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Management and Operations Role

University: CECOS College London

  • Unit No: 4
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 19 / Words 4834
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: R/508/0488
  • Downloads: 313

Table of Content

  2. LO 1
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss about the characteristics and roles of a manager and leader.
  • Discuss about the PESTEL Analysis of TESCO.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Tesco


There are various kinds of role of leader and manager, both of them have different functions and role within an organization. Leaders and managers play a vital role within an organization that helps to sustain business within the market they operate in (Furtner, Maran and Rauthmann, 2017). Effective leadership and managerial strategies help an organization to successfully expand their business. This assignment will lay emphasis on characteristics and roles of a manager and a leader, different theories and models of leadership, operation management key approaches, importance of operation management and business environment factors that can impact decision making and operation management by managers as well as leaders. Organization on which this assignment will focus on is Tesco. Tesco is a British multinational retailer who's main headquarter is in England, UK and was founded in 1919. In terms of revenue Tesco is the ninth largest retailers of the world.

LO 1

P 1 Compare characteristics and roles of a manager and leader

All managers and leaders of an organization have their own talent and skills and plays a vital role within an organization. Role and functions of a manager and leader also helps an organization to satisfy their employees and customers.

Leadership is an ability which helps an individual to lead a group of people or an organization in a better manner towards a common and desired goal and objectives (Buch, Thompson and Kuvaas, 2016). Leaders develop a common vision which helps them to lead their followers or employees. Whereas, management is a kind of an act through which managers coordinate and organize organizational activities towards desired mission, goals and objectives that are set by their or organizational leaders.





Leaders are those persons who motivates all of their followers and organizational employees so that they can move on a correct path and achieve their desired goals and objectives. They also help them in motivating their employees so that their overall performance as well as productivity can be enhanced.

A manager within an organization is responsible for managing all kind of work in desired format in every format (Chiu, Balkundi and Weinberg, 2017). They are also responsible for achieving organizational aims and objectives.



Main role of leaders is to focus on work i.e. whether work is being carried out in correct direction and appropriately (Bush, Bell and Middlewood, eds., 2019). Leaders guide their employees so that they can work in an appropriate manner and accomplish a task on time.

One of the main role of managers is to manage all kinds of task and activities of an organization in an appropriate manner. managers also make sure that all the employees are assignment work to be completed.


Leaders focus on employees

Whereas managers focus on structure and system.


Leaders are required to have various characteristics that helps them to lead and achieve desired goals in a better manner. Some of the most common features of leaders are: confidence, motivator, caring, excellent decision makers, commitment towards their work, creative, innovative thinkers etc.

Managers are required to have various characteristics that helps them to fulfil their responsibilities in a better manner. Some of the most common features of a manager are: positive attitude, patience, flexibility, accountability, fast response, reliability and many more.


Leaders have a long-term perspective

Whereas managers have a short-term view.

Functions of a manager and leaders are as follows:


  • One of the main and primary function of leader is to set objectives and goals for their employees of team members in order to achieve a task.
  • Leaders are required to organize all the activities and resources of a task so that all the resources are made available to right employees whenever required.
  • Leaders are also required to take initiation and take decision whenever required without depending upon anyone.
  • Leaders are required to get involved with the team and direct them so that they can perform all the task that are assigned to them.


  • One of the main functions of a manager is to plan all the needs of an organization.
  • Organizing all kinds of management control is another important feature of a manager in order to maintain organizational functions and carry out all the day to day organizational activities in a proper manner.
  • Managers are also required to monitor and control all organizational activities so that every thig is carried out according to the plan and desired format.
  • Managers are also required to direct all the employees of an organization so that they can fulfil their desired goals and objectives.

All kinds of managers are required to have some Hard management Skills so that they can fulfil their roles and responsibilities in a proper manner as well as leaders are required to have some soft leadership skills so that they can also fulfil their roles and responsibilities in a proper and efficient manner.

Hard management skills of managers:

Managers are required to have full domain knowledge because without it they cannot make their employees understand main requirements of the task or action.

Managers are also required to have complete knowledge of the organizational structure so that they can take proper and appropriate decision (Little, Gooty and Williams, 2016).

One of the most important hard skill required by the managers is to have proper knowledge of their customers so that company can understand their potential customer's needs, desires and requirements in order to design products and services for them.

Managers are also required to have performance management skill so that they can measure their employee's performance and evaluate their employees performance and productivity. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

Soft leadership skills of leaders:

Self-awareness is an important and desired skill which is required by the leaders to have so that they can evaluate strengths and weakness of the organization and take required decisions accordingly.

Leaders should always be keen on learning from their past experiences so that they can understand and evaluate their mistake and make sure that they do not repeat that mistake in future.

