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Understanding and Leading Change Organisational

University: UK college of Business and Computing

  • Unit No: 17
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 19 / Words 4706
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: A/508/0529
  • Downloads: 281
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss about the negative impact of change on organisational behaviour.
  • Discuss about the PESTLE analysis of Marks and Spencer.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Organisational change is related to bringing change in the organisation's structure, their strategies etc. such change can be as a result of various internal or external factors. It is essential for a organisation that they are able to adapt to change so that they are able to ensure their survival. Change can be a result if various drivers present in macro environment which includes political, legal, technological, social or environmental factors. These are various external forces apart from this change can be a result of some internal factors also such as authority, responsibility or managerial position (Arifin, , 2020). Organisation considered in this report is Marks and Spencer, Which is UK based retail brand. This Report is based on how change has a influence on individual behaviour and overall contribution towards organisation. There are different models & leadership approaches which have been developed to study how effectively change can be implemented in a organisation. There are various barriers which can occur while a change is being introduced in a organisation. Such approaches and models are discussed on the present report.


P1 : Organisational examples of impact of change on organisations strategy and operations

Change posses impact on employees, strategies, structure, policies in a organisation. It is continuous process in which different approaches are used for adapting to changes which vary from every organisation. It becomes very important to adapt to such changes that help a organisation to attain a competitive advantage (Cameron,. and Green, 2019). If employee is motivated by making them aware about advantages of change and how can their efficiency will be improved because of such changes, there are examples discussed below in two organisation belonging to same industry Marks and Spencer and Waitrose:

Change in Marks and Spencer and its impact

Due to increasing issue of unemployment there is decrease in demand for products of Marks and Spencer and there has been increase in competition that has impacted this brand in form of reduced sales. So, management of company has decided to open more retail stores as this will lead to creation of more employment opportunities and at same time will also lead to increase in customer reach.

Impact on Strategies

Strategies of this company includes increase in focus by increasing the variety of goods which they are offering presently and make new launches at comparatively lower prices than their present stores.

Impact on leadership behaviour

This change will have a effect on leadership behaviour they have to make their subordinates and employees reduce the overall resistance to change.

Drivers of change

Change in Marks and Spencer is because of factors of macro environment and also because of various factors of unemployment, high competition, reduction in sales are some of the factors which are acting as drivers of change for this company (Carnall, 2018).

Change in Waitsrose and their impact


Due to various technological advancements and increased use of technology by the consumers, Waitrose is willing to shift towards their online operations. With increase in dietary habits many people in UK have shifted their preference towards trying different products which can help them in coping with their regular diet plans. So, there are various changes which have to be done by Waitrose.

Impact on Strategies

For implementation of such changes there are many plans that have to be made by organisation. Waitrose has to adopt various strategies which is related to product development and market penetration which will help them in introduction of new product and making new innovations in their exiting products (Choi, , Pos and Magnusson, 2016).

Impact on leadership behaviour

Leaders in the organisation will be willing to adapt changes and make their subordinates understand the reasons for change. Leadership plays a very essential part in implementation of change and making employees realise the need for change and its positive impact on the organisation.

Drivers of change

This change being introduces in Waitrose is as a result of technological up-gradations and sociocultural factors present in the macro environment.

PESTLE analysis of Marks and Spencer




Various political factors have a impact on Marks and Spencer such as Brexit has created very high production cost for this company and has affected their overall profit percentage.


There is a present market trend in UK shift toward small retail stores. This change in preference has allowed M & S to access their target market.

Socio cultural

Many factors such as change in preference for ready meals leads to creation of a new opportunity for Marks and Spencer as they can now attract customer from different segment of market.


Marks and Spencer has to adopt latest technology as preference of present generations is for online shopping which can be done from anywhere and anytime. This might result in disadvantage for Marks & Spencer and posses a negative impact on their present sales.


There are many changes in present laws of Britain after event of BREXIT. Such changes lead to change taking place in company's policies.


Marks and Spencer has promoted themselves that they are doing a sustainable development of their products. This concept is creating a strong goodwill in the Market and at same time helping them in contributing towards environment. .

M1 : Drivers for change & type of organisational change that has impact on business

There are various changes that have impact on business organisation and a change is always a result of some drivers which can be present internally or in the external environment depending on the organisation (Dawson, 2019). Different drivers of change includes political changes, organisational changes that are responsible for bringing various changes such as planned, unplanned, developmental, transformational & transnational changes. Both of the above mentioned cases Marks and Spencer and Waits rose are examples of developmental changes in a organisation. Drivers such as growing unemployment issue, increasing of competition, reduction in sales, growing advancements in technology are some of the issues that have acted as drivers of changes for Marks and Spencer & Waitrose. Order assignment help from our experts! 


