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Evolution of Management Theory & Practice

University: University of Chester

  • Unit No: 4
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 8 / Words 2094
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 255
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss about the different types of managerial practices.
  • Discuss about the Management theory.
Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Management theory is defined as collection of rule which guide managers for managing organisation (Berger and et. al., 2016). These theories explains and assist employees for business goal and implementing means to achieve it in effective and efficient manner. Moreover, management theory and practice focus on providing concise and clear introduction to all theories and practices of management that is required through studying subject matter or course. It is very important to study about theories of management so that proper planning and organising can be done in effective and efficient manner. The main aim of report is to discuss about evolution of management practice before industrial revolution took place and early development of practices in context of scientific discipline during industrial revolution. This has discussed about growing sophistication of management practice in post-industrial era.


Management is defined as process of proper planning, organising, directing, staffing, controlling each and every activities and operations in order to achieve goal and objectives for sustainability and profitability of business (Bowen, 2016). In respect of this, different theories and practices are related with management which has originated before industrial revolution took place at market. It is very important to analyse as well as assessed each and every theories in order to understand them in better manner that assist in developing proper usage and application before using those in practical aspects. In regards to this, the different theorist has studied as well as presented work in context to applications within organisation in that time period or era. Out of those, some theories has applied and implemented in different organisations in current time which is part of management practices. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

It is very important to understand management practices in proper manner before industrial revolution took place at environment. Prior to this, such concept was not existence within businesses. This is due to entrepreneur during that time handling the operations and functions such as planning, organising, controlling, staffing, directing and resource allocation. Moreover, apart from such organisations like church, large construction, military, trading, agriculture, manufacturing were focused on slave labour as they could not recognised and used managerial practices in their business for better outcomes.

Within that time period, Adam Smith had played an effective role in using perspective of management practices within businesses, masses. Adam Smith is regarded as father of Economics, who observed that there requires speciality within labour forces to rise business productivity and profitability (Adam Smith, 2016). Also, he views about specialisation is important to ensure about effective and efficient use of material resources, human and others at manufacturing units. For such purpose, he gave good concept of Division of Labour or Labour Division. As per this approach, activities and tasks should be separated within economic system to ensure about specialisation within working force or participants. This assist in enhancement of efficiency of labours along with productivity at business. Therefore, it represents that origins as well as inception of management has existed in business, country, organisation and firm which has initiated for division of labour force or work force on basis of capabilities, skills and specialisation that contributed in rising efficiency and effectiveness of productivity within organisation at particular time period.

After the end of mid 1700's, it has found that United Kingdom witnessed their first revolution of industries at textile business of nation. In this, it has viewed that transformation took place in production system from hand to machine in factories (Chenhall and Moers, 2015). The inventions like Spinning Jenny as well as steam engines creates positive aspects on production of threads and transporting goods from one place to another to do proper trading business. In addition to this, management concept has changed from time, for producing new products means gaining more labour as well as organisation scales, also owner of business depends on others who are regarded as Agents in economists and Manager in other aspects. The main focus to implement such practices is for individuals who were connected with execution of doing mass production and managing different solutions such as labour specialisation, quality control, process standardisation, workforce planning and so on.

During such era, various theories were helping and creating effective and appropriateness for business to achieve goal and objectives (Mahadevan, 2015). For instance, Fredrick Winslow Taylor has came with usage of different theories for large business. There were four main scientific management principles which were provided by Taylor to enhance productivity at workplace in positive manner. The theories includes Harmony, not cord; Science, not rule of thumb; Cooperation, not individualism; Mental revolution and development of every people to high level in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. These principles of management focused on improving management practices at organisation for positive results.

The other aspects which are analysing during industrial revolution is important where management concept has grow and become part of scientific discipline. It has been said by management theorists such as FW Taylor and other as individual focus on viewing management more in terms of scientific phenomena that business practices. In this context, another theory was developed by Douglas McGregor who gave Theory X and Theory Y to nations in best manner. Under this theory, manager of organisation has put strict rules as well as regulations for their working force at business place. Similarly, on other aspect, managers having Theory Y focus on providing freedom to their employees and working force s that they feel motivated and give their best performance. This has concluded that such provided information assist in developing scientific principle at time of industrial revolution by considering each and every facts perceived from respective theory and helping business to manage each and every work in diligent manner. The other aspect or reason to develop such scientific disciple was because of practising different techniques which mainly focus on production consistency, predictability, lack of variation within business and so on. The main objective is to optimised output through use of inputs properly so that maximum gain can be achieved.