One of the most important soft skill required by leaders is emotional intelligence. This skill helps them to understand their employees demands and needs in a better manner.

Leaders are also required to motivate their employees so that they can engage themselves within their work in an appropriate manner.

M 1 Analyse role of a leader and function of a manager applying effective theories

Managers: Managers role within an organization is to manage working of all the employees so that they can fulfil their duties in a proper and effective manner. In order to manage working of all the employees they are required to manage all the resources of an organization in a proper and effective manner (Little, Gooty and Williams, 2016). According to theory of human relation, managers are required to understand their relation with their employees by analysing their needs, requirements and desires in a proper and effective manner. There are many other theories that can be used to understand role and functions of a manager like classical management theory. According to this theory, employees only have economic and physical needs. So according to this this theory, managers are required to focus on improving output of employees by rewarding their performance.

Leaders: Leaders role within an organization is to focus on enhancing their employee performance by leading their team effectively, motivating them in order to increase their productivity and performance. There are various kinds of theories that can be used to explain role and function of a leader such as contingency theory, behavioural theory, trait theory and many more. In organizations like Tesco they use behavioural theory as they are required to analyse behaviour of their employees, use different kinds of motivation techniques in other to motivate them. According to employee's performance and their behaviour, leaders shows their employees a path to move on (Bush, Bell and Middlewood, eds., 2019). According to contingency theory leaders are required to be contingent i.e. their leadership style is according to the situation. Leaders are required to find a way to match their leadership style according to the situation so that they can show proper and correct path to their employees.


P2- Role of leaders and functions of mangers in different situations in organization

Leaders and mangers have huge contribution in the TESCO company in the different situations. They are responsible to control all the situations and provide necessary support to the employees and company both for achievement of specific goals (Wagner., 2018). There are some situations such as conflicts, change management, operations, management issues etc. where both managers and leaders of Tesco perform different-different roles to handle the same

Change management

During the change management leaders of the TESCO use their effective communication skills to motivate employees because during the change employees get demotivated so effective communication help them to understand the situation and give their support in change. Managers of the company motivate employees through rewards and training activities. It helps to motivate employees and they give their best in the change management.


Conflict in the TESCO can take place because of cultural difference. TESCO is multinational company and employees come from different culture , places etc. this can create conflicts situations in the workplace. During conflict situation leaders help to solve their problem through listing both the sides and encourage them to work in team. Mangers provide group activities in the workplace so employees can understand each other help each other to complete task (Ceri-Booms, CurÅŸeu and Oerlemans., 2017). Mangers and leaders control conflict situation through their skills and knowledge. They understand the situation and use their knowledge to fix the conflict situations in the organization.


Leaders of the TESCO lead team to achieve operational goal for the company. They make the aim and target for their team members and encourage them to achieve those goals. managers of the company direct them, and help them to guide employees.

Management issues

Management issues can take be take place in the company. Employees can face any problem related to the management. Leaders of the company solve their problem by communicate with the leaders and managers implement new strategies to solve those management issues. Leaders inform about the management problems and managers of the company solve those problems.

Labour turnover

Labour turnover is difficult situation for the TESCO company. In these situations leaders use proper leadership style to stop this labour tern over. Leader of the company lead the employees, and they are responsible to provide better working environment for the employees to stop labour turnover. Managers of the company provide better facilities and increase the wages of the employees, so they can stop labour tern over. Mangers are responsible to provide better facilities to the employees, so they can stay long in the company and give their best to increase growth of the company in the market.

P3- Apply different theories and models of leadership

There are different theories and models for the effective leadership that managers or leaders of a firm use to handle business problems especially for managing ooperations. Some of the theories include situational leadership, system leadership and contingency etc. which are applied as per situation (Nawaz and Khan_ PhD., 2016). In context with TESCO, as it operates business at global level so a number of situations occurred at its workplace like conflicts among employees, changes in organizational culture etc. which may arise difficulties in achievement of goals in set period of time.

Situational leadership

Situational leadership is one of the best leadership style which is used by many leaders and managers to lead their employees effectively. In the style leaders of the company use different leadership style in the different situation in the company, so they can control the situation in the organization effectively. TESCO leaders use this leadership theory to lead workers effective and they can also handle the situations in the organization. Leaders should have knowledge of all the style to adopt this theory, without having enough skills TESCO leaders cannot use this theory (Scott, Jiang,Wildman and Griffith., 2018). They will have to adopt knowledge and skills about all the leadership style, and they can use to solve conflicts and other situations in the workplace. It is important for the leaders to take knowledge and use this in the workplace.