P2 : Affect of internal and external drivers on leadership, team and individual behaviour

Management of every organisation plays a very important role in understanding of the requirement for change and effect which can being form of negative or positive. There are many decision that have to be implemented in a organisation and that have a impact on leadership, team performance, culture and behaviour of individual in a organisation. Such drivers can be external or internal (Dopple and Lauterburg, 2019).

Leadership: Leadership is a way used by organisations to motivate their teams or subordinates so that goal directed behaviour can be realised from them. Various leadership approaches such as participative approach, democratic approach can be used by leaders for effectively managing their team members.

Internal Drivers are the drivers in a organisation on which there is full control. Different internal forces which have impact on leadership, team behaviour are discussed below:

  • Environment: Each organisation is working in a environment which consist of various factors that has impact on organisation and its working. In present scenario when there will be opening of new stores by Marks and Spencer then it is going to cremate opportunities both for organisation ad employees as individuals. As they can grow and acquire new skills with help of training opportunities provided by the organisation. Such activities lead to positive behaviour of individuals in the company (Viskanta,2019).
  • Structure of task: For successful introduction and implementation of change there is requirement of creating a team in the organisation, where the tasks are divided in small parts and then allocated to different individuals, this leads to successful implementation of change and proper management of new outlets. For achievement of various objectives it is also necessary that there is adequate planning on part of leaders so that minimum level of resistance is faced on part of individuals.
  • Communication: Change is mandatory in every organisation and while implementation there are many inefficiencies which can arise and have to be dealt by leaders and managers in most effective way. There must be proper communication made to employees so that they are able to understand the reasons behind changes and how it will be leading towards increased productivity (Ellsworth, 2017).

External Drivers are those that cannot be controlled by organisation and it is depend in external environment factor such as environment, political, social etc. such factors have influence on individual behaviour, team performance and leadership approaches. This can be understood with following factors:

  • Legal and Political Factors: There are many changes taking place in the external environment and such laws have influenza on organisation to bring some modifications. Such as if there are changes in laws like reduction of tax rates and are in favour of retail stores then it may lead Marks and Spencer to open new stores or launch new variants. There can be political pressure in form of government willing to increase the competitiveness in market and for this there is need for changes to be done by existing big retail brands. So these are some factors which can act as external forces of driving change (Harmon, 2019).
  • Technological advancements: Up gradation of technology also has a impact on the way organisation have to implement them in the organisation. For Marks and Spencer there will be requirement of opening of new stores and increase their customer reach by expanding their online presence. All such factors will be imposing a pressure on Marks and Spencer to make adopt adequate measures and implement the changes in a more appropriate manner.

Management of change by leaders:

Reactive approach: In this approach no beforehand mitigation are made by leaders instead they are wait for the change to take place and after that if there are any negative impact then attempts are made to take measures for minimizing the impact.

Proactive approach: This approach is used by leaders in which before implementation of change some measures are taken to minimize the negative impact of change on individual and group behaviour.

Proactive approach is used in Marks and Spencer by leaders and manager for effectively managing their teams and subordinates in case of present change.

Some of the initiatives taken by proactive leaders are discussed below:

Planning for long term leaders are willing to take responsibility for the management by engagement and cooperation with all the team members and preparing them mentally for having of Forward thinking and involve middle level management and top level management for all the guidance that need to be provided to employees for being ready to adopt any further changes that will arise in the organisation.

Such leaders also make efforts to inspire others and their team members to perform well. They are a type of inspirational leaders who are working hard enthusiastic and communicating overall vision to employees to motivate them so that they can have dedicated staffs that is ready to accept any new change that is occurring in the organisation.

These leaders have to be highly organised and plan in order to keep everything managed in case of crisis that is willing to happen if employees are showing amount of resistance. There is also a requirement to handle all the spreadsheets, and making use of Executive assistant which can help a leader in keeping themselves and their teammates organised.

Mostly all the leaders are educated and knowledgeable, for the changes and their products such changes for industries and specifically their organisations they also take timely advice from the colleagues and all the staff members to get the projects done in the required time and all these qualities have to be passed on to the team mates so that they are able to proactively create a approach for employees in handling the future changes.

P3 : Measures to minimisation of negative impact of change on organisational behaviour

Change is very essential for a organisation but it can have negative or positive impact on overall functioning of the organisation. Hence, it become very important to reduce the negative impact of change faced by employees in the organisation: some of the factors to be considered are discussed below:

  • Developing proper understanding of culture of organisation: Organisational culture is very essential for developing an understanding for overall workforce. There are channels of flow of information which have to be considered by concerned authorities. In context with Marks and Spencer there is a requirement of creation of a culture which is fostering change and not posing and hindrances for implementation of change (Kotlar, and Chrisman, 2019). Culture of change is related with creating a type of culture that is about what will be the positive impact of overall changes on the employees in the organization. There has to be more discussion about the positive impact of change and all the negative impacts must be minimized so that employees are not willing to make any opposition related to the change.

