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Lifecycle Development

University: ARU London

  • Unit No: 13
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 14 / Words 3535
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: MOD005912
  • Downloads: 341
Question :

This Sample will let you know about:

  • What is Life Cycle Development?
  • Discuss different stages of life cycle development?
  • Discuss important theories related to life cycle development.
Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Life cycle development begins from the very beginning of infancy to different stages of life. It includes the concept of age related changes which occurs in human body from birth, throughout the life of an individual, into and during the period of old age. However, the stages of development during the whole life consist infancy, childhood, adolescence early adulthood, middle age and older age.

It is necessary for an individual that physical and psychological development should take place which is important for their healthy condition (Goh and Sun, 2016). Meanwhile, it is observed that major changes can be determined in the stage of infancy and adulthood in a person. In context of this report, it is based on the case scenario of Moore family that is known for Children's services for around 12 years.

It includes two kids named Barry and Jacob who came from a large family of age nine and six years old. Their parents are Elaine and Michael but these children are suffering from learning disabilities along with having behavioural & emotional difficulties. Elaine and Michael are heavy drinkers and kids ever witness their father to physical abuse their mother due to which their care become worse. This assignment has a purpose to focus on various stages of life cycle with needs and relevant theories.

Definitions for life cycle development

Life cycle development can be described as set of changes occur in various stages of life in an individual. It includes number of stages in which changes can be observed such as prenatal development, infancy & toddler-hood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood and old age. However, it involves various kinds of modifications like physical, emotional, psychological and cognitive. People learn about their surroundings, environment, culture and social relationships (Nitschelm and et. al., 2016). It is observed that major changes can be identified during the period of adolescence when development take place and several physical changes are easily visible accordingly. Get Online Assignment Writing Help !

Identify and discuss each stage development of Jacobs life cycle

Life stages consist developing changes in an individual during the entire lifestyle. It includes the development of a person in terms of social, emotional, cognitive and physical development which is responsible for occurring in different stages. In context of Jacob, there are number of changes which take place that are defined here. 

Early childhood (Birth to eight years) -

This stage of Jacob includes a duration of tremendous growth within overall fields of development of an child. It is mostly depends upon the newborn grows into a young individual who is capable in taking care of their own body. Meanwhile, it includes their learning of interacting with another people in an effective manner (Mostavi, Asadi and Boussaa, 2017). It has been analysed that skills is known be primary developmental task of this stage.

 Social development: The social aspects of development contains sense of gender identification and sense of right or wrong along with taking perspectives of others.

 Emotional development: The child has develop the feeling of attachment and able to make relationship with peers.

 Cognitive development: This involves development of fine-motor skills of kids in terms of demonstrating better control of crayons, pencils and scissors. It consist the developing language & sense to responding atmosphere and analyse actions or response of their care givers.

 Physical development: It includes the change in height and weight a from birth to 3 years age, the height become double and weight become quadruples. The body of Jacob become more balanced and adult like appearance observed. Basically, it includes several skills related to walking, toilet training, using spoon, scribbling, sitting and much sufficient coordination of hand -eye in regards to throw or catch the ball.

Middle childhood (eight to twelve years) -

This stage of life is not consider as an important stages in terms of human development (Hauschild, Rosenbaum and Olsen, 2018). It is known as latency stage of Jacob during which sexual and aggressive urges repressed and main task of this duration is integration.

 Social development: It involves the creating sense of establishing inter personal and social relationships with other people in society.

 Emotional development: A child can develop emotions as they get influenced by family and friend in strong way.

 Cognitive development: Children can gain learning skills in order to carry out classification as well as formulation of hypothesis.

 Physical development: The physical development is slow and steady.

 Adolescence (twelve to eighteen years) -

This stages of Jacob consist development in several aspects such as physiological, cultural and cognitive manner.

 Social development: It consist the the development of love and belongingness in which a person desires friendship, intimacy, family and sense of connection.

 Emotional development: This consist strong feelings an d intense emotions due to which moods become unpredictable. It includes conflicts due to lots of emotional ups and downs happen (Petti, Serreli and Di Cesare, 2018).

 Cognitive development: This involves the sexual maturation which is known to be a major significant develop that take place in this stage.

 Physical development: This physical changes also occurs which are clearly visible and that takes place due to hormonal changes in human body.

 Erickson stages of child development:

This theory is helpful to understand different stages of life regarding development of Jacob in his entire life-cycle which is given below.

 Stage 1: Infancy (Trust vs Mistrust) - This includes age from birth to 12 months when Jacob learn to trust adults when they fulfil child need of survival.

 Stage 2: Early (Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt) - In this, toddler stage occurs with age between 1-3 years when they have state to explore their world and learn to control their actions.

 Stage 3: Preschool (Initiative Vs Guilt) - It consist age between 3 to 6 years which they have ability to initiate activities and asserting control over social interactions.

 Stage 4: School age (Industry Vs Inferiority) - In this, age is 6 to 12 years when Jacob begin to compare himself with peers.

 Stage 5: Adolescence (Identity Vs Role confusion) - This consist age among 12 to 18 years when sense of self developed and adolescents struggle occurs.

