useful in maintenance of work balance in every organisation. If there is any inappropriate used of such culture, power and politics then it may lead to disintegration in the organisation.
Process and Content theory of motivation
Motivation refers to the process of influencing, inspiring an individual that results out in increase in effectiveness and productivity of a people. It has been analysed that motivation is of two types that is extrinsic as well as intrinsic motivation (Lee, Schwarz and Legood, 2019). Intrinsic motivation is defined as inner ability of an individual to motivate itself whereas extrinsic motivation is defined as behaviour and attitude of people that is changed by analysing and learning the behaviour of others.
Motivational Theories: These theories help an organisation to identify as well as fulfil requirement of employees working in a company. Along with this, it assist an entity to achieve their desired objectives within the time frame. The motivational theories is of two types that is process and content theory which are as follows:
This theory is bases upon the changing behaviour as well as requirements of the employees during the passage of time. Hence this help organisation like Apple to set goals and productivity of the firm to an extent. The manager of the company use ERG theory which is explained briefly down below:
Features of Motivation:
- Psychological process: It is a process that is used in organisation for understanding of needs of all stakeholders that are internally related to company.
- Continuous process: It is a process that is continuous and never stops. As satisfaction level of employee is something that is not consistent it can change with time. So it becomes very important for every organisation to consider their changing requirement of such internal stakeholders.
- Unpredictable: It is a process that is not that predictable as it is complex phenomenon. Also, no two persons can be motivated by similar policies & facilities. So it becomes important that such complex procedure of considering the dynamic behaviour of human beings.
- Positive & Negative: motivation can be both positive or negative. Positive motivation is offering incentives for benefits of employees on other hand negative motivation is related to poor employee performance. Order assignment help from our experts!
ERG Theory of Motivation:
This theory was given by Clayton P. Alderfer in year 1969. He converts the Maslow's theory of motivation which include five basic needs of manlike into three needs that is state need, Growth need & Relatedness need . There are different needs which are describe in below in detail manner:
Existence needs: It is describe about the basic human need of a person or the physiological needs is the food, clothing, air shelter and many more (Oswald, 2020). This is also concern about the safety and security of the employees which needs to be secure as to develop a sustainable business model. In the context of Apple the management must focus on basic needs and create value for the company.
Relatedness needs: It include the social well being and self actualisation need of an individual that is external. It is necessary for every individual to maintain a positive status in the society or maintain a good relation with family, colleagues, friends. So the manager of the Apple have to conduct or organize the get to gather in order to create bonding which create better relation among the employees.
Growth Needs: It is known internal or self esteem of human being. Such kind of needs are taken care off by providing proper growth opportunities by the organisation. For Apple the management have the responsibility to provide better chance for workers to expand the business effectively. This programs increases ability and productivity of employees which is good for the company & employees as well.
Advantage: ERG theory of motivation is very helpful in developing an understanding of basic there needs it helps in increasing effectiveness in part of the organisation as there will be only three criteria that will be adopted by the organisation for consideration of motivation requirements of their whole workforce.
Disadvantage: Many times ERG theory is only related to three broad categories that might result into only basic understanding and in comparison with Maslow's need hierarchy theory there will be no detailed review of various motivational factors affecting a organisation.
This is the psychological process which empower as well as affect an individual to change its behaviour or act different from their behaviour is known as process theory. The company have to use such theory which help in sustaining the business for longer time period. This determine the effort and work which is done by company as to achieve desire aims and objectives (Paramaartha, Mukhtar and Akbar, 2019). This theory is described in detail below with relation to Apple company is given below:
Adam's Equity Theory:
This theory was given by John Adam which explain about the pay condition in the company and also motivate the employees to fulfil the needs and requirement of the company. As this is essential for the management of Apple to provide incentives and bonus to as to empower the employees to fulfil the needs and requirement of the firm effectively. Apart from this, the management provide better incentives and working environment which tend to increase the efficiency of individual and bring out the maximum output in a well define manner. Further it help in improving the market positioning of the company in order to increase revenue profitability level.
Advantages of Adams equity theory of motivation:
- This theory is very helpful in reduction of exploitation of employees: It also has a advantage that is related with reduction of employee exploitation as if organisation is making differentiation related to payment of salary then it might result in exploitation of employees. Hence, there should be no discrimination on any basis that should be done and Adams equity theory us laying emphasis on this particular concept only.
- Better relation among employees: It is very helpful in creation of positive relation among employees. If there will be no unfair treatment that will be provided to employees then it will lead to an atmosphere that is more cordial. Better output is also expected from workers if this particular methods is adopted in the organisation.
- Motivation sources: If all the workers are given equal treatment then it will laed to all employees working together as team. It will help them in getting good increment and better working conditions. It results in enhancement of effectiveness & efficiency of employees a the workplace.
Disadvantage of Adams equity theory of motivation:
- Difference in perception: There is a disadvantage that difference in the perception that is present between worker and a company, related to difference in pay or unequal treatment can result into dissatisfaction at workplace.
- Difficulty in making comparison: It becomes very difficult to make comparison. As in many situations there are no similar prices for products and this is the result why this equity theory may prove ineffective.