Increasing the involvement level of employees: There is a requirement for increasing the involvement of employees. This can be done by motivating them by use of monetary or non monetary incentives or providing them opportunities for growth at individual level. Apart from this employees can be involved by asking them for suggestions and involving them in various decisions.

  • Effective leadership approaches: Leadership skills are very important for every organisation (Kelman, , 2017). There are many leadership approaches which can be used by leaders in bringing and implementing change such as creating a culture of change, using a received & inclusive leadership style in this leaders posses a vision so that they can set clear goals regarding new changes. Also there is requirement approaches of effective leadership have to be adopted by the organization in order to create a environment where there is use of received and inclusive leadership. I received leadership it means that there is complete process of decision making and employees are involved at every stage major decisions that have to be implemented by the leader in the organization. There has to be complete and step by step process of decision making that has to be taken place by you received leadership style. Further, there is use democratic leadership in Marks and Spencer as their employees are given all the opportunity to present their innovative and creative ideas in case of new changes that are bought in the organization by leaders so that if employees are willing to show their creativity they can also get involved in the process of implementation of changes.

There are many models and theories which have been developed for proper and timely implementation of change (Lewis, 2019). One such model is Lewin's model of change which will be used in Marks and Spencer. This model consist of three stages in which change takes place in a organisation and it includes unfreeze where organisation makes preparation for change and discuss about its benefits for the organisation. In the next stage change is taking place by action of leaders by using various approaches and theories. There are proper directions provided to employees and goals are communicated. Third stage is refreezing stage in which everything is back according to way it was before. In Marks and Spencer after the achievement of objective of change everything gets back to the way it was, teams formed get dissolved as the objectives laid have been achieved.

D1 : Conclusions and recommendations for effective planning and applying change

Importance of change can be implemented in a organisation based on understanding of various drivers of change. Different theories & models have been developed which is helping in implementation of change in more effective manner (Mansaray,2019). Such as Lewin's change model gas facilitated in Marks and Spencer in making decision to accept a change or not. Recommendation is there for Marks and Spencer regarding effective planning and application of change:

  • Organisations must analyse various factors that can be external or internal as both have direct impact on how resources are being utilised by the organisation.
  • Organisation must make use of their core competencies in the most effective manner so that they can use efficiency to increase the benefit for the organisation.


P4 : Different barriers for change & their influence on decision making by leaders

It is very essential for every organisation to develop an understanding of various barriers to change. Change is a very important aspect of every organisation and it faces many barriers that has a impact on decision taken by leaders in the organisation as explained below:

  • Lack of appropriate communication strategy: Communication can be a big barrier if management is not using it in a proper way. In Marks and Spencer it is the responsibility of various leaders to make effective communication to their employees so that they are able to influence the employees and have their behaviour directed towards achievement of organizational objectives.
  • Lack of involvement of employees: Involvement of employees is a factor that is associated with how much interest employees are willing to take for a particular decision that has been taken by the top organisation. It is a barrier as if employees are not willing to accept change than it might lead to negative impact on the overall functioning of a organisation and there can be no participation of the whole workforce as every employees is a part of single trade union in Marks and Spencer. It is necessary that a very common barrier faced by employees is resistance level. Many times employees are not ready to accept change as they posses fear of new activities, technological friendly are some of the issues which can be faced by employees. In context of Marks and Spencer, employees have been made understood the reason behind new changes (Mitra, Gaur and Giacosa, 2019). So, efforts are made to create a positive attitude towards various changes taking place in the organisation.
  • Complexity of organisation: There are many barriers with regards to complex process of organisation. Which are as a result of too many changes taking place simultaneously this may lead to confusion for employees as there may be presence of non alignment between all organisational objectives. In Marks and Spencer there is adequate efforts made on part of management so that there is simplified structure and process adopted in the organisation so that there are no barriers with respect to achievement of objectives for which change is introduced.
  • Adequate analysis of the situation in organisation: There are many barriers in a organisation which can have a impact on present situations of change. In Marks and Spencer there is requirement for proper analysis of the present market situation before introducing the new change (Moore, 2019). It is necessary for leaders in the organisation to implement the change in the most effective manner.