System leadership

System leadership is the appropriate leadership in which leaders of the company enable all the level of the department to work productively to their potential. It is also a set of the skills and capabilities which TESCO leaders can sue to catalyze , enable and support the process of the system level change. This leadership model combine the coalition - building, collaborative leadership and system insight to mobilize and action across a large decentralized network. Two leaders in the TESCO will operate in the very different spares, but they also use some similar tactics such as both will combine the understanding of the systemic issues they wanted to address. Both will put their opinion and try to overcome from the problems and improve the productivity of the company to gain competitive advantages. They both take the action together for the batter performance from the employees and achieve the objectives of the TESCO company.

Contingency Leadership

This leadership theory is the special kind of approach by the leaders which states that the success of the leaders are not only deepened on their ability. Contingency leadership put the forth the idea in which the success of leaders hinge on the some Situations in the TESCO company at hand some factors come into play that define whether a specific leader or leadership style will be effective for the situations in the TESCO company's workplace. Those factors include the task activities , the personality of the leader and the constitution of the team members which is meant to be led. It is a fundamental premise is that leadership - success or the failure - is situational. This theory is similar to the situational leadership theory. Motive of the both theories are same and work similarly.

M2 Strength and weakness of different approaches to the situation in the company

Strength of the this theory is that it is helpful for the company to come out from the different situations and leaders of the company are able to control the situation by using those theories in the workplace.

Weakness of these approaches are depends on the leaders because they should have ability to adopt right approach according to the situation in their workplace. They should have knowledge and enough skills to adopt this approaches otherwise there is no use of the leadership approaches.


P4-Key approaches to the operational management and role of leaders and managers

There are different types of approaches which is used by the many organizations to improve their operational management in the workplace, or they used to provide better quality product to the customers (Seidel and et.al., 2019). It is also helpful to improve the productivity of the company and enable to achieve the high growth in the market. For managing and improving efficiency of operational management, a number of approaches are used by leaders and managers of Tesco, as described below :-

Lean manufacturing

This approach is mainly used to minimize waste from the manufacturing and other operations effectively. It also helps to make quality product without wasting resources as per customer needs and preferences (Ramos, de Morais and Barbosa-P³voa., 2018). This process can help to identify the defects from the products to company can work to improve their product and maintain the inventory so employees will get resources which is required for the operations. In context with TESCO, as it deals in retail sector and offers a range of products like books, clothing, furniture, electronics and more, so, its managers use lean manufacturing approach for managing inventories in appropriate manner. Managers of the TESCO will provide training to the employees for the lean manufacturing, so they can gain skills to run lean manufacturing process.

Six sigma

Six Sigma is the process which helps to provide organizational tools to improve capability of business. This increase the operational performance and decrease in the process variation helps to lead to the defection in their products and also improve the company's profitability, quality of the product and services and also increase moral of the employees. Leaders of the TESCO maintain the six sigma culture in the company, they also make the strategies of the six sigma. Leaders communicate with the employees about the six sigma and provide necessary support ton understand importance of this approach and how it helps to provide success to the company. Managers of the company pick the right projects for the employees.

Business process Redesign

This approach is helpful for the TESCO company to achieve specific goals of the company for example return on the investment, cost reduction and improvement in the company services,. Leaders and managers of this company play significance role in this approach (Reid and Sanders., 2019). Managers of the company. Manager monitors the activities under this process and if any of the process is not working properly, and they focus to improve that process. Leaders lead their team to produce batter result for the company.

P5- Importance of operational management in firm to achieve objectives of their business

Operational management helps to improve overall productivity of the company. It also involves organizing, controlling, planning, supervise the companies production and the manufacturing process of the company (Jeong., 2019). Operational management work on daily basis so company can achieve daily tasks and it is responsible to manage all the goals of the company so company can achieve high growth in the market.


Operational management use finance to run the daily activities. Managers of the company maintain the finance properly and try to use the finance in right manner so TESCO company can produce and generate good which can satisfy the customers and fulfill the needs and demand of the customers.

Strategies Resource Management

operational Mangers of the TESCO also helps in the development of new plans or tactics which could lead to maximize the production and resources of the company. These strategies help to give competitive edge over its competitors (Mitra and Karathanasopoulos., 2019). Operational managers implement those strategies and record the performance of all the operation in the workplace.

Product design

Operational managers of Tesco come up with the unique design of the product, so they can attract customers towards its product and generate more profit. They also adopt new designers who can give batter design for their product and come can attract new customers. Product development is not only enough top attract customers or satisfy them, but design of the product also play necessary and company should follow the new design and trends in the market.


