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Organisations and Behavior

Different Organizational Structures, Cultures in Business

Introduction To Management

Any major change in management can result a major change in attitude and behavior of employees. Merger and acquisition are some key changes make massive effects on its employees. Thus, in such circumstances it becomes essential for the supervisors take the optimum utilization of a range of management aspects to manage the effectiveness of the workforce and keep the productivity high (Vianen and Fischer, 2002). As per the given case The Abby Collage is being acquired by The City Collage and employees of both the Organisations are being merged. The impact of this major change in employees’ behavior is obvious and management is focused towards minimizing the effect of this change. The major aim behind undertaking this study work is to predict the possible effects and providing assistance to the management of City Collage regarding proper management of workforce by using the different aspects of organizational behavior so that efficiency of employees can be maintained.

Different Organizational Structures

The organization structure indicates the framework for allocating roles and responsibilities between key people within the organization. It defines that who will be reporting to whom. There are different types of organizational structures such as tall, flat and matrix where each of them holds their own significant importance (Mcshane, 2011). Mr. Wakefield can use any of the following structures:

Tall: This structure provides a horizontal flow of roles and responsibilities within the organization. Most commonly such structure is followed by the Organisations which need a taller hierarchy. There are many levels in such structure and span of control is narrow. The disciple and performance of employees are improved by close monitoring facilitated by the tall organizational structure (Dwivedi, 1995). The major problem with this structure is that due to long chain the decision making and implantation processes require a long time.

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Flat: There are less levels of management in this structure and the span of control is wide. The Less number of managers require in this structure which makes it quite less costly (Brady, Meade and Kroustalis, 2006). The major advantage of this structure is that it facilitates effective communication and quick decision makings.

Matrix: A mixture of both tall and flat structures is followed in it.

As per my suggestion Mr. Wakefield should implement flat organizational structure. By using this structure he will be able to make clear and quick communication during the change purse. Additionally, the decision making will also become effective.

Different Organizational Cultures

The organizational culture defines the common beliefs, values, language, systems, symbols, vision, etc. of the people engaged in business activities of an organization. The behavior of employees is largely determined by the organizational culture (Podsakoff and Podsakoff, 2003). There are four major organizational cultures that can be followed by the City Collage.

Power: the leader plays most comprehensive role in such Organisations and the employees’ behavior is largely based on the leader. Due to this high dependency on the leader the leader it becomes a key hazard to the company (Chikwe, 2009). The power culture facilities rapid internal changes and quick moving, but at the same time bosses gets the uppermost precedence even when the vital work is being delayed.

Role: each department plays its own significant role in this culture. The activities of every department are guided and controlled by their own department head. In this culture a well designed system and structure is followed by the organization which reduces the time required in operations and makes them more effective (Yiing and Ahmad, 2009). But due to defining the roles so firmly the abilities of individuals to do something innovative can never get identified.

Task: in this culture the best fitted employees are assigned to the task. In words it can be stated that the focus in this culture is given on task right individuals are assigned for doing the task in the most effective manner (Reuver, 2006). This type of culture facilitates a key competitive advantage by adopting the changes very quickly but on the other hand maintaining a control over the employees is quite tough on it.

Person: in this culture power of control and management is centralized to the people who recognized the company With lack of motivation in employees this culture facilitates quick decision making (Hay and Hodgkinson, 2006).

As per my recommendation Mr. Wakefield should focus on establishing role culture within the collage as in this culture every department will have its own different head management of the organization will become with the massive support of these heads.

The Impact of Relationship between Organizational Culture and Structure on Business Performance

The overall performance of the company can largely get affected by the link between relationship between the structure and culture of the organization. The relationship between culture and structure defines the role and responsibilities within employees and their working scenario. Mr. Wakefield can get massive edge in maintaining effective business performance by implanting the flat organizational structure and role culture as per the recommendations. The combination of flat structure and role culture is likely to enable rapid and apparent communication and immediate decision making within the organization where role and responsibility of every employee is clearly defined (Gagné and Deci, 2005). Due to this combination each employee will be able to work effectively as he will be having clear undertaking about their responsibilities as well as he will be able to get the helpful information quickly to make immediate decisions regarding the work.

Factors Influencing Individual Behavior

There are a huge number of factors that are likely to make major effects on employees’ behavior during the change in management. The human behavior is getting affected by the ordinary tendency facilitated by the changes in management such as a merger. The major factors which most commonly affect the behavior of employees are personality of the individual, skills, abilities and attitude (Wiethoff, 2004). Additionally the attitudes and behavior of co-workers also facilitate this pressure. These are the key fact ors which provide the guidelines to assign roles and responsibilities to different individuals during the management changes. These issues determine the reaction of an individual on the events like change. Additionally, the negative attitude and behavior of co-works are also likely to facilitate negative force in the behavior of an employee.