M3 Force Field analysis and impact on process of decision making

Field Force model is a very commonly used model for understanding various forces related to change in the organisation. There are two types of factors that are driving forces and restraining forces. This model is used by organisations to understand pressures in support of change and factors against change. In context with Marks and Spencer there is a need for effective use of this model so that management are able to identify various forces.

D2 : Evaluation of force field analysis

Force File analysis model is useful in making efficient decision related to change which can be in support of the organisation (Schore, 2018). This is very helpful in increasing effectiveness of a overall communication being done to employees in the organisation. In Marks and Spencer it is very Important for the purpose of reducing the effect of barriers which are acting as restraining forces of change such as employee attitude, lack of resources can be some of the restraining forces of change. Apart from this there are some driving forces also such as attitude of leaders towards change. Need Assignment Samples?Talk to our Experts!


P5 : Leadership approaches to deal with change in organisational context

Leadership is a process that is very crucial for implementation of change as it is related with convincing people about the positive impacts of change. There are some areas that are covered in leadership that includes change and its positive impact. Leaders using approaches to make employees more comfortable by using of tools, techniques of managing change. Different leadership style are discussed below:

  • Transformational style: Transformational style of leadership is used in organisation for motivating, encouraging of their employees while a change is being introduced. This gives a opportunity for employees so that they are able to utilise their potential and competence in optimum manner. Transformational leadership is used in various departments, levels and divisions (Schulz-Knappe, Koch, and Beckert, 2019). It helps in creating a vision for employees which tey have to work for in the long run. In Marks and Spencer, various leadership styles are being used which helps in smooth implementation of change. When there will be decision made with respect to new locations of stores. Consideration must be given to suggestion given by employees as ultimately employees are the ones who are responsible for working towards achievement of organisational objectives.
  • Transactional leadership: Transactional leadership is a responsive style that used formal structure in a organisation. Leaders in such style of leadership believes in motivating employees by use of punishments or rewards. This style of leadership is suitable in context with Marks and spencer as the planned cahnge has to be implemented in whole organisation. Opening of new stores will require many activities such as hiring of new people for filling of new vacancies, more financial resources required for making investments. This style of leadership will help in use of large funds so that results can be set objectives can be achieved.
  • Democratic style of leadership: Democratic leadership approach provides authority to subordinates to present their views and have a opportunity to speak whenever they are willing. It is helping leaders in boosting morale if employees in Marks & Spencer.
  • Participative style of leadership: In this managerial style of leadership all the team members are given equal opportunity to present their views regarding various business decision that have to be made by leaders in case of Mars and Spencer.
  • Autocratic style of leadership: this leadership style leaders make all the decision and strategies to be implemented in the business. Employees and subordinates do not posses right to speak or present their views. This style of leadership is not suitable for Marks and Spencer as it might lead to demotivation of employees which may have a impact on achievement of organisational objectives.

M4 : Extend to which leadership approaches can deliver change

Marks and Spencer will be using Lewin's model of change by application of Kotter's change model. There is a model given by Kotter which consist of 8 steps that helps in understanding change. The Kotter's model will help in developing effective understanding of change by analysing of various stage which are part of this model. The first stage is creating urgency where people are made aware of requirement of change so that support of employees can be obtained. In Marks and Spencer for attaining increase market share change has to be introduced. Second stage there is team building in M&S team will be made by appointing of various leaders so that they can build up teams and start working for achievement of organisational objectives (Trad and Kalpić, 2019). In next step there is creation of vision by Leaders which is related to end objectives for which Change is being introduced. After creation there will be communication of vision to all the employees and team members so that they can start working towards achievement of end goals. In next stage there will be focus on short term objectives and plans will be made for achieving of those objectives with help of strategies. Inspiration is given to employees so that they do not give up as this process is very important for bringing c change in the organisation. In the last stage change becomes part of the organisation. There is use of different models so that change can be effectively use and implemented.Get dissertation help london from our experts!!

D3 : Effectiveness of leadership approaches and models of change

Organisational change occurs within company and this is essential in order to sustain in market for long period. Changes which occur within process of companies affects operations and employees in both negative as well as positive manner. The managers and leaders of company plays an important role in managing working of company when any change occurs within company. Leaders are responsible for providing guidance and work according to the vision of the company. Marks and Spencer has applied change model so that organisations can survive in market for longer period (Steiss, 2019). It is essential for this company to follow the best leadership style while implementing organisational changes.


From the above analysis, it is analysed that there is high need and demand of innovation and change within companies in order to sustain in market for long time. Several changes that take place within organisation affects functioning of individuals, teams and whole organisation. For implementing organisational changes effectively, there are various models including Lewin's model and Kotter's model of change. The management as well as leadership style must be managed effectively in order to manage various barriers that occur while making organisational changes.

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