Operational management have ability to predict the future needs and performance of the company which is advantage for TESCO company. Operational managers also predict the future requirement of the resources to run the activities so company can provide enough resources for the operations. They also critically analyze the needs of the customers and their demand. According to the customers future need they develop their product and provide effective design. It helps TESCO company to take competitive advantages in the market (Pereira and et.al., 2018).

M3- how leaders and managers of the company can improve operational management

Leaders and mangers have ability to improve operational management by their skills and knowledge. Leaders can improve operational management by making vision for the employees who are working under their team (Saleem., 2017). They will lead their employees to achieve daily target and help company to achieve the goals and objective. Leaders can motivate them to produce some result in the task and effective leaders have effective communication skills which can used to motivate their team members. Managers can manger their performance and provide them training to improve their skills and perform better n the daily operations. Mangers also provide right direction to the employees, so they can able to achieve objective and goals of the business. Managers make the strategies for the operational management so company can produce better result and increase their productivity in the workplace.


P6- factors within business environment and their impact on operational management and decision-making

There are several factors which can affect the business environment of the TESCO company and it has also impact on the operational management and decision-making process(Ilić, Stefanović and Stojanović., 2019). Some of them influence directly to the company and other indirectly. Here are some factors which affect the business environment-

PESTEL Analysis of TESCO


Changes in the government polices has huge impact on the company's operations where to operate functions like product design, transformation of raw materials into finished goods etc. managers of Tesco need to make a number of modifications. Government bring polices regarding with changes in the quality of the product and make new rules., so, in this situation, it affects on the operational management of TESCO and leaders also have to take decision on those police and explain it to the employees. They make new strategies regard to changes in the polices and also develop their products.


Demand of the products change with the time and it is important for the TESCO managers to understand customer preference. This economical factor has huge impact on the both operational management and decision-making process. When demand among the customers than superiors of the company have to take decision in the context of product development and the Operational management of the company provide product according to the demand of the customer so company can satisfy the demand and needs of their customers (Kozubikova and et.al., 2019).


People nowadays, are very careful about their health it is important for the company to provide them healthy product. It affect on the decision-making of new product and also affect on the operational management for the TESCO company because they are responsible to produce product and run the operational activities.


Technology factors effect on the company positively. It increases the productivity of the company and company can achieve their business goals and their aims. It is important for the company to implement new technology in the workplace, so they can stay in the competition and improve their growth and productivity. It also affect on the companies profitability and increase their reputation in the market. Leaders and mangers of the company take decision to bring new technology in their workplace to increase their profitability, and they also make strategies that how they can take competitive advantages by using new trends in the technology (Saghir and Aston., 2017). With increased in the pressure on TESCO company to address environmental issues and to adopt ways of operation and activities which what would benefit for the society, Tesco company is clearly wrapped up to reducing its carbon footprint by 50% by 2020. Also, Tesco is minimizing the waste produced in their stores by increasing social conscience in customers. Order assignment help from our experts!


Environmental factors such as climatic condition affect on the product and it can damage the products. It affect on the company and superiors of the company take decision to overcome from this issue. They take decision and implement new strategies to improve their product and make better packaging which have no affect from the weather conditions. Operational manager of the company make new design for their product which is able to fight with the weather condition and company provide quality product to their customers.


Operational management of the company have to make product according to the government polices and it is their duty to follow the rules and ,maintain the quality of the product. Leaders and mangers take decision to maintain the quality and help to make polices for the company as well.

M4- Analyses of the factors which affect business environment and wider community

There are few factors which has huge impact on the business environment of the TESCO company. It is important for the company to be aware about those factors, so they can take competitive advantages and make proper strategies to take advantages of those factors. Some of the factors are political factors, social factors, economic factors, environmental factors, social factors and legal factors. Each factor have affect the company both positively and negatively (Virglerova, Dobes and Vojtovic., 2016). It has huge impact on the companies profitability and company can take competitive advantages if they are aware about those factors. Leaders and managers of the TESCO company should give importance to those factors, so they can improve their business environment in their workplace. It can also help them to identify their strength and weakness. They can work on their weakness and gain competitive advantages. Ask for Academic Writing Service from our experts!


From the above assignment, it has been summarized that both managers and leaders play different role within an organization and has different characteristics as well. It has been analysed that there are various situations that are required to be tackled by both managers and leaders so that they can fulfil their duties and function in a proper manner. It has also been analysed that there are various kinds of theories that can be used by managers and leaders to perform their roles and manage different situations of business specifically. There are many approaches of operation management of an organization that helps in defining and playing role of managers and leaders. Lastly it has been concluded that there are various kinds of factors within an organization's business environment that help leaders and managers for decision making.

Read more - Managing Food and Beverage in Hospitality Industry

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