Organizational behavior (OB) is a process in which different people interact with different groups in order to create a very effective business entity. The organizational behavior concept is based upon the fact to increasing the outputs from individual groups of members will affect the firm for its growth. BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) is the world’s largest broadcaster with a large number of employees within it. This assignment will cover the following points within it the influence of organizational culture, power, and political behavior of managers over the staff of BBC in recent past and today. It will analyze different motivational theories to achieve the goals of an organization and develop an effective team. Furthermore, it will analyze various methods for improving team performances and productivity of a firm. It will also include the impact of culture and power over a staff of an organization.
Organization culture, power, and politics
Power is two edged swords- as it give sense of to be valued and recognition. If a person uses own power positively then individual can motivate others, can gain trust and respect, execute organisation change smoothly, but if power is used as negative tool such as favouritism, negative tactics for making others psychological disturb than power leads to low productivity, low job retention etc. on the basis of power, culture and politics there are three models.
Handy's model of culture-
Power- In this type of culture, power is handed over to some people working in BBC. These people decide the overall working of the firm. Major decisions are taken by them and their followers have to work according to these decisions. This type of culture is said to be strong culture of BBC.
Role- BBC having this type of culture is said to be based on certain rules and principles. According to this culture, power is determined on the basis of roles of people working in BBC. This involves a long chain of command and tall structure of organisation. Scope for expertise power is limited in BBC because of this culture.
Task- This culture is formed for teams to achieve specific goal or completion of a task. According to this culture, task is considered to be most important in BBC. In this culture expertise are engaged to accomplish a task and teams are formed for completion of those tasks in BBC. The teams formed in BBC are said to be more creative and productive.
Person- In this type of culture, persons working in BBC are considered to be essential rather than organisation. According to this, BBC is formed only for individuals to work. BBC is said to be a composition of individuals working for the company. People consider themselves superior and organisation is neglected.
All these cultures will help in developing discipline and motivating all employees of BBC to work efficiently and productively for the company. These are helpful in generating more profits and benefits for BBC.
BBC delegates required power at each level of organisation but it also provides more power as reward which encourage current employee for growth. Culture has mix blessings - organisational culture are set of shared feeling, values, perception. Culture provides both favourable opportunities and unpleasant experiences (Arora and Bala, 2018). When is focus on bright side of this, formal organisational culture provides basic guideline for new employees, build image of organisation, attract Millennial. Informal culture encourage sense of unity, workplace satisfaction, full fill social need, psychological satisfaction, Fast Communication ,high cooperation, etc..
Culture can be negative as well. If there is power culture, then people will have to work under pressure that may make them negative towards brand. If following in organisation, it will discomfort employees in showing their creativity whereas task and person culture promote participation, creativity and efficiency (Hayano, Miyashita and Sugawara, 2016). Informal culture can cause work delay, conflicts, lose direction, productivity can be affect(Assis and et.al., 2016). BBC also have clearly defined vision, mission, value, day to day working procedure, clear accountability, leadership roles, principles. For informal organisation culture there is motivation, social cultural program, conflict handling tactics.
Politics- Politics is tactics and tricks play by an individual for their benefits. Politics is not always a negative concept. Functional politics give knowledge about type of personality and trait working in organisation which can be use accordingly in assign specific job matched with trait, for motivation, creativity etc. It provides an alternative informal route to get information, encourage competition, help in execute changes (Chen and et.al.,2017). Dysfunctional politics affect concentration, demotivate actual performer, stress, wrong information, low productivity etc. BBC use politics in constructive way by engage in politics for getting information, avoiding conflict, bring the best brain together, make positive environment
Organisational culture, power and politics will majorly influence individual and team behaviour of organisation. According to case study of BBC, in past there is not an effective organisational cultural which majorly affecting performance of BBC in business market. Employees are leaving industry because of harassment by higher authority and individuals also does not want to join workplace of BBC. This culture and politics of BBC majorly affecting its performance and profitability in marketplace. In order to get the work done there must be proper culture where everyone including employee will able to share their views in order achieve specific goals of organisation.
