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Health Promotion Theory

University: ARU London

  • Unit No: 11
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 14 / Words 3619
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: HCR5002
  • Downloads: 503
Question :

This assessment will cover the following questions:

  • How did the Start 4 Life Campaign impact breastfeeding rates in the UK?
  • What were the specific objectives and stages of the Start 4 Life?
  • What were the key components of the Health Belief Model used in the UK's health promotion?


Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Breastfeeding plays a crucial role in the early development of children and the well-being of mothers. Over time, healthcare experts have strongly advocated for breastfeeding due to its many health advantages for both mothers and babies. Despite this, the United Kingdom has historically had a lower breastfeeding rate compared to countries like Sweden, where about 62 percent of mothers breastfeed. In contrast, only 34 percent of mothers in the UK breastfeed their infants. Initially, the UK government had minimal involvement in promoting breastfeeding.

History of Government Involvement

In modern times people from medical background immensely support and promote breast feeding and also suggest various ways that can effectively improved the breast feeding rate across the globe. History in UK not seems the same in term of promoting breast feeding by the government. Earlier as per the reliable source the breastfeeding rate in UK was 34 percent which was comparatively low as compare to other countries like Sweden that carried the breastfeeding rate of around 62 percent. Later years the government in UK has started involving to improve th breast feeding. As per the infant feeding surveys after the governmental involvement the rates of breastfeeding has reported as 76% in the year 2005 which latter on increased by 81% in 2010. In 2010 rate of breastfeeding after six weeks was 55%. All such development is breast feeding rates is all because of governmental interventions and policy framing like National Breast Feeding Helpline, Start 4 Life website, promotion of healthy start, breastfeeding friends and other associated campaign of government that has improved the breastfeeding culture in UK.

Start 4 Life Campaign

After registering the immense success of Change 4 Life campaign the government of UK has initiated the campaign call Start 4 Life Campaign (Albinsson, 2017). Start 4 Life is a marketing campaign of Public Health England to improve the health care of infants and new mother's by spreading awareness about breastfeeding in UK. This is a digital campaign that guide women and family member's to keep aware about first few weeks of child birth and even beyond to such time in respect to breastfeeding. This campaign could effectively convey the benefits of breastfeeding to all mother's and the family member's of such new mother's. The government has registered the rate of 44 percent of mother's who breastfeed the children's even after 6 to 8 weeks as a result of start 4 life breast feeding campaign (Apollonio and Glantz, 2019). Start 4 life app is an effective app because the app is easy accessible at Amazon Alexa, Google Home Assistant and Facebook messenger. Various poster's available that guide the women's about taking care of child's health.

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Government beast feeding strategy

Government in UK started initiating breast feeding with the support of Start 4 Life Breast Feeding campaign. This campaign could generate specific attention across the UK and also encouraged women's in UK to breast feed the children's (.Arant Bandy, 2017). This campaign is more like a strategical tool for the government of UK towards improving breast feeding in UK.

Health Promotion Theory

Health promotion is specified as a process to encourage people in UK towards taking care of health. It more like motivating people to put efforts towards improvement of health at both the level mental as well as physical level. To improve the effectiveness of Start 4 Life breast feeding campaign government of UK can utilise the Social Cognitive Theory of health improvement. This is an effective model that involve both proficiency and productivity (Budd and et.al., 2017).

Social Cognitive Theory: Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is an effective model to promote and improve the health care in UK. Start 4 Life breast feeding campaign is a crucial campaign strated by UK government and this model is an effective tool for the success ofn this campaign as it involve both proficiency and productivity (Connolly, Devaney and Crosse, 2017). SCT theory of health improvement cpvers various aspects such as experience of individual, actions of others and other associated environmental factors attached with health behaviour of individual. Public campaign like start 4 life breast feeding always seek public support specially of women's in the society for the success of this campaign and this SCT model will enable the government to entertain opportunities in relation to public support by instilling expectations of people, self efficiency, observational learning and various other associated reinforcement to achieve the immense public support. Several aspects of SCT theory will be projected by channelising promotional strategies to reach the general public for the success of this campaign. Various key components play as an effective tool in SCT theory that involve self efficiency, behavioural capabilities, expectations, expectancies, self control, observational learning and reinforcements. All such components together will enable the government to reach the huge success as a result of this campaign with an impactful marketing and promotional strategy.We are the best Coursework help service providers in the UK

