Organisational behaviour is the method in which the people communicate and interact with all other in their workplace. BBC is a broadcasting company which is headquartered in London, United Kingdom. Kindly do answer all the learning outcomes mentioned below:-
- Explain the influence of culture, politics and power with its behavior in context to BBC.
- What are the approaches for motivating people working in BBC.
- How the learning and effectively working can be maintained.
- What is the concepts and philosophies come under organisational behavior
Organisational behaviour refers to the study of the way in which people interact with others within firm. It is defined as the approach that assess the influence of individual behaviour, group and structure on business concern with an intention of executing knowledge towards improving effectiveness of organisation (Ashkanasy and et. al., 2014). Several research models are there that are associated with organisational behaviour like promoting motivation and leadership, increasing job performance as well as satisfaction that leads to transform the way in which performance is assessed. In the present assignment, chosen organisation is BBC which is a broadcasting company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. This report involves impact of power, politics and culture on performance of teams and individuals that affects behaviour of firm. In addition to this, it also covers several motivational theories and their affect on maximizing effectiveness of workforce productivity to attain overall goals of business.
a) Explain Handy's cultural typology within the organizational culture
Handy's cultural typology :
This theory was propounded by Charles Handy in year 1999. It expresses that firms are indistinguishable to nations, each have particular culture depend on expectations, values and beliefs which is changing with the traverse of time, accordingly, business firms are required to grow, develop & change the culture so as to attain long term goals and objective. Handy's states the class of culture into 4 categories which are defined as follows.
Power Culture: Handy's defines this culture as spider web that means all crucial individuals of company sits in centre or middle. Few people are there in British Broadcasting Corporation who holds power to influence other individuals in the organization. BBC representatives are generally judged by their accomplishment instead of their performance. As indicated by smith review, power culture of firm empowers it to take quick decisions that facilitates its manpower in performing their work effectively (Demir, 2011).
Role Culture: This culture is focusing on roles that are controlled by manpower of company. Workforce of BBC are aware of their duties and roles, that empowers them to work effectively. Infirm, power is recognised position of an individual, for example, human resource a administrator has the power or ability to oversee individuals as well as resources of BBC. Proper delegation of authorities empowers the workforce of company to work viably and effectively within a given time frame.
Task Culture: It is a job oriented culture which emphasize on completing work through teams. In BBC, Teams are shaped with a specific end goal to accomplish some particular objective or target. Company believes that if right combination of skills, competencies, personalities and leadership are there, teams can turn out to be highly competitive and productive which in turn maximizes profit ratio of BBC (DiPaola and Tschannen-Moran, 2014).
Person Culture: Under this culture, workers think about themselves as unique and superior to company. BBC workforce put their best efforts but in turn they are expecting to get good amount for that. Here, the power exists within group of people which empowers them to take their decisions solely.
Politics: It is a part of organisational life as firms are made up of distinct interests that requires to be aligned. If manpower thinks that their firm is excessively driven by politics, then they are less committed towards it, perform worse on job, have high job anxiety, less satisfaction from work and have high incidence of depressed mood. This leads to decline in overall productivity and profits of BBC. In order to minimize political behaviour within firm, leaders of BBC can give equal access to data or information, collaborative behaviour and depicts that political maneuvering can not be tolerated or rewarded.
According to Smith Review:
As indicated by Smith Review, BBC is confronting numerous difficulties or challenges regarding redefining its culture and structure. The referred organization is required to give incredible programming and content which empowers the client to read. In addition to this, BBC is additionally emphasize on better administration perceptibility, acknowledgement of good work, developing safe environment, break down of complex procedures into less complex one, open communication for its workforce which improves their profitability and viability. Task culture is the predominant culture type that must be followed by BBC as it assists in enabling workforce to work in team and work effectively towards attainment of goals and objectives of company.
