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Evolution of Management Theory & Practices

University: University of Chester

  • Unit No: 2
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 8 / Words 2036
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 279
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • What is Management Theory and Practice?
  • Discuss about the Scientific Management Theory.
Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Management Theory and Practice are internal for running an organization effectively and meeting the goal and objective of business. Leader and manager must lay emphasis on using the management theories and practices into business at workplace so that they could gain huge success.

Industrial Revolution is also known as First Industrial Revolution, was transition of new processes of manufacturing in United States and Europe. It was from period about 1760 to between 1820-1840. The above report includes theoretical and factual understanding of management practices before Industrial revolution. Report ends with discussion of early development of the management practices as scientific discipline during Industrial revolution and management practices in post-industrial.


Management theories and practices helps company to focus, evolve and communicate. Leadership can focus on major goal by using this management theories to workplace. Implementation of management theory or style indicates top priorities for organizations. The theories allow company to communicate better with employees and thus they can work more efficiently. The one particular management theory couldn't be fit to all situation in a company. It is necessary for an organization to explores options of developing new theory which would lead in more applicable and new directions.

From late 1700s through early 1900s, industrial revolution has been through extraordinary changes to workplaces and had forever transformed way companies operate their business. The industrial revolution had brought a faster and better technology tends organizations to perform efficiently than before and render them ability to enhance their outputs. Hence, rise in outputs mean as low pricing that increase demands so the need of employees has been enhanced. Organizations which had a dozen of employees are growing into the gigantic corporation. It was not possible for a manager to know its employees on the personal level. For meeting the demand, leaders of company must ensure that their employees are to be productive. The productive goals could be easily set, but along with that managing a team which can meet productivity goal is not so simple. So firstly, a manager need to found innovative and new way to motivate & encourage their employees to perform. However, new concept, observation, research, experiment, errors and trails all were utilized for finding better way for managing employee. Industrial revolution had given birth to some management theory which have developed since at the end of industrial revolution as society continue to evolve. Every management theory has an essential role in the modern management theory and its implementation.. Order assignment help from our experts!

Theoretical understanding of management practice before the industrial revolution-

Industrial revolution was the period of industrialization and innovations which took place during late 1700s and early 1800s. It was begun in the Great Britain and then further spread throughout world. This time shows mechanization of the textile manufacturing and agriculture along with revolution in railroads, power, steamships which had impacted cultural, social and economic condition (Hartwell, 2017). The Industrial Revolution occurred around 200 year ago, that period had left profound effect on how individual lives and way businesses are being operated. Factory system has been developed during the time of industrial revolution which are responsible for formation of capitalism and modern cities of present.

Before revolution, most American were depended on farming and were living in the widespread rural community. During ancient time and for long period in medieval era, the production was done by the skilled craftsmen and artisans. They own instrument and tool by their own, produce article and sell these into market further. All activities are managed by themselves with the help of their family member. There is no relationship among employee or employer and servant or master (Hirshleifer and Teoh, 2019). After the long period of training, many of the apprentices were established their enterprises, and many had remained attached with master craftsmen. During medieval period, skilled craftsmen had developed their guild primarily with view of protecting interest of the respective trade. This guild had determined price of their goods, wages of hired labourer and journeymen, along with regulated term a condition of the employment. Ancient and main part of medieval period had proved prevalence of the certain distinct variety of the labourers. This comprises serfs, slaves and indentured labourer (Fleischman and Parker, 2017). But with the advancement of factories, people began working for organization that are located in urban area for first time.

Discussion of early development of the management practice as scientific discipline during industrial revolution and the management practices in post industrialization-

During the early development of management practices during industrialization, there is advancement of technologies and factories. People began to work with companies in urban areas for first time. Often wage were low with harsh condition. The production efficiency has been enhanced during Industrial Revolution with the invention that are steam engine. This is useful in reducing the time for manufacturing goods. Efficient production significantly reduce price for the product, due to low labour cost and thus opening marketing door for new level of the customer. The Industrial Revolution has also led to invention which includes telephone, sewing machine, light bulb, X-ray and combustible engine. This had created a hike in employment opportunities. The factories become widespread, additional manager and employees are needed to operate machinery. During the revolution, the way how companies are being operating their business has been changed significantly. The pioneers in management theory could be differed how they believed to be changed and operated. Six management theories and principles are being explored which is helpful in developing base for management (Peters, 2017). Now some theories and practices are common to understand but at that time it was groundbreaking. Hence, Industrial Revolution has implemented change in the new theories, and more & more innovations had come in decade which are followed by organization who are adopting to fulfil business needs.