After the appointment of new CEO in BBC, changes have been taken place with proper strategies. Strategies are developed where, company has ensured employees towards their safety and security. This surety by BBC brings changes, and positive organisational culture and politics have been developed where employees feel satisfied to work there.
Politics like foundation of trust, impartial and honesty will develop where quality of services will provide to customers. With proper innovation and creativity services are offered to customers which satisfied their needs and performance of company get improved. However, on critical note with the past performance of BBC, its services is not effective because of bad organisational culture and politics which overall lead to result in loss of profitability of company.
Describe how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve goals.
There are two main theories which can be implemented by the BBC organisation in order to build a very effective as well as efficient team and by which individuals will be motivated too. These are as follows
Content theory: It focuses over the human requirement that changes according to time. For improving the work culture of BBC, here is an explanation of Maslows need of Hierarchy by which company will able to satisfy needs of employees.
Maslows need hierarchy theory: This is the most appropriate concept which can be applied by an organisation. This theory is focused on human requirements. It is based over the following needs which are as follows physiological needs: this need is related to basic requirement of a human lifestyle like food, shelter, clothing’s etc. than it comes to the safety needs which is the most wanted requirement of an employee to work in any company (Coccia, 2014). Esteem needs which involve requirement for self-motivation, knowledge and an independent environment and self - actualisation needs.
If the BBC organisation satisfies all the needs of an employee than this affect the entity a lot. Like by arranging the training sessions for the employees which allow the workers to share their views and ideas related to any project with the managers, give a surety to the employees that they were involve in the decision making and this motivate individual and team. By offering perks and incentives to the employees support them to be efficient about their work and this develop a self confidence in work which lead to achieve goals or objectives of the organisation.
To get the best work as possible, managers of BBC needs to fulfil basic needs to employees which encourage them to work hard for the achievement of organisational objectives. According to case study, in past there are no policies of providing safety and security to employees at workplace which resulting that employees are leaving BBC which affecting performance of company. Complain of employees is with the harassment, bullying by higher authorities with that company lose with its reputation and its profitability get affected.
Process theory: This theory includes the ideas about how an organisation changes and improve itself. This concept is related to what process are need for motivation and focuses over how motivation can be develop. Therefore, here explanation of Adam's equity theory is as follows-
Adams equity theory: This concept is based over equality and fair decisions that are taken by an organisation and which affects the overall performance of individual as well as team. According to this theory the workers involve many efforts in their jobs like education, their knowledge, potential, hard work for their company and efforts to achieve the goals and in turn they expect good results which are in the form of salary, perks, promotions and rewards. For example, if two of the employees are making hard efforts to achieve a company’s goal from which one worker is getting the rewards, perks and all the appreciation from the manager and on the other hand the second worker is not getting all those things than, the worker will get demotivated and this affects the individual as well as team performance which influences the productivity of the organisation. If the organisation BBC is treating their employees equally according to their talent and efforts for the work than by this way, the individual performance becomes effective and this would enhance the whole team to do their best for the company in order to achieve the goals of an organisation.
With the help of process theory, BBC will able to motivate its employees by fulfilling their needs so that it develops an encouragement among them for completing specific project of organisation. For improving overall work of organisation, leader have to play active role so that team work will be developed for achieving organisational objectives.
B) Impact of motivation in order to achieve organizational goals.
To achieve the goals or objectives of an organisation, it is very important to connect with the employees in order to get best out of them for firm. And for this it requires individual as well as team performance which enhance the productivity of company. As, BBC is a public service organisation so its main motive is to inform, educate and entertain to public. And this can be done by regular involving employees in decision making with the other authorities, by the involvement of workers, they are able to share their views and ideas regarding a project which may minimise the major conflicts. By offering them perks, rewards and promotions according to their skills and knowledge which reduces the inequality issues among the other employees. This will increase the self-confidence of the workers as well as individuals, allow them to be motivated for their work. Through this an effective and efficient team is developed which supports the organisation to achieve its goals and objectives.
To get the best work as possible, there are some recommendation of BBC for improving its performance in business market. BBC has to develop skilled and knowledgeable leader which helps in developing strategies for meeting future goals of organisation. Leaders are the one which encourage employees to work in team spirit for specific objectives of organisation.