Culture, power and politics are interrelated with each other. Power and politics within an organisation highly affects its culture. They necessarily impacts on groups and individual behaviour and have high significance in decision making. If power is concentrated in few hands then it will leads to dissatisfaction among other employees. Politics can influence the organisation in both negative and positive way. Positive politics can be a good cause to forge change and promote values of company. But negative politics may leads to conflicts which directly influence culture of BBC. Culture hampers or fosters the reliability of firm. Power and politics culture impacts on overall productivity and performance of organisation.
b) How culture, politics and power affect BBC behaviour
Organisational Behaviour refers to a procedure that depicts about the attitude and behaviour of individuals in an organization. Basically, it portrays how an individual interact with their colleagues within firm. Organisation Behaviour refers to the investigation of Company's politics, power and culture that influence the performance of their work force. Workforce is engaged in politics when they change their power in course of action. Each business undertaking whether large or small is influenced by the effect of politics and power in both positive and negative manner. BBC emphasize on revamping its culture with the objective that they can extract best out from their representatives and consequently give pay which values their work. It additionally centres around delayering of administration which intends to diminishes or reduce the hierarchy level (Gelfand and et. al., 2012). For example, they have diminish the amount of superior administrator by some percentage in order to develop even more better working surroundings for their human resource personnel. BBC also emphasize on administering transparent communication to its representatives so that they don't hesitate to discuss about their issues. Along with this, BBC likewise centres around giving more advantageous administration perceptibility, worker commitment, breakdown of complex process into simpler one as well as provide open and safe working condition which maximizes the overall profitability of their manpower with the goal that they can perform viably and effectively.
French and Raven’s sources of power types:
In this, 5 forms of power are defined by John French & Bertram Raven that depicts how distinct forms of power influence leadership and success of an individual. These includes:
Coercive power: This power is based on idea of coercion which means that a person is forced to do anything against their will. In BBC, this form of power may lead to issues as it negatively related with conditional reward behaviour. It leads to dissatisfaction and unhealthy behaviour at workplace. This power is use to threaten other people within organisation and to enforce punishable actions and strict deadlines in workplace.
Reward Power: This power includes ability of persons to assign matters they do not want to do other people & to recognition and reward them for that. In this, employees want more bigger reward then they get last time. If they not get the same, this may results in their declining effectiveness. It arises out of authorization that individual has to reward and recognize people. This can be done by manager of BBC through providing bonuses, salary hikes, promotions, paid leaves to employees.
Legitimate power: Punishing and Rewarding workforce can be considered as legitimate part of appointed leadership role. Certain degree of punishment and rewards are executed by managers in firm. This power is based on role and is a weak form to convince and persuade other people. It is the positional power that an individual of BBC holds because of their position and is considered to be lawful.
Referent power: It is about administration that is based on ability to provide a sense of personal approval or acceptance to someone. In BBC, individuals who possess this power has high responsibility and they can easily lose themselves in this. This power is resultant of individual personality in BBC. The relationship that individual develop with others and charisma to present themselves results in approachability and some level of respect towards that person.
Expert power: In depth knowledge, expertise and information are the basis of this power. Individuals having expert power are highly intelligent & they trust in their ability to fulfil roles and responsibilities of firm. These individuals are enable to preform their duties in more appropriate manner. This power is possess by a person due to their expertise and knowledge related to specialized area.
Chanlat’s characteristics related to political behaviour:
Chanlat differentiate political behaviour in 3 class, i.e., decisional, personal and structural characteristics. At the time of recruiting candidate from firm, qualities and passion of an individual regarding use of political and power behaviour are always taken into account. Thus, political behaviour itself arise in selection process. One important characteristic of political behaviour is Machiavellian and the another is decisional characteristic. It is most likely to arise in unstructured decisions. Third characteristic is structured which leads to difference of information and goals of each department of organisation. Combined impact of all those forces leads to creation of conflicts in BBC.
a) Content and process theory of motivation
The term motivation refers to the driving force that stimulates people to initiate and continue a behaviour. It is originated from the word “motive” which represents needs or desire of an individual. It alludes to the way toward encouraging workers to activity so that organizational goals can be accomplished in a structured and through manner. As indicated by Stephen Robbins "Motivation alludes to the willingness of an individual to apply high level of efforts towards accomplishing specified task, conditioned by the effort ability to meet some individual's need or want”.