The Scientific Management Theory was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1909. This theory state that it is important to find effective ways to complete the and every task, no matter how big or small it is. In early 1990s, manager would give order to their employees with no guidance on how it can be accomplished. But Taylor believed that everyone must be assigned with particular job which is based on their abilities and skills and should be based on quality and quantity of their work (Heaton, 2017). This today it is the common sense for every employer that training and development is to given to employees. It is very essential for company to train and monitor employee on task which are assigned to them. They are ensuring that employees are efficient at their work, high output will be gained with high quality. Most of the companies nowadays offers employees opportunities and advancement, thus this had huge impact on way company operate their business. By this can develop balanced pay system, efficient workforce and better training (Waring, 2016).

The Administrative management theory was introduced by Henri Fayol in 1990s. They fourteen principles are being developed which outline basis for the successful and strong companies. It mainly focuses in company's whole structure as whole. So thus it states the clear labour division, that ensure each employee had to report one direct manager and healthy employee-manager relationships. This is helpful for every company to be aligned by their organizational goals. Now it has been proved that structure of company is important for success and its productivity (Yan and Luo, 2016). These principles are popularly followed by companies today also and are effectively used for maintaining better management in their organization. Companies are gaining huge success by implementing this principle into organizational structure so that huge productivity could be gained by company significantly. The Human Relation Management Theory revolves around human relationship and interaction.Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

It has been believed by Elton Mayo that all early management theory had focused on how money can effect performance of employees. It has been stated that there are some factor which influence how worker performed and behaved at work. The daily interaction with employee across whole process motivate employees to work more efficiently and thus output can be enhanced. Employees are allowed to share their opinions, success and frustration which led employee feel valued by company. Employees are monitored and motivated for performing on the higher level (Bowen, 2016). Thus, it is very essential for companies to maintain a relationship among employees so that they could enhance their productivity. Companies are now more concentrating to motivate and encourage their employees through the process so that they could efficiently work for the betterment of company. Leader and manager are interacting with employees on regular basis so that they could effectively complete the task and could get proper guidance on that.

General System Theory was developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1940s. It was believed by them that body is made up of all parts and if any of the part stops working then it all body will be affected visa versa. Thus, it could be stated that the external factor has proven to be toxic to the environment. It can relate whole body with the workplace. Other toxic and negativity could have harmful impact on performance and motivation of employees at all level of company. It also states that even only single component of organization not executed properly, then it would have an undesirable effect on whole of the organization. So each and every single unit in organization must be executed properly so that it overall management of company is not being suffered by this. Each and every part of company plays a major role in the organization. Company must have to implement management theory at all the levels so that overall operation and functional organ of company couldn't suffer (Burke, 2017). X and Y Management Theory has been established by Douglas McGregor in 1950s and 1960s. It states that all manager are to be grouped into two categories.

First category is Theory X which explains that manager has negative view of their workers and believed that employees required to forced into workings. It states that the employees are not motivated by themselves for completing their work. This could be connected to scientific management theory and focuses in the above output. Theory Y, manager believes that workers are motivated to work. In this theory manager valued importance of helping their employees for thriving opportunities for development and learning. Thus, theory focus on idea of the independent work versus team. It has been believed that team envionrment has been patched up with the emphasis on individual development in professional renders better result and healthy work environment. This it had wide impact on the management today and team work arr more preferred at workplace by the employers so that more and more individual could efficiently work for the betterment of company (Mertens and Wilson, 2018).Get assignment help london from our experts!


From the above study it can be concluded that Industrial Revolution has significant impact on the organizational development. Huge organizational development and growth have been determined by the advancement in technologies and introduction of management theories. This management theories had created a base for organization that they could effectively motivate and manage employees for efficiently working with companies. It also states that proper training and development program must be given to employee so that they could work ion efficient manner. The company must establish and maintain healthy relationship with their employee so that they could lead their employee feel valued and motivated to work for the betterment of company further. Thus, Industrial Revolution had made significant changes in the management theories and principles.

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