Different Leadership Styles and Comparison of Effectiveness

Autocratic Leadership: With respect to City College it could not be the effective leadership style as it has huge impact at the motivational level of employees. They might feel low and it can hamper their efficiency and effectiveness. The cited organization can apply this leadership style only if employees are not so competent and skilled (Griffeth and Hom, 2001).

Charismatic Leadership: the employees are inspired by the leader in such leadership style and they like to follow their leader as an ideal. In this leadership style massive fan following is enjoyed by the leaders but in case if they are involved in any negative activity then also employees keep following that (Spence, 2010). Here leaders give proper consideration on the change management and transformation has gained huge priority by them.

Participative Leadership: the most comprehensive way to get innovate ideas and keep the workforce motivated is by valuing their views and consider them in decision makings. This leadership style includes the views of employees in decision making which facilitates motivation in employees but it requires a long time and thus the decision process get delayed.

Laissez-faire Leadership: rather than the leader the decision making rights are held by employees and they feel endorsed but on the other hand this leadership can result wrong decision makings due to lack experience (Youngblood, 2000). It could be consider as significant leadership style only in the case of experienced and satisfied employees.

According to my recommendation Mr. Wakefield should follow participative leadership. This leadership style will enable him to get proficiency information from the knowledgeable employees of Abby collage and the decision making will improve.

Organizational theories emphasize the practice of management

The design, culture and structure of an organization are assisted by the range organizational theories in organizational behavior. The four key principles of management are defined by theory of Taylor. The first principle of this theory stays that the managers are suggested to identify the find the most appropriate way to complete any work and then the employee should be assigned after evaluating the best fit skills and abilities for the task (Kandula, 2006). Other two principles state that the management should be based on appropriate planning and control and punishment and rewards should be used by managers to motivating employees to do the task effectively. As per the theory of Max Weber there should be well designed lines of authority and control in a hierarchical structure of power for managing the workforce in an appropriate manner. On the other hand The Mayo theory defines different factors for motivating employees and proper management that are high-quality communication, good teamwork and involvement in decision makings (Segatto, Pádua and Martinelli, 2013). Thus, fundamentally these managerial theories offer a major course of action to perform the management activities in an appropriate manner.

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Different approaches to management used by different Organisations

There are many approaches which can guide Mr. Wakefield in proper administration of the institute. Contingency management approach is the major one which must be practiced by organization. They should focus on the fact that the company is supposed to make proper combination of effective strategies which can help them to deal with unstable and unpredictable business environment (Mean, 2009). Other than this the organization can focus on the modern management theory which emphasize that increase in productivity must gain huge priority by the company with relevance to the increase their profitability. A modern theory of organizational behavior used for employee motivation provided the base for this approach (Hartel, 2004). As per this approach, performance of employees can be improved by close monitoring, motivation and social factors. Therefore in this way these are the various approaches which are generally used by the Organisations which support their organizational activities and enable them to complete their task in effective manner.

Different Motivational Theories

The key theories of motivation are as below:

Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy: it is assumed by this theory that human wants take place in a hierarchical mode and people remain motivated towards satisfying these needs one level to another level in a hierarchical manner. This theory defines human needs under five stages in a chain starting from psychological needs to self actualization. In the period of change it can help in understanding the state of mind of any individual and most importantly it could be helpful with a view of fulfilling the basic needs of the employees. Mr. Wakefield can get the privilege of model at very large scale as they can connect with the psychological aspects of the employees directly (Spence, 2010). They can explain the staff members the benefits of these changes and try to motivate them in effective manner.

Herzberg Theory: as per this theory an every individual has their own different requirements and thus their needs cannot be categorized in hierarchical levels. There are two types of factors which determine the level of motivation (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2003). First are hygiene factors which eliminate the de-motivation rather than facilitating motivation but second are motivating factors which focus on motivating employees. With the help of this model the company can identify that which kind of employees can help in the change implementation process. The highly motivated employees can handle the change in well organized manner and it will help them to gain the competitive advantage.

Values of theory and Recommendation

As per my recommendation Mr. Wakefield should follow the Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory as it will offer a structure for motivating the workforce in an effective manner. By using this theory Mr. Wakefield will give major focus on the needs of their employees. As per the first stage of this theory the psychological needs of staff will be satisfied by making sufficient pay to them. Then job security will satisfy their safety needs and a familiar environment will satisfy their needs regarding affection. Then on next level Mr. Wakefield will have to offer a respectable position to employees for satisfying their needs of self esteem.