- Extrinsic Motivation: It is a sort of external form motivation in which a person is impelled to execute an activity so to gain remunerate and maintain a strategic distance from discipline. This kind of motivation is frequently utilized by the business entities.
- Intrinsic Motivation:It is somewhat related with internal kind of motivation. Individual is motivated on their own so as to satisfy their neds in a successful and effective way. Expected result from such kind of motivation can seen in intangible form.
Motivation is classified into two categories which are discussed below:-
- Content Theory: It includes factors which become the reason for providing motivation to an individual. The behaviour of a person depend upon these factors.
- Process Theory: It define how different needs of a person will impact its behaviour so as to accomplish goals associated with those particular needs (Graham and et. al., 2015).
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: It was given by Abraham Maslow in 1940. He attempts to recognize the requirements of a person into five primary levels beginning from fundamental, to social to self-realization. It has been classified based on its need.
- Physiological Needs: These are considered as the essential prerequisite of a person for its survival or presence, for example, water, protect, nourishment and so on.
- Safety Needs: After achieving 1st need, another need emerges among individual through accomplishing security and security. For example, professional stability, individual security and so on.
- Social Belonging: This needs expresses a person should be acknowledged among their associates, partners and relatives.
- Self-esteem: At this level, individual needs to get acknowledgment, status, appraisal and regard from the general public or society.
- Self-actualization: This level of needs manages individual maximum capacity and its realisation (Hershcovis, 2011).
For example: BBC provides safe working environment to its manpower and provides them an opportunity to increase their capabilities and recognize them. It assists in increasing their motivation level and allows them to work in more better manner towards attainment of goals and objectives of company.
2. Herberg's Theory: Under this Herzberg classified individual motivation factor in two principle factor i.e. Motivator & De-Motivator.
- Motivator Factor: It include feeling of accomplishment, obligation, recognition and progression.
- De-Motivator Factors: It incorporate sense of achievement, security, status, workplace, pay.
BBC is applying Herzberg's Theory of Motivation in their business practices so as to provide higher motivation to its employees which ultimately retain them form longer period.
- Hygiene/ De-motivator Factors: These components give inspiration to work force yet just for brief term. Lacks of these factors of such factors may cause disappointment among staff individuals. At the end of the day, these are those components which has a negative impact on overall performance of employees (Hoever and et. al., 2012). These elements regularly incorporate, Job security, better relation with co-worker, employer stability etc.
- Motivational Factors: Such factors are not considered as motivational factors but rather they indirectly inspire and motivate representatives to work adequately and proficiently. Such kinds of components persuades the faculty for better execution. It essentially incorporates development openings, awareness of other's expectations, acknowledgment and so on.
For example: BBC provides a healthy workplace to their manpower and make it more open and transparent to work which provides a sense of satisfaction and gives safe environment to employees.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory: This hypothesis was proposed Victor Vroom in 1964, in which he lead an investigation over individuals' inspiration factors and presumed that it relies upon three segments, i.e., instrumentality, expectancy and valence. These element differentiate among the endeavours put by workers, their execution and ultimate result. BBC should utilize this model, as components of Vroom hypothesis are extremely powerful in encouraging workers to upgrade their potential efforts to accomplish their target.
Expectancy:- This component depicts that worker's motivation is the outcome of how much an individual need a reward. Workers have distinctive level of desire and confidence regarding abilities and capacity they have.
Instrumentality:- This factor depicts the perception or faith that a representative have over their administrator that if they perform good then the craving result will be there. Administration must ensure that workforce get proper rewards.
Valance:- It alludes to the emotional orientations of workers that they hold in regards of result and reward. The profundity of desire for remunerate whether extrinsic or intrinsic will urge representatives to improve their performance to accomplish results more proficiently.
b) Explain how improved level of motivation help in achieving organizational objectives
It is fundamental for BBC to motivate their workforce that at last in charge of the achievement and development of business association. It has been trusted that happy and satisfied employees works more effectively and efficiently that leads to achieve organizational objectives within its specified time frame.
- Communication Better: When employees are motivated with the prevailing job environment it results in promoting healthy and positive work surrounding. It further denotes that all personnel that works within BBC are communicating with each other effectively.