A) Different types of teams and their importance
A team refers to working together of different individuals for completion of a given task and attaining the determined goal and objective. A team is said to be more efficient as different kinds of people with their own skills are working together to ascertaining a required goal. Different types of teams working for BBC are as follows-
Functional work team- This is a composition of various members of organisational levels who are performing some specific functions of organisation (Weller, Boyd, and Cumin, 2014. ). To manage external relationships and internal operations of a particular division of BBC, each functional team will have a subordinate and a manager. Examples of this team are- finance, human resource, marketing and accounting. Proper functioning of all these functions with the help of functional team, productivity and efficiency in work can be improved.
Problem solving team- This refers to the management of conflicts and problems arising out in the company. This team of BBC is responsible for solving issues arising out during the working of any activity in organisation. This team is for a limited time period which is helpful in solving the problems of the company. Through this team technical problems can be solved at time which reduce the wastage of resources and delays in work and also helpful in increasing efficiency of the company.
Project team- This team involves members who are in charge of a particular project. This team is formed for a limited time and will be dissolved after completion of the given project. The members of this team are engaged together to achieve a common goal and completion of the project. The project team of BBC is important for the firm as it helps in completing the given project with greater efficiency and effectively on time which increases the company's success.
Virtual team- Working together with the help of email, voice conferencing and FAX from various locations in order to ascertain a desired goal are known as virtual team. With the help of virtual team, different projects of BBC from different locations can be completed. This will also be helpful in bringing co-ordination among members from different locations. With technological advances in different communications tools, virtual team has gained more importance.
Through implementation of all these teams, work can be co-ordinated and more efficiency can be brought in performance of workers. This will lead to increase in company's growth and success.
To complete the specific work with group and team development in BBC organization
To achieve the best work as possible, leaders have to play important role in BBC organisation. By applying effective group development theory, leaders of BBC will able to improve performance of organisation in business market. The theory which applied for group development is Tuckman's group development theory.
The forming stage adopted by BBC aims at tending the team members to behave independently, so that individuals are able to meet and acquire different opportunities and face challenges which benefits the overall team and it also helps in tackling the new tasks. The second stage of storming helps the BBC in achieving the trust of other members of a team(Johnston and et.al., 2018). The individuals are encouraged to voice their opinion in certain situations which results in open-mindedness of team members and resolve conflicts. After the second stage of storming, the individuals start working in fulfilling manner and disagreement are resolved easily and it also emerges spirit of co-operation among team members. The BBC's norming stage results in development of team and is considered as to be task-oriented, creative and efficient. In the performing stage, the individuals work in a team and aim towards achieving the goals and objectives of the company (Owoseni and et.al.,2017). The BBC's aim of developing a team which focuses on individual members to understand the importance of co-operation is achieved benefiting the overall organisation.
A team development theory was developed by Belbin in 1981 to use the knowledge and talent of every team member. BBC uses Belbin's theory of team development in order to improve its employee’s performance and to use their fullest potential. According to belbin's team development theory, a team must possess essential nine roles which results in achieving maximum level of performance. The nine roles complement each other, and it describes a lot about the work style of a team and individuals. Below are nine roles of team development which defines the BBC and its staff.
The co-ordinators look after the team members and clarifies and summarizes the concept. In BBC, it is needed to utilize the talent of every individual. Then there is shaper who possess a strong urge to perform the task and looks for challenges. Completer finisher is the person who focuses on perfection, which is important in BBC as to achieve competitive advantage. Team-worker is the sensitive one who is helpful and focuses on accommodating everyone and creates pleasant environment (Rhoden, 2016.). A specialist contributes to the whole team by his substantial knowledge and using technical skills. The monitoring member who focuses on analysing the situations and work deliberately to get to the bottom of the problems and find solution for the same. The creative thinker of the team is plant who brings innovation and creation in his work, and BBC needs to bring innovation to sustain in market and gain profits. The resource investigator is open-minded and looks for new opportunities to work on. Then there is implementer who is organizer of the whole team and puts plan and ideas into execution. Therefore, BBC needs to adopt Belbin’s nine roles model in order to develop the team which brings success to the organisation and its objectives are achieved.