Explain the nature of groups and group behavior

The establishment of teamwork is essential for the company so that they can perform their task in effective manner. It will help them to bring innovation and creative business ideas. It could be treated a major nature or characteristics of the group. It is clear that working within the team is always beneficial for the Organisations as they can deal with challenge in effective manner. In team more intellectual minds work together and support to achieve the organizational objectives. The major nature of team work is collaboration and coordination. With the help of cooperation the teams can produce more productivity and effective work for the company. (Gagné and Deci, 2005). On the contrary grudges and personal envy is another factor which could be treated as characteristics of team if not handled in painstaking manner. Dynamism is major aspect of group behavior as they are able to implement the strategies and adopt the change in most appropriate manner. The cited organization has to ensure that the employees of both Organisations should work in group. The different departments can come close to each other and it will foster the high level of communication or interaction among the team members (Segatto, Pádua and Martinelli, 2013).

Factors which Leads to Effective Teamwork

In order to develop the team the organization can follow the three step model which includes the forming, storming and norming. Adherence to this model will be helpful or them in various ways as they can surely develop the team in well organized manner. Forming is the very first stage which includes the explanation of objectives, task and familiarity of team members with each other (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2003). Second stage is storming where group members started to discuss about subject matter and try to establish mutual consent on one opinion or viewpoint. It is a stage which is highly dependent on bringing out the innovative ideas. The last stage is related to the norming where everything comes into normal procedure and all the team mates are agreed upon one opinion or suggestions. It is a stage where the team members will try to complete the task in well organized manner.

Other than above mentioned model, communication is one factor which can help in creating the effective team work. If communication will be strong the team members will interact with other and the element of confusion can be eradicated. Further sense of respect is another element which is required to be at its peak among the team members. The cited college and Mr. Wakefield has to ensure that employees are having sense of respect towards each other and they value the though process of team mates. It will automatically lead towards the effective teamwork as it will reduce the level of grudges. At last proper monitoring from higher authorities is required at very large scale. The college is required to keep an eye on the performance of tem members so that effective teamwork can be fostered (Mean, 2009).

Threats to Success of Teamwork

There is a range of factors by which success of the teamwork can be damaged. Most usually the issues like conflict are considered as the key threats for teamwork which can largely reduce the overall performance. On the other hand improper communication and lack of proper guidance are also key threats to success of teamwork (Wiethoff, 2004). Additionally, lack of required resources, satisfaction and motivation are also major threats for teamwork. The lack of coordination between teammates can also make negative impact on the overall performance of the team.

Impact of technology on team functioning

In current technology friendly scenario there are several technical advancements which can get better the team performance at City College. The contribution of technology in City Collage can largely reduce the individual efforts while improving the overall performance. By the involvement of technology the communication process within the organization can be improved. Mr. Wakefield can easily communicate essential information with its staff members in a safe mode by means of technical advancements like e-mail (Kandula, 2006). The improvements in the teaching methodology can also ensure by the company people if they have technologically enabled class rooms. Mr. Wakefield can make the environment of knowledge transfer and knowledge share as well if technological development is taking place within the college. The teams can make easy connectivity with each other and it could be beneficial for team to perform better.

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Conclusion

Thus, after undertaking this report it can be stated that there is range of considerations needed to be made by Mr. Wakefield to make sure the effectiveness of their employees during the key change in administration. The recommendations provided in this report can largely assist him in ensuring a sound managerial performance at City College.

References

  • Chikwe, A. C. 2009. The impact of employee turnover: The case of leisure, tourism and hospitality industry. Consortium Journal of Hospitality & Tourism.
  • Dwivedi, R. K. 1995.Organizational Culture And Performance. New Delhi: M D Publications .
  • Gagné, M. and Deci, E.L. 2005. Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior.
  • Griffeth, R. W. and Hom, P. W. 2001. Retaining Valued Employees. Calif: SAGE.
  • Hartel, E.J. 2004. Towards a Multicultural World: Identifying Work Systems, Practices and Employee Attitudes that Embrace Diversity. Journal of Australian management.
  • Hay, A. and Hodgkinson, M., 2006. Rethinking leadership: a way forward for teaching leadership? Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
  • Hutchinson, s. And Purcell, J. 2003. Bringing policies to life: the vital role of front line managers in people management. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
 
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