 Stage 6: Young Adulthood (Intimacy Vs Isolation) - This includes the duration of 20 to 40 years when a person can share their life with others.

 Stage 7: Middle Adulthood (Generativity Vs Stagnation) - This includes age of after 40s which consist findings of life's work and developing other people.

 Stage 8: Maturity (Ego integrity vs despair) - This stage consist mid to 60s when a person feel about either satisfaction or failure in life.

Explain the concept of nature and nurture in relation to Jacob and his siblings' development

 The concept of nature and nurtures refers to an aspects of behaviour that are influence by inherited or acquired influences. Nature is affiliated by genetic inheritance & biological facto9rs whereas nurture is all about external factors like life experience, product of exposure and learning.

In context of Jacob and his sibling, their behaviour get influenced by attempt of their parents that they have seen their father to physical abuse their mother. They both are heavy drinkers due to which one of them is drug addicted and other one has been suffered from depression (Vijayakumar and Arun, 2017). This may influence their development of Jacob and their siblings. Do you want Assignment Example ? talk to our Experts !

Definitions of needs

Needs can be defined as a kind of motivational force which is responsible for compelling an action regarding its satisfaction. It includes the range of needs which begin from basic survival desirers satisfied through necessities, to cultural, intellectual and social requirements. Meanwhile, needs can be classified into several categories physiological needs, safety, love or belonging, esteem and need of self-actualisation.

Identify and discuss theories of needs

 Maslow theory of needs was primarily developed by Abraham Maslow in the year around 1943 which is also known as Hierarchy of need theory. It includes proper classical depiction of motivating human being. However, the elements of this theory are mention here.

Physiological needs - This involves basic needs of an individual such as food, water, breathing, clothing, homoeostasis etc. which are known to be vital for survival. It includes primary requirements of a person regarding nutrition, air and regulation of temperature (Tian and et. al., 2017). However, this level consist the aspects of sexual reproduction because it can be consider as a necessary factor in regards to survival as well as propagation of the species.

Safety needs - This is known as second level of Maslow needs in which security requirements are required that become primary. It involves the want of an individual regrading control and order in their lives which requires safety & security contributing at great context towards behaviours. It consist the health & wellness, safety against injury & accidents and financial security.

 Social needs - The term social needs refers to several factors like love, acceptance and belongingness in society which is known as requirements emotional relationships that is responsible for driving human behaviour of an individual (Tao and et. al., 2016). It includes need of romantic attachments, family, social groups, community groups, churches & religious organisations and friendships.

 Esteem needs - This consist the criterion of self respect, personal worth and autonomy which is require by every individual in their life.

 Self actualisation needs - The need of self actualisation refers to self awareness and concern of a person regarding their personal growth along with less concerned with views of another people. It includes to focus on their own capabilities and skills for further improvements to acquire more potential to achieve growth as well as success in life.

Outline theories concerning identity including race or culture or disability

 Critical disability theory can be explained as a kind of interdisciplinary ad diverse set of theoretical approaches in terms of analysing disability as historical, relative, social, political and cultural phenomenon. It is responsible for scrutinise mental impairments rather than bodily issue whereas social regulation describe specific attributes as damage and social condition focussed in stigmatized dimensions in particular group of people.

In addition to this, the theory of critical disability is responsible about critique of traditional assumptions & discourses of disability that are serving for oppress individuals suffer from disability as well as infringe for their human eights. However, it has been analysed that this theory was established on the basis of specific concept i.e. disability is not fundamentally question of health or medicine, nor is it just a problem of compassion & sensitivity, rather than this, it can be power & politics, power over and power to.

Discuss Jacob's needs, why it is a need and the consequences of his needs not being met

In context of Jacob, he is suffering from problem of diabetes which is responsible for developing their physical need of gaining proper medications. This need is required to met immediately by providing appropriate care and medical facility for maintain sugar level balanced along with improving entire health condition (Ding, Xiao and Tam, 2016). However, if this need will not met then it child will feel weak and become unconscious which has severe impact on entire well-being.

On the other hand, another need is special education because they have problem of learning disabilities which is required to be address by effective techniques. It includes the use of strategy of break learning into small steps, administer probes, supply regular, use diagrams, infographic & pictures, model instructional practices etc. However, if this need will not met then it will impact negatively on skills and abilities of Jacob which create problem for him in future life.

Analyse how Jacobs needs are interrelated and how these needs relate to his future development

The need of Jacob includes his problem of diabetes and learning disability which impact negatively on his future if not addressed. It includes the side effects of diabetes of left untreated then it will create complicated condition of high sugar level in blood. However, it is also affect the capability of human body in terms of producing insulin which is very essential to manage sugar level in body (von der Thannen and et. al., 2020).

In addition to this, untreated diabetes can develop extreme complexities such as risk of occurring stroke, loss conscious, extreme thirst, visual disturbances, sweet-smelling breath, cataracts & glaucoma, risk of heart disease, fatigue & lack of energy, risk of infections, high blood pressure, gastroparesis, pancreas function, excessive urination, protein in the urine, damaged blood vessels, ketoacidosis, nerve damage, dry or cracked skin and foot problem.