A) Path-goal theory in improving productivity of BBC
This theory states that a leader selects a particular action to guide their subordinates through their route which are best suited for them to achieve determined objectives and goals. According to this theory, leaders of BBC are responsible to give directions and guidance to their followers in achieving the organisational goals and objectives. With proper guidance by leaders, employees' performance is also improved and their productivity is also increased. This will be a helping tool for increasing company's success and improve its image in the market.
The main aim of this theory is to increase motivation provide satisfaction to employees so that they became a productive associate for the company. This theory has its four styles which are-
The directive- This theory proves to be most positive one. According to this, leaders of BBC give information regarding work to their employees and explain them how to perform task. With this theory worker are able to know their work and company's strategies and policies are known clearly to them which will help them to increase their efficiency and productivity and will automatically increase the success and growth of BBC.
The supportive- According to this theory, leaders of BBC are friendly and is concerned with equal treatment of all their followers. This kind of organisation behaviour is oriented towards satisfying worker's needs and choices. Psychological welfare of employees is important for supportive leader. Tasks which are more physically distressing for the workers of BBC, this kind of behaviour is necessary to provide them relaxation. Our experts provide the teaching assistant level 2 coursework help for students at the best price.
The participative- This includes participation of employees in decision making process, allowing them for suggestions by their leaders. This will be helpful in motivating workers of BBC to contribute more towards company. This participative behaviour will help in increasing the productivity of the firm in long run.
The achievement- For improving workers' efficiency and performance, leaders of BBC sets challenges for their followers and encourage them to work more efficiently by facing the challenges. This will improve worker's performance and automatically company's success will be improved. Through all this theory, BBC can increase their productivity by motivating their workers to contribute more by working more efficiently and effectively.
B) Barriers to effective performance
Barrier can be said as something like a policy, problem or a rule which makes difficult for thing to occur. The main barriers to effective performance are- Unclear strategies- If the strategies and policies for performing a particular task is not well defined to the employees then they will not perform effectively. This unclear strategies and policies will lead to create more confusion and conflicts among the employees and their performance will be affected because of these. Employees will not be able to perform the required work and company's resources will be wasted. If BBC does not communicate its strategies and policies to their employees, then this will hamper its productivity and success of the business will decrease.
Poor communications- Communication is a very important tool for smooth working of the business. Through better communication, problems and conflicts among the employees can be removed. If BBC is not organising different activities which can be helpful in improving communication among employees then conflicts and problems cannot be removed, through this performance will be affected and productivity of the firm will be reduced. Communication will also be helpful in flowing of information in the organisation through which employees can get to know what work they have to perform.
Lack of Training and Development- It is important for an employee, to improve their performance and to give them knowledge about their work. Through proper training and development programmes work is easily understandable to employees and their efficiency and productivity is improved. This proves to be a barrier to effective performance for BBC, as proper development and training is not imparted to their employees which decreases their efficiency and productivity. With this they are not able to give their best performance to the organisation.
Lack of friendly environment- Friendly environment will give satisfaction to employees and this will be helpful in improving their performance (Kitchin, 2017). If the employees of BBC is not receiving friendly environment at their work place, they will not be satisfied and their performance will be hampered. An unsatisfied employee will not give their best performance towards their work which will decrease their efficiency and productivity.
These are the barriers which overall affecting performance of BBC, therefore after the appointment of new CEO strategies are developed in which employee feel safe and work with full encouragement to provide valuable service and to meet goals of organisation.
From the above assignment it is summarised that, there are many barriers which influences the growth as well create an ineffective team for an organisation and also affects the individual as well as team performance which reduces the productivity of an organisation. But BBC, through applying motivational theories to its organisation is able to overcome from the problems. By applying Adams theory, the company is capable to create a trust among the workers which lead to a good performance by team as well as individuals, in order to achieve the objective of BBC. It had also explained the different types of team which includes functional, problem solving, project and virtual teams and their importance for BBC. It had also concluded negative use of power and politics results in de motivation of employees that affects the team and individual performance.