Self efficacy: Self efficacy is a term to describe about the efficiency and effectiveness of an individual. Self efficacy is more like an ability to execute behaviour for breast feeding in the society of UK (David and et.al., 2019). Self efficacy is more specifically describe as an ability to execute various strategies involved in promotion of start 4 life breast feeding campaigns in UK to expand the reach of the campaign in the general people of the society.

Behavioural Capabilities: Behavioural capabilities play the specific role behind the success of public campaigns as this involve the personal abilities of individuals involved in campaigns to understand various levels involved in strategies and also to perform effectively various stages involved in strategies so the effectiveness of campaign can be maintained at all levels.

Expectations: Expectations is more like assessment about the expectations of people involved as a part of the campaign. Success of social campaigns also influenced by the expectations of people involved in performing actions associated with the social campaigns (Gautam and et.al., 2017). Expectations are always in the positive manner about the outcomes from the campaign of breast feeding and to involve all such expectation play the crucial role in the success as it increases the people involvement in the campaign.

Expectancies: Expectancies involve assessment about the behavioural change in the society as a result or outcome of such start 4 life breast feeding campaign. Expectancies is more analysing about the outcomes from the campaign by assessing behavioural change in the society. Expectancies can be evaluate by assessing the data about the people involvement after and before initiation of start 4 life breast feeding campaign.

Self Control: Self control involve regulation and monitor the individual behaviour about the breast feeding in UK. This stage involve in the SCT model focuses more the women's in UK Involved in the start 4 life breast feeding campaign (Karageorgos and et.al., 2018). Various actions such as approaching women over text massages, phone call and other communicational channels like social media to take a part in the campaign for enhancing the reach of the campaign. Self control also involve analysing the suitable development in breast feeding rates in UK as per the expected improvement.

Observational Learning: Observational learning involve observation and analysis about the suitable development in breast feeding across the UK as a result of such campaign. Observational learning also enable the government to assess the efficiency of different stages involved in the strategies and model like strategies related to the communication, process involved in the campaign about the breast feed, environment, culture and various other associated aspects of campaign and based on the suitable developments also observe in observational learning for improving the effectiveness of the campaign by reaching more women in UK for breast feed.

Reinforcement: Based on th outcomes attached with observational learning reinforcement process is conducted. Reinforcement is more like implementing all the suitable changes to improve the reach and effectiveness of start for life breast feeding campaign.

The Health Belief Model

Health Belief Model is an old model used in UK to improve the health care of public in society. This model enable health promotion and disease prevention program. This model is a widely used model for analysing the behavioural changes of people in health care. Aspects related to the Health Belief Model involve individual belief about the health condition or health care (Laviolette and et.al., 2016). This model also involve the perceived threat of an individual associated with sickness and diseases as a result of the start four life breast feeding campaign. Other factors involve belief of consequence, potential positive benefits of actions, perceived barrier to actions, exposure to factors that prompt actions and self efficacy. Components influence the effectiveness of the model involve as follows.

Perceived Susceptibility: Perceived susceptibility is among the major aspect of the Health Belief Model. In the process of perceived susceptibility identification related to the various threat of sickness and other threat's associated with the health of infants and mothers is analysed. Analysis about all the possible threat over health is assessed and analysed in this process. Proper medication is granted if any threat is identified in both women and infants to cure the problem.

Perceived Severity: Perceived severity involve various belief's attached with health of women and infants based on the possible consequences (Leuridan, Nunes and Jones, 2019). Various facts are channelised related to the possible consequences attached with the health of women and infant. All the possible cure is implemented to cure the possible consequences. All such consequences are analysed by the doctor's on the basis of past experiences and the recent development in the field of medication.