- Empower them: After revamping its culture, BBC has decided to take feedbacks, reviews or suggestion from employees (Hoon Song and et. al., 2012). Furthermore, the company has decided to include workers in decision making process as well which makes them feel valued and important. When work or contribution of personnel is appreciated by company, it lasts positive impression in their mind. As s result, they work incredibly hard towards achieving business goals and objectives.
a) Different types of teams
- Functional Team:- This group essentially centres around playing out the particular capacity of a venture. Members of BBC are moving in the direction of getting efficiencies their store by keeping up new items alongside assortment in their contributions. This team possess common functional expertise which helps BBC in performing their operations effectively.
- Problem Solving team:- This group comprises of 5-12 individuals from a similar division which works over explaining issues identified with clashes administration, absence of understanding and so on. They give answer for current issues and give proposals to enhancing the quality and workplace of the organization. BBC welcome proposals and issues from individuals that they are having with respect to the administrations organization give (Lu, 2014). This team assists in solving particular issues that takes place within firm.
- Virtual team:- This is a gathering of physically scattered individuals who share same objectives and targets that is expanding organization's result by utilizing advancements, for example, web, WAN, E-mail and so on. Components like capacity to manage time and space limitation, absence of para or non-verbal prompts make them unique in relation to other kind of group. All the members of team engaged in common project and make collaborative efforts in order to attain goals of BBC.
- Project Team:- Under this people from various divisions are come up together to frame a group for the achievement of a specific undertaking or errand. This results in achieving organizational objectives in an effective manner and yielding higher profitability ratio. This team helps BBC in completing particular projects within specific period of time.
b) Explain what makes a team effective within BBC
Organizational growth and success is primarily rely on the performance of its workforce. This can better happens when representatives cooperates or all in all towards accomplishing targets and objectives of organization in a compelling way. It has been trusted that working collectively in a team is considered as the most ideal manner by which specialist share their ability and learning with each other and achieve organization's goal within its specified time frame (Wayne and et. al., 2013). Their collective efforts makes them motivated which brings about enhancing general efficiency. It is imperative for BBC to create productivity in their work environment. This will help in accomplishing defined tasks in an orderly way with extraordinary productivity and viability. Team members equally share the responsibility or burden of their associate and decrease their work loads. Team Working turns out to be effective in keeping up better specialist connection in BBC. At the point when workforce all in all work, it gives them a chance to impart incredible compatibility and attach to each other. They regard each other and their choices which eventually constructs better connection with their associate. Following are the qualities that makes a team and its members more effective are as follows:
- Builds Trust: Relying on other colleague build up solid connection and trust among them which at last advances great and positive workplace. Trusting your sub-ordinate provide great sense of safety that promotes many ideas to appear.
- Cultivate Learning and Creativity: Creativity prosper or extend when individuals cooperate in a group. Consolidating unique thoughts or point of view of each workers grows more viable and productive selling solution.
- Shows Conflict Resolution Skills: Chances of conflicts emerge when individuals from various background or skills cooperate for a common purpose. At the point when struggle emerges in group, all faculty are requested to comprehend their issues without anyone else as opposed to taking it to administration (Williams and Grossett, 2011). By tackling their contention all alone eventually making them effective supervisor which is some place useful for its future development and advancement.
Tuckman's Model: This model was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. He expresses every single fundamental stage that empowers group to develop, handle issue, look up to challenge, design work and convey result in a successful way. There five phases incorporated into this which are characterized below:
- Forming: At this stage, team and its members make themselves mindful with the accessible difficulties and openings. Some know about their duties while others are basic upbeat on account of assignment ahead. Pioneer assumes vital part in this perspective as they unmistakably dole out and disclose parts and duties to every part with the goal that they can execute their work efficiently.
- Storming: At this stage, odds of arising conflicts among team members is high in view of their distinctive working style. As members are working collectively and that too with different educational qualification, skills, interest level which indicates chances of occurring conflicts. So here team members are require to deal with each other co-operatively (Thomson, 2015).
- Norming: At this stage, team members begin solving the conflict on their own and furthermore start appreciating strength of other team members. At this, members of team starts associating with each other as now they share impressive compatibility among each other. In the event that they confront any trouble, they will talk about with each other.