The present era of industrial revolution is to experience role of military at management so that they can perform their roles and responsibility accordingly (Novicevic, Jones and Carrahar, 2015). For instance, both statistical and mathematical data were collected and acquired that formed part of inception of Operation Management along with that it was effective approach to develop organisation with help of proper management in effectual manner. Order assignment help from our experts!

This industrial revolution possess impact on management concept and implementing those at huge organisation at that time (Pyszczynski, Solomon and Greenberg, 2015). Effects were witnessed after long time period when it was over. For example, current business came with existence that implemented work within setting of factory in which resources are specialised and managed through managers. At the time of post industrial revolution, other theory given by Peter Drucker came into existence that focus on providing various roles as well as functions of managers in context of organisation setting. The main roles includes setting as well as planning objectives of organisation, forming groups within workplace, communicating & motivating employees, measuring performance and developing people along with including manager too. Such roles helped to direct effectiveness of workplace as well as increasing employees potentiality within business. Therefore, respective theory focused on organisation structure design which is related to and aligned with goal and objectives of organisation. It is very important for business to manage each and every work, activities and operations in coordinated and effective manner to gain positive results.

Moreover, the different types of managerial practices came into organisation after properly defining and clearly mentioning roles of manager at business (Rajeev and et. al., 2017). Out of this, first practice of management is called motivation which is defined as encouragement that is given to working force to achieve goal as well as objectives of organisation. In this regard, one of the theory was formed by Fredrick Herzberg named as Motivational and Hygiene or two factor theory. The main aim of this approach is describing different factors which helps in motivating employees at workplace in effective manner. As most of the theories focused on individuals but this focused upon work performance of employees.

In regards with this, another approach such as structured as well as segregated was witnessed under management concept that form part of post industrial revolution in order to enhance technologies of business, labour market, capacity of production within country (Strand and Freeman, 2015). It also answer the question why management transformed through huge competency aspect which was due to urbanisation. It caused growth of commercialisation, hiring new and skilled employees as well as development of industrial technology. Therefore, in order to know about coordination among each and every factors, enhancement of position of managers, significant of management within nation.

In this aspect, post industrial revolution focus on growth and development of functional business (Zafirova, 2016). There were many companies who focused on role and importance of human resources within business place for attainment of goal as well as objectives in an effective and efficient manner. After this, concept of Human Resource Management came into practice for business where they applied for setting of goal, job descriptions and reviewing performance of organisation. The main objectives of respective practices is to target employees performance standard at workplace and enhancing it to increase productivity as well as profitability of business in best possible manner.

In order to work in organisation, different types of operation management practices are formed such as lean principle, six sigma, Total Quality Management (TQM) which has several roles, responsibilities, agenda that assist in directing business to increase their efficiency as well as quality of offering made by them. Also, such techniques are essential for scientific and statistical approach which should be used by manager in order to work in proper manner and satisfy all criteria set through respective practices. These practices focused on attainment of competitive advantages from marketplace. Industrial revolution has open different scope for businessman, entrepreneur to enhance their business in each and every sector such as banking, agriculture, industrial and many more. There is competition among all industries which has emerged to force organisation to rise their practices of management so that they can grab market opportunities and remain competitive at marketplace and attain goal and objectives in better manner.Ask for dissertation writing services from our experts!

The other management practices which has shown light to business with post industrial revolution is department and hierarchies at firm to make work easy and simple (Zander, McDougall-Covin and Rose, 2015). The large scale business possess multiple functions which needed to be managed properly and required many managers for different functions and departments. Also the hierarchies has started to implement companies as per business nature, distinguished from several departments, managers and roles which should be played by them in an effective and efficient manner. This help to carry out business activities and operation through skilled and capable employees.

The above mentioned practices as well as theories overview emergence, origin, growth and development of management concept at the time, during and post industrial revolution. Each and every factors presented are very much important as well as applicable within management of companies and contributing for development and growth of commercialisation and business at United Kingdom. This also serve in other place and countries at marketplace to conduct business activities and operations in effective and efficient manner.


From the mentioned report, it has summarised that management theory and practices is very essential and significant for both organisation as well as individuals in order to understand, apply according to context of business. In respect of this, there is growth and development of management practices and concept before, during and after industrial revolution which enables to acquire more practices at marketplace. There is change in aspects from time to time that assist business to achieve goal and objectives in an effective and efficient manner. The different theories has been provided with change in time and situation of business market. These changes should be adopted by entrepreneur, businessman for attainment of productivity, profitability of business for positive outcomes.

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