Perceived Benefits: Perceived benefits is an important aspect of the practices involved in health care of women and infants in respect to the breastfeeding. All the possible benefits are ascertained and analysed as a result of previous actions to cure the possible consequences over health on women and children's.

Perceived Barrier: This is a crucial process that involve identification of all the possible barriers that can be a part of an effective breast feeding campaign. Perceived barrier play the effective role in improving the efficiency of the model so more benefits can be entertained from the campaign that will also enable the governments and all other governmental body's involved in the campaign ton expand the reach of health care campaign.

Cues to Action: Cues to action is an effective process that deals with all the possible actions that can be implemented to fight with all the identified barrier in achieving the highest effectiveness of the campaign (Mackison and et.al.,2016). After analysing about all the possible barriers effective solutions identified in this process to cure such problems and issues.

Self Efficacy: Self efficacy is more like a self analytical tool about the effectiveness of the entire campaign of breast feeding to women. Self efficacy is among the crucial stages of this model as all the errors and mistakes done in implementing various stages of the campaign get identified in this process so the future campaign can achieve more better success by reaching more women's for the campaign. Evaluation enable the government's to analyse about the effectiveness of each process involved in the campaign.

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Key elements of this model:

  • Collect precise information from research to gather information related to the needs of the campaign and also to assess various risk involve behind the start 4 life breast feeding campaign. Risk is attached to the women's involve in the campaign.
  • Involving actions to overcome the negative aspects involved in the campaign.
  • Communicate with all the target population involved in the campaign about the campaign. Communication will also involve highlighting the positive aspects involved in the campaign such as all the benefits arises as a result of the campaign in women and baby's (Mandal, 2017).
  • Providing aspects to reduce the barrier involved in the campaign.
  • Implementing various skill development actions to improve the behavioural changes as a part of the campaign.

Both the theories Social Health Care and The Health Belief Model of health care is effective in different manner. The Social Cognitive theory is more precise in respect to the Start 4 life breast feeding campaign as this theory is more like a systematic approach towards running the campaign and it also enables the government to make suitable developments with the help of observational learning and reinforcement to improve the reach of the campaign in the latter stages of the campaign as well. Medial campaigns always require dynamics in process because the situations get changes time to time because of the various developments in society so the campaign must be structured in a way that possible changes can be implemented even at the latter stages of the campaign to improve the effectiveness of such campaign. In all the above respective manners Health Promotion Theory is an effective tool to run the Start 4 lef breast feeding campaign.

Stakeholders and governmental agencies involved in start 4 life campaign

Start 4 lie breast feeding campaign is among the major campaign of government in UK to improve the women health care and also to the new born babies. Breast feeding play the crucial role in the initial stages of baby's birth as it drives the growth and development of new born child. Various stakeholders will be a crucial part of this campaign that involve people in UK specially women, Department of Health in England, National Health Service (NHS) and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (.Martin, Bauld and Angus, 2017). All such entities will play the prime role in making the Health 4 life breast feeding campaign a huge success.

Breast Feeding Campaign

Government campaign start 4 life breast feeding is planned in the following manner

Start 4 Life Breastfeeding Campaign


  • To improve the breast feeding rates in UK


  • To improve awareness about the breast feeding in women and other aspects of society
  • To improve the women health care
  • To develop the health of new born children's in UK
  • To ensure the potential growth for new born children's


  • To ensure behavioural change in society towards the breastfeeding for new born children's.
  • Make people more educate about potential cure involve in initiation of growth for new born children's (Yang, 2018).
  • To keep aware people in society about maintaining the hygiene in surrounding to new born children's.
  • To give various injections to mothers to improve the immunity level.


Medical Check Up

The first stage involve in the start 4 life breast feeding campaign is to take medical check up of both mother and child (Ott-Holland, Shepherd and Ryan, 2019). Medical check up will involve every aspect of health care like heart beats, blood circulation and all other check up of both mother and child to ensure the total health care.

Critical management procedure

Written infant feeding practice. Convey about the breastfeeding stages and correct methods and techniques involved in breastfeed. This stage also involve to keep aware about the positive and negative sides of the actions. This stage will also involve data collection about medical and other statistics of mother participated in the campaign.