- Performing: At this stage, team members are in a state to achieve organizational goals and objectives without any obstruction. This stage advances larger amount of inspiration among team members.
a) Application of organizational theory
Path Goal Theory: The given theory depends on conduct which best suites the representative, determining a leader's style and workplace keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish particular objective. With the utilization of this theory, BBC can increase the motivation level of its employees and also inspire them to work incredibly hard towards achieving organizational objectives so it helps in enhancing the profitability of the association (Capitano, 2014). The Path Goal Theory is helpful for leaders of BBC to help and empower their representatives in accomplishing their set destinations or objectives. This model gives guidance to other co-worker so that work can be carried out in a systematic manner. Path Goal Theory is controlled and overseen by different authoritative person. The fundamental components of this theory are mentioned below:-
Employee Characteristics: Employees needs to comprehend their leader's conduct that depend on association, want for control, needs and saw level of capacity. For example, when a leader gives more structure than staff individuals require, they turn out to be less motivated. Thusly, a pioneer require to comprehend their workers so it encourages pioneer to know how to best inspire their staff individuals.
Task and Environmental Characteristics: It is the another part of Path Goal Theory which assume indispensable part in the association to persuade their workers. The fundamental focal point of this model is take care of the issues or hindrances looked by them (Grossett, 2013). At the point when a hindrance is excessively testing then pioneer require, making it impossible to help the staff part by choosing a way to work around it. There are different troublesome undertaking which may emerges are listed below:
- Outline of the assignment: Leader's help is useful for planning the task. For instance, when the undertaking is to a great degree troublesome than leaders are require to give them proper guidance and support.
- Formal expert framework: Depends on the errand specialist, pioneer of the organization gives clear targets and give representatives a few or all control.
- Work gathering: When group is non strong, at that point pioneer of the organization need to utilize the standard of Fayol 'esprit-de-corps' that gives energy, comradeship and dedication to all partners.
Leader's Behavior or style: Authority style are utilized by the circumstances as pioneers' conduct isn't an unchangeable reality. The sorts of pioneers conduct or styles depend on two factors that are thought and starting structure. There are four kinds of authority styles that are Directive, Supportive, Participative and Achievement.
Four common styles of leadership includes:
- Directive Leadership: This sort of pioneer advise their adherents about what to do, booking, planning work and how to accomplish a specific task (Graham, 2015).
- Supportive Leader: This kind of pioneer are work for the circumstance when errands and relationship are mentally or physically difficult.
- Participative Leader: The pioneer talk about with their supporter before taking a choice about how to finish a specific errand.
- Achievement Leader: In this kind of administration style, pioneer defines testing assignment or objectives for their adherents and expect that they perform at their largest amount.
b) Key barriers to effective team performance
In today's competitive environment, there are a couple of variables that effect the execution of entire team. These components are act as a barrier for BBC as the goals and focuses of the association can not be refined if the execution of team member is poor. Below portrayed are a couple of limits which impacts the productivity of the firm-
- Unclear goals: If the destinations and focuses of BBC are not clear, by then it will go about as hindrance towards the fruitful execution of employees. Uncleared targets distorted the execution of the delegates as they don't perceive what is depended upon to be done.
- Poor communication: Poor correspondence among the associates affect the execution of specialists and practicality of gathering. Poor correspondence system keeps the proficiency of BBC as the destinations and methodologies may not be clearly passed on to the specialists.
- Lack of managerial engagement: It is the obligation of boss to incorporate into each one of the activities of the association. In case the bosses are not possessed with exercises then team will not be able to perform or execute without proper guidance.
According to the previously mentioned report, it has been presumed that association conduct assumes an imperative part in expanding the efficiency of the organization. Stuck with your organization development assignment then take our Organization Development Assignment Help. It helps in expanding the aptitudes and capacities of the workers. Alongside this, diverse kinds of groups are required in the association keeping in mind the end goal to enhance its execution. Way objective hypothesis is utilized to upgrade the adequacy of group and execution of workers and a few hindrances, for example, poor correspondence, vague objectives impact group viability.