Significance of Soft skills for Teams and Managers
Soft skill is termed as a personality characteristics which helps an individual to maintain good relationship with others. It is determined that one of he most essential sift skill is interpersonal as well as communication skills. Along with this, there are also other soft skills that is creativity, flexibility, leadership, team building and so on. This skills assist team leaders and managers to manage all the activities as well as operation in an effective manner. Moreover, it also help higher authorities to maintain good and healthy relationship with employees that leads to employee retention. It is important for team leaders and managers od Apple to have soft skill as it help them to handle situations in a proper manner. In addition to this, it also assist in bringing out creativity level of customers that leads to raise in performance as well as profitability of company which directly affect on market share of Apple in positive manner.
Task and Relationship leadership
Task leadership: It is defined as where leaders motivate and encourage all the members of an organisation towards completion of task within time frame (Valle, Kacmar and Zivnuska, 2019). Leaders design policies & process that is communicated to all employees perform task in a effective manner. Adoption of task leadership by leaders of Apple help them to carry out task in a proper manner that will lead to attainment of objectives within time frame.
Relationship Leadership: In this, leaders emphasis on developing and maintaining good relation with employees of company that leads to retention of an employee for longer time frame. In relation to Apple, adoption of relationship leadership help company to develop positive culture at workplace that leads to increase in productivity and efficiency of employees of company.
Psychodynamic Approach: This approach us mainly emphasise on psychological forces that is emotions, feelings, behaviour which is associated with past experience. With reference to Apple, this approach help leaders to identify personality form of staff members which in turn help them to retain employees for longer time period.
Effect and Ineffective teams
It is those types of teams in which all the members have a positive view about their objectives. It is very helpful in achievement of their laid objectives.
There can be a lack of interdependence that may lead to non achievement of objectives in a organisation.
Leaders are bale to clearly define the objectives that have to be achieved by all the members. Each team member posses clarity on how to work for achievement of their team objectives.
In such type of teams there are Chances if low clarity for all the team member's that may posses a negative impact on the overall work to be done by the team members.
Team members in such type of teams have to be a part of two way communication that is very helpful in creating openness. It provides a sense of freedom to all the sub-ordinates to present their views and thoughts on a particular topic for making various decisions.
In such type of teams there is usually presence of One way communication that may lead to creation of various conflicts and issues that might affect employee performance in a negative manner. As team members will not be able to express their views freely to their leaders.
Team members are actively participating in all the procedure of decision-making.
In case of ineffective teams, top management have to make all the decision and there is no participation of other subordinates.
Reasons for a effective team as compared to ineffective team:
Lack of unity:
In ineffective teams there is lack of cohesion & unity. On other side effective teams are those that poses very high unity as all members are maintaining a very high coordination that is helping them in working together.
Many times there is suffering because of uneven distribution of job. It is because of one member taking responsibility and others are getting demotivated. In effective teams there is even distribution of all the responsibility which is helping all members to divided the work in small segments. This leads to increase in effectiveness in performance level of each employee.
In ineffective teams there is no self analysis that is done by team members to asses themselves and the work they are performing. In effective teams there is continuous self assessment, which is done by employees. It helps them in developing a understand that in what areas more work is required to be done to remove incompetencies. It also leads to correction of deviation taking place between desired performance and actual level of work.
Types of organisational Teams
Team is defined as a group of individual with skills and knowledge required to achieve a particular task and objective. Teams have a high extent of interdependence ans members is working towards attainment of a common goal (Wang, 2019). There are different types of team which are as follows:
Cross functional Team: Herein, people belongs from different expertises is working together for a common goal. Acquisition of this type of team by Apple help in performing task in a proper manner.
Problem-solving Team: This teams are formed to resolve a specific issue or to complete a particular project. Along with this, project teams is temporary in nature and assist managers of Apple to deal with any of the problems and situations occur in future.
Project Team: In this, all the team members working together and share their strategies so that project is completed within the given time period. Development of project team by Apple will help in raising productivity and profitability of company.
Tuckman Team development model: This model was formulated in the year 1965 by Bruce Tuckman. This theory focuses on starting till time of completion level of project. It is determined that it is a continuous process that helps companies to effectively achieve task in proper manner (Zhang, 2020). Along wit this, this model states that development of team builds a good relation among staff members of a company. With reference to Apple, usage of this model help mangers to manage as well as control activities related to a specific project in a proper manner. It includes five levels that is defined below:
Forming: At this stage, all the team members is coming together & duties is given to them by leaders in a proper manner. Team members did not trust to others and prefer to work independently. It is essential for managers of Apple to assign project task into teams in a proper manner that leas to development of positive culture at workplace.
Storming: At this stage, relationship is build among members of team but occurrence of conflicts is high if their opinions and perception is not match with other team members. In context to Apple, leaders of company ensure that perception and thoughts of team members is match that leads to decline in issues as well as conflicts.
Norming: Herein, members of team is agree to work according to the rules & policies. They started sharing their thoughts and working towards attainment of desired goals. In context to Apple, it assist organisation to achieve success and attain their goals on time period.