Key Clinical Practices

Key clinical practices involve conveying importance and management about breastfeeding with the women and other family members. This stage also involve the guiding the right techniques involved in breastfeed (Strickland-Hodge and Kennedy, 2019). Key clinical practices involve supporting women to maintain the breastfeeding while dealing with common difficulties involve in breastfeed. This stage will also enable the mother and infant to be together for 24 hours in a day. Supporting and enabling mother to get recognise and also to respond infants about cues for feeding.

Consulting Mother

Consulting mother about effective measures involve in breastfeeding to ensure the proper growth and development of children. Consulting will also involve guidance about regular health check ups for both mother and infants.

Implementation / Control

To implement all the stages involved in Start 4 life breast feeding campaign the professional team of doctors and specialist nurses has framed. All the doctors and nurses will guide the mother at every stage in the program so that all associated processes can be implemented effectively with full control. All the stages will be implemented in proper schedule and sufficient time gap is maintained in every level of the campaign so that all stages involved in the campaign can be covered effectively.


All the doctors involved in the campaign will be evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation will be implemented on every stage of the campaign so that possible changes can be implemented to improve the efficiency of the campaign at each stage. Recommendations will also be taken from the mothers and family members about the effectiveness of steps involved in the campaign (Yang, 2017).

Various stages of Start 4 Life breastfeeding campaign have summarised in the above plan. While preparing the above plan various aspects of SMART principle has evaluated. This plan is specifically for all the pregnant women's and also the mother of new born child's in UK. The results of the campaign can be measured with the guidance of doctors and family members of mother's involved in the campaign. Family members will effectively convey about all the developments as a result of the campaign. The vision and mission set in the campaign is achievable with an effective marketing strategy that can convey all the aspects of the campaign effectively to the mother's and family members of such mother's and pregnant women's. All targets set in the campaign are relevant and practical in respect to medical efficiency in UK. Specific time has implemented for all the processes involved in the campaign. Evaluation about the effectiveness of the campaign will provide a reasonable scope to the government and other associated stakeholders involved in the campaign to implement possible changes for the better efficiency of future campaigns associated under start 4 life breastfeeding campaign (Swenson, Bastian and Nembhard, 2016).

Breastfeeding rate of first 8 weeks

Breastfeed rate is specified as the percentage of infants that are totally or in partially breastfed at the age of 8 weeks. Initially as per the reliable source the mother's in UK who breastfeed the child is approximately more than 70% that reduces week by week. At the end of 8 week the women in UK who breastfeed is around 42% (Watt, Cornelsen, Beckert and Smith, 2019). Campaigns like Start 4 life breastfeeding has improved the culture of breastfeed in UK and the government could witness the improvement in breastfeed even after the 8 weeks. Campaign has also improved the awareness of people that positively influenced the health of new born children's and also the mother of such infants. Government campaigns has guided the mothers to improve the immunity system after giving birth to children's that positively influenced the health of such mothers.


This report concludes about the government in UK involvement in the breastfeeding campaigns runs in UK. Various policies and strategies such as start 4 life breast feeding campaign and other campaigns to improve the awareness of people in UK about the women breast feeding by projecting benefits attached with the campaign. This report also concludes about how the rate of breastfeeding in UK has improved as a result of such campaigns runs by government in UK. Various theories like social cognitive theory and other theories has concluded that can improve the effects of start 4 life breast feeding campaign of government. This report has concluded the suitability of Social cognitive theory in respect to UK government breast feeding campaign as this theory covers all the major aspects of campaign such as evaluation of campaign, reinforcement of campaign and other benefits that can effectively improve the efficiency of the campaign. Various agencies of government that was a part of start 4 life campaign has concluded in this report. Suitable communication strategy has also concluded that covers all the aspect of campaign by conveying the benefits of the campaign with target women's and family's in UK. This report also concludes about the data of breast feeding till 8 weeks of child age. Effective measures are also concluded to measure the effectiveness of the campaign like by taking views of family and other suitable techniques.

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