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Physiological Principles For Health & Social Care

University: Queen Mary University of London

  • Unit No: 14
  • Level: Diploma
  • Pages: 5 / Words 1247
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 82329

Principles For Health And Social Care


Health and social care provider offer integrated services to the people. These integrated services falls under the area of health and social care. It includes the elements related to sociology, nutrition, law, biology and ethics. Physiological health and social care include the care services that aim at improving the basic functions of human body (Bernard, 2005). The physical, bio-electrical, mechanical and bio-chemical functions of humans in good health constitute the human physiology. It also includes the organ as well as cellular systems that make up these functions. Human physiological health is related to the proper functioning of organs and systems. This project report provides information on the structure and functioning of human body. The relationship between the body functioning and anatomy and physiology has been discussed. The report provides information on the ways that are used by the body for coordinating its internal activities Assignment help.

Health And Social Care

LO1: Know The Structure And Functioning Of Human Body

Cellular Metabolism

A number of chemical reactions are carried out by the cell in order to function properly. Energy is needed for all these reactions to take place. This energy is derived by the plant cells from the process of photosynthesis. The source of energy for animals is the process of aerobic respiration. The chemical process occurring within all living cells is cellular metabolism.

ATP production is the goal of all metabolic systems. The process of conversion of food into ATP involves breakdown of food into basic units (Curtis, 2009). This includes the breakdown of proteins into amino acids, polysaccharides into glucose etc. This step is known as digestion. Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose into ATP. During this process two pyruvate molecules are produced. These pyruvates produced in glycolysis are further broken down in the process of aerobic respiration. In this process oxygen is required and energy is produced.

 C 6 H12 O+ 6 O ------> 6 CO + 6 H2O + energy (ATP)

There are two processes involved in aerobic respiration. They are the Kreb’s cycle and the Electron transport chain.  Krebs’s cycle involves conversion of pyruvate molecules into ATP. The Kreb’s cycle delivers protons to the electron transport chain. These protons perform the function of providing energy that facilitates the pumping of hydrogen protons across inner mitochondrial membrane to the outer compartment (Goodier, 2009). This results in the production of a free energy potential due to the high concentration of the hydrogen protons. The hydrogen protons move down the concentration gradient. Through the process of phosphorylation the free energy of hydrogen protons id utilized to form ATP.

Homeostasis of internal fluid environment through excretion

Constant conditions in the internal environment of the body are maintained through the process of homeostasis. Relatively constant conditions are maintained in the body by the functions performed by all organs and tissues.

There are two stages involved in the transportation of extra-cellular fluid through all the body parts (Gorsky and Stepanov, 2000). The first stage includes the movement of blood through the body in the blood vessels. In the second stage, the movement of fluid occurs between the blood capillaries and the intercellular spaces between the tissue cells. During the process of picking up oxygen by the blood in the lungs, the lung alveoli release the carbon dioxide into the blood. Carbon dioxide is carried to the atmosphere through the in and out movement of the air through the lungs. Hence lungs help in the removal of carbon dioxide.

During the passage of blood through the kidneys, removal of other substances such as urea and uric acid from the plasma occurs (Schulkin, 2003). The excess of ions and water that might have accumulated in the extra-cellular fluid are also removed. The substances needed by the body are reabsorbed by the kidneys. The substances that are not required by the body are removed in the form of urine (Vargas and et.al., 2009). Hence continuous mixing of the extracellular fluid occurs in every part of the body which maintains homogeneity throughout the body.

Role of Endocrine system in cellular metabolism

Different types of hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream by the glands that comprise the Endocrine system. These hormones are chemical messengers that are transported by the blood throughout the body (Johnson, 2012). Response is generated when the target organs or cells are stimulated by these hormones. Metabolism, tissue function, growth and development etc. are regulated by the hormones.

  1. For example, adrenal cortex secretes hormones that promote sodium re-absorption by kidneys.
  2. For example, the hormone secreted by thyroid gland control the rate at which the fuel is burnt by body cells for producing energy.

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Abnormal growth

Two examples of abnormal growth are:

  • Hypopituitarism- It is the abnormality in which there is decreased secretion of the hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland. Agromegaly or enlargement of hands and feet occurs if the Hypopituitarism is due to a growth hormone producing tumor (Geetha and Herbein, 2000).
  • Cushing’s syndrome- In this slow body growth and excessive gain of body weight occurs due to the excess secretion of the cortisol hormone.


The various organ systems of the human body help in its normal functioning. All these organ systems are interrelated and interdependent. Abnormalities occur if any one or more body systems do not function properly (Johnson, 2012). The routine data collected in this respect helps in forming a care plan for the patient suffering from any abnormalities. Various tests help in measuring and diagnosing various abnormalities. After that care planning can be done for the patient.


  • Ashwell, M., 2005. Waist to height ratio and the Ashwell shape chart could predict the health risks of obesity in adults and children in all ethnic groups. Nutrition and Food Science. 35(5). pp.359–364.
  • Bernard., H., 2005. Semantic modelling of biological sub-systems by a multilevel control structure concept. Kybernetes 14 (2). pp.93–99.
  • Chaturvedi, R. and Singh, N., 2013. Nutritional Factors as Catalyst for Weight Reduction. Nutrition and Food Science. 43(5).
  • Chi, L. and Kennon, R., 2006. Body scanning of dynamic posture. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology. 18(3). pp.166–178.
  • Curtis, L., 2009. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy. Reference Reviews. 23(1). pp.44–45.
  • Esmeray. A., 2004. "Impact of Environment on Cardiovascular Diseases". Environmental Management and Health. 5(3). pp.13–16.
  • Geetha., C. J., Herbein., H.J., 2000 "“Healthier” dairy fat using trans-vaccenic acid", Nutrition & Food Science. 30(6). pp.304–309.
  • Goodier, J., 2009. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Atlas of Anatomy. Reference Reviews. 23(2). pp.38–39.
  • Gorsky., Y.M. and Stepanov., A.M., 2000. Homeostatics: science of the twenty-first century. Kybernetes. 29( 9/10). pp.1150–1165.
  • Johnson, J. G., 2012. Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Reference Reviews. 26(3). pp.42–43.
  • Suzuki, T. and et.al. 2002. A Process Model for Deciding Elderly Care. Asian Journal on Quality. 3(1). pp.145–152.

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