Performing: At this stage, team emphasise on achieving desired goals without any disagreements. The team as a whole working with full potential in a proper manner. This, it is important for Apple to give power to team members to take decision as it will encourage them and increases their productivity level.
Adjourning: Herein, the task is completed properly and members of team is getting disbanded. In relation to Apple, its mangers must ensure that a good relation is maintain between members of team as it will help them in implementing projects in future.
Belbin's Team Theory: This model was formulated in year 1918 by Meredith Belbim with an aim to define roles of a team. It includes nine team roles which are as follows:
Implementer: It is a practical organiser in a team and converts tasks into an easy manner. They are conservative when new idea is not clear immediately.
Resource Investigator: They are extroverted people who have high number of contacts with inside and outside the team. This type of people are more adventurous and focuses on developing innovative ideas.
Plant: A creative, innovative & original thinker of a team. They are not practical & sometimes neglect the important information which is important for the team .
Monitor: They are thoughtful, analyst and sensible person of a team. They analyse situations in a proper manner and consume high time to take decision that affect negatively on team members.
Shaper: These people are wilful and passionate towards work. They make sure that objectives should be achieved within the time frame.
Coordinator: They assist team members and guides them in a proper manner (Latham, 2019). They have high level of knowledge and optimally utilize all the resources in a proper manner that leads to development of positive outcome.
Complete finisher: They focuses on each and every activity and finds out the wrong things. This people checks and monitor quality so that goals can be achieved effectively. Sometimes they become more protective that leads difficulty in delegation.
Team worker: The sensitive member who is focuses in maintaining good relationship between team members. They prefer to maintain a sense of harmony among teams which arises difficulties in critical times.
Specialist: They are advisor and give knowledge to team members on a particular project topic. Their contribution on teams help other team members to enhance their knowledge and skill level. Order Dissertation Help from our experts!
Concepts & Philosophies of organisation behaviour
Path-goal Theory: Path goal theory is laying emphasis on attitude & behaviour of leaders. In case of Apple, managers are laying emphasis on providing the direction of work to their employees so that their profitability can be increased There are four styles that are part of this theory as discussed below:
Directive:-In this leaders are providing direction for implementation of various business functions in a more effective manner. In apple, management is planning to provided timely guidance to their employees.
Achievement :-In this style, managers and leaders are motivating their subordinates that are part of teams in achievement of their overall objectives. Management is focussing on laying down a common goal and then working towards that goal (Kim, 2019). In Apple, there are objectives specified in terms of sales and profits fir a particular time frame and training is provide to their staff to work according to that particular objectives.
Participative:- In this particular style leaders provide a opportunity to their employees to actively participate on the overall process of decision making. In Apple, the higher management is always keen to know the views and ideas of employee’s at all different levels. They believe every human has a innovative mind that can be applied for generation of creative ideas in a business.
Supportive: In this Style of management, leaders are laying their emphasis on the employee’s satisfaction at the most highest level. . In case of Apple, management is supporting their employees in fulfilment of their objectives in motivating employees so that they can provide higher level of performance.
Concepts of organisational behaviour
There are various concepts of an organisational behaviour which identifies people whether they are unique or similar. The concepts are defined below:
Individual difference: This concept is also known as one to one approach which means every individual is different and unique and change according to their personal experiences. There are many ways in which an individual is different that is personality, intelligence, learning, communicative ability and many more. In relation to Apple, it is important for managers to evaluate performance and behaviour according by analysing their personality as it assist them to enhance productivity and performance of employees.
Mutuality of interest: This behaviour determines that both the companies as well as employees need each other. An organisation can gain success if mutuality is formed & maintained by the both the higher authorities and staff members. An employee want that company fulfil their needs whereas an organisation require staff members to attain organisational objectives within the time frame. It is essential for higher authorities of Apple to maintain a mutual interest at workplace as it encourage employees and assist them to deal with problems that leads to attainment of their desired goals within the stipulated time frame.
There are also other concept such a motivation, holistic concept, perception, whole person of organisational behaviour which assist companies to identify type and personality of staff members in an effective manner.
Contingency Theory: It is an organisational theory which signifies that there is no particular way to manage, organise, lead company or take decisions in an effective manner. The plans is totally depend on external as well as internal situations that is occurred at marketplace. It is the skill of a leader to apply specific theory according to the situation and contingencies as it help company to overcome rapidly and effectively.
Social Capital Theory: This theory signifies that social relationships are one of the major resource on order to growth and develop the business & to accumulate human capital in an effective manner. In addition to this, it is important for an organisation to analyse society tends and produce those goods as well as services which fulfil needs of society in a best manner. It also assist company to develop positive image in market that increases overall revenue and profitability level of an organisation.
From the above study it has been analysed that it is essential for companies to study the behaviour of employees and tea members as it will help them to fulfil needs of staff members that affect positively on the efficiency & productivity of employees. Along with this, it also assist an organisation to raise their profitability level that leads to increases in market share of company. It has been analysed that culture, power and politics affect on the behaviour of individuals and teams also. Moreover, path goal theory assist a leader to give proper direction to employees that leads to attainment of organisational objectives within the stipulated time frame.