Overall these problem may occur which interrupt the future development of Jacob which influence his life in future. Moreover, the problem of learning disability make Jacob unable to acquire innovative skills and capabilities which create difficulties in future. He will not bale to get employment and suffer to fulfil basic needs in future.

Discuss the socio-economic status of the family and how this may impact on their needs

 The socio-economic status of Jacob is not well because his parents are not stable due to their habit of heavy drinking and drug addiction. It includes their background of white English and Jacob are 6 siblings in total whose care become worse due to unstable of condition of their parents.

His mother was suffered from bouts of depression and face physical abuse that is witnessed by their children. This impact on their needs as psychological development of kids get influenced by such environment and requires proper care due to which local authority took responsibility of providing care to the children.

How does the theory explain what has happened to the Moore family and Jacob in particular?

 According to the Piaget's theory of cognitive development, it consist number of stages such as sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational  and formal operational. These stages are related to different duration of age of an individual. However, these stages and relevant development in context of Jacob is given below.

The Sensorimotor Stage - This consist duration from birth to 2 years of age which major features as well as developmental changes are takes place. It includes that an infant become aware about surrounding world and relevant sensations and movements (Current, Upton and Long, 2019). However, a child is responsible for learning about several aspects like basic actions including grasping, looking, listening and sucking. Meanwhile, infants can gain learning about those things which exists continuously and separately existing people around them. Additionally, they realise things can happen by their actions in surroundings.

 The Pre-operational Stage - This stage includes duration of age between 2 to 7 years of age  when they start to make their thoughts in symbolic way along with learning for utilising pictures & words for representing objects. It consist the fact that kids tend to remain egocentric ad well as struggling to see objects from the perspective of other people (MÃ¥rtensson and Westerberg, 2016). Basically, children tend to think in a concrete manner when they get better understanding of thinking as well as language.

 The Concrete Operational Stage - It consist the stage age of 7 to 11 years when children start to think in logical manner regarding concrete events. It involves the criterion of understanding the concept of conservation to analyse that amount of liquid is equal in short, wide cup and tall, skinny glass. Meanwhile, kids become capable to make their thinking better in manner of logic and reasoning from particular data to a general principle.

 The Formal Operational Stage - This refers to stage of 12 years and above when an individual is facing their adolescent condition and think abstractly. It includes the abstract thought emerges and child become a teenager along with start thinking in relation to philosophical, ethical, social, political and moral problems which needs abstract as well as theoretical reasoning (Hallstedt, 2017). They have started utilisation of deductive logic or reasoning from a general principle for particular data.

In context of Jacob, he did not get proper care because his parents were not stable due to their habits as they had not take care of their children. Jacob was suffering from diabetes for which child did not get medication and care on time which impact on his development. Get Psychology Assignment Help Online.

What are the flaws or drawbacks with chosen theory?

There are several drawbacks of Piaget's theory which are mentioned here. Initially, it has a demerit that research methods used were not reliable and it was also formed from a biased sample. It includes that author underestimated capabilities of children and rather than this most of kids posses skills as earlier age than he believed. Meanwhile, it is observed that few of children can view other perspective only but they are not egocentric. It has been analysed that some of kids belongs in more than one stage. This theory as another disadvantage that it does not consider upbringing of a child and do not take their ability of learning at different rates into account (Kamali and Hewage, 2016). In addition to this, it includes that it does not consider learning disabilities and based on small group of kids. Moreover, it consist the drawback that this theory of child development does not consider the factor of providing support by an adult so that child can progress their development at higher level of thinking skills. 

Does the theory consider all aspects of Jacob's development?

Considering the facts given by selected theory, it has been analysed that development occurs in different stages of life. In context of Jacob, this given theory did it consider all the aspects of their development because it is not focused in support of adults for acquiring skills and development. However, the child get influenced due to lack of support by his parents which impact negatively on entire developing aspects like social, emotional, physical and cognitive because he did not get supported in terms of addressing the problem of diabetes as well as learning disabilities. Moreover, when local authority take responsibility of Jacob and his siblings for providing appropriate care which may improve their overall condition.

Discuss how the theory may or may not help professionals at the strategic meeting in coming to a decision on the future of Jacob and the Moore children.

The Piaget theory is helpful to professionals as they can understand the needs of children through analysing desired development at every stage of life. It is helpful to evaluate the areas which are not developed at specific stage of life in order treat that issue properly (Ghaisas, 2016). However, when the local authority took responsibility or Jacob and shift him to Moore children for gaining desired care which impact positively on them. The theory is helpful to professionals terms of understanding about ways of supporting them so that physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of these kids take place in appropriate manner.


From the above report, it has been summarised that life cycle development can be described as age related changes which occurs in human body from birth, throughout the life of an individual, into and during the period of old age.

It includes different needs of an individual such as physiological, safety, self esteem, love & belongingness and self actualisation need. However, it consist the different stages of development like sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational and formal operational stage. Moreover, it has been recommended that adult support is important for development which should be ensured by individuals connected with care of children to facilitate their appropriate development.

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