Food safety is a scientific process of storage and preparation of foods in order to prevent foodborne illness. In hospitality industry, it is the responsibility of managers and kitchen staff to provide healthy food to their clients within stipulated time (Aung, and Chang, 2014). In addition, report emphasizes on the implementation of hygiene systems and processes that are needed to produce and deliver safe food within hospitality industry. In order to overcome food positioning and other food safety related issues, manager ensures that food offered by company is safe to eat. As per the given case concerned, four star hotel in the City Centre has been taken because there during a wedding reception, a food poisoning incident had occurred due to food positioning. By conducting this research, investigator will be able to investigate the matter and write a complete report which is based on the following tasks.
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1.1 The controls required to prevent physical and chemical contamination of food
Food becomes contaminated in the presence of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can affect the health of people negatively. Through a variety of mechanisms, food becomes contaminated such as inadequate hand washing, cross- contamination, storage and cooking temperature and contamination of food by animal wastage (Griffith, 2010). By encouraging kitchen staff to wash their hands before cutting the eatable items and also before serving food, impact of pathogen which is introduced into food transfers can be reduced. From the raw food products (i.e., meat and poultry), kitchen tools and surfaces, food may become contaminated. For example, when these tools and raw material will be used in kitchen then Microbes will be transferred from one food to another. In addition, harmful bacteria can be transferred from one person, object or place to another. By developing proper warehouse and storing foods at appropriate storage, negative impact of food on the health of people can be overcome (Jenson, Vanderlinde, Langbridg and Sumner, 2014). Meat and poultry may become contaminated and it can affect people which take food services in hospitality industry. If fresh fruits and vegetables are not washed properly with water then they can be contaminated. By using less chemicals within various food items such as fish, oysters, crabs and fruits that are used in hospitality industry, negative effect can be reduced. X-Ray Machines and other tools can be used to detect any metal part within body of fish and other food items so that manager can easily identify or detect them.
1.2 Comparison of the characteristics of food poisoning and food born infections
In hospitality industry, food poisoning is raised due to various reasons which include nausea, vomiting, water diarrhoea, fever and abdominal pain along with cramps etc. Unhygienic foods and excess use of beverages are the major causes of food borne infections. For such kind of disease, bacteria, parasites, viruses or chemicals are responsible.
List of food borne infections
Through food or beverages, Infectious diseases spread and create negative affect in the life of people.
Bacillus cereus: Meats, milk, vegetables and fish are the major sources of bacillus cereus. Its major symptoms are vomiting after 6 hours of infection (Lo, 2015).
Clostridium botulinum: In oil, plants, animals and fish, intestinal tracts are found. It mainly affects the nervous system of a human being and its sy,ptoms arises in between 18 to 36 hours.
Campylobacter Jejuni: In addition, due to sea foods and meats, this disease is raised and its symptoms are shown in 0.5 to 6 hours (Ryser and Marth, 2014).
List of food poisoning infections
Campylobacter infection: It is raised from sea food and meats and symptoms are shown in 0.5 to 6 hours (Uyttendaele, Jacxsens and Van Boxstael, 2014).
Salmonella: Due to domestic and wild animals such as poultry, pigs, cattle and pets, this kind of infection may be raised. In the given case concerned in hotel, eggs and drinking unpasteurized milk can be the reasons of food poisoning.
Shigella: The main causes behind occurring of this disease is the changing environment including tropical and temperate climate and due to this, bacterial infection is raised. In addition, fever, nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps are the major symptoms of this infection (Sevenich, Kleinstueck, Crews and Knorr, 2014).
1.3 Evaluating the ways through food-borne illnesses can be controlled in hotel
Hotel can control food borne illnesses in the workplace by using some strategies that can be described as follows:
- Management of hotel should purchase raw material from suppliers who consistently provide the freshest food to hotel.
- Using separate cutting boards and utensils for raw material, manager of hotel will be able to make meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs safe from bacteria.
- By doing double wash to fresh vegetables and fruits and by putting them in cold water, hotel staff can overcome negative impact of bacteria (Farber, Crichton and Snyder, 2014).
- Manager needs to undertake cleanliness in the entire food procurement process to prevent the food contamination.
- By increasing awareness among employees towards washing hands and equipment before preparing food, management of hotel can prevent the food contamination.
- Hotel can appoint a QA person and provide charge of safety to them in order to increase the quality of food.
- Through monitoring over temperature, food contamination can be prevented. For example, during any event, management of hotel ensures that complete food is served and eaten within 2 hours so that contamination related issues will be reduced.
- Apart from this, hotel can maintain the quality of food through placing veg and non-veg raw material and related eatable items separately (Håstein, Hjeltnes, Lillehaug and Berntssen, 2014).
- Manager of hotel must be separated from cleaning compounded and insect control chemicals which are hazardous for the life of people.
- Hotel kitchen and food serving staff must maintain product cleanliness in order to prevent the food contamination.
- Manager of hotel can overcome food illness issue through proper packaging of foods and by applying distribution process effectively.
Henceforth, on the basis of these ways, hotel would be able to assure that food offered to customers is fresh and of good quality as we as increases confidence of their guests towards brands. In addition to this, by maintaining food temperature and increasing product cleanliness, staff of hotel can reduce the chemical contamination and other food and safety related issues in an appropriate manner (Yiannas, 2015).
2.1 Categorise the food-spoilage agents that affect food
In hotel, food can be contaminated through different sources such as enzymes, bacteria and improper use of distribution channel etc. In order to minimize the effect of food spoilage on the raw materials, it is responsibility of manager and staff-member of hotel to follow appropriate guideline to overcome negative impact of food spoilage agents in foods. Apart from this, inadequate cooking, poor personal hygiene used by the food handlers, holding food at the wrong temperature and using contaminated equipment during production of food are the major factors that contribute in increasing foodborne illness (Aung and Chang, 2014).
Enzymes: In muscles, organs and gut fish are the main sources of enzymes. Due to presence of bacteria, health of an individual will be badly affected.
Bacteria: It spreads through air, land, sea, plants and animals. In order to overcome negative impact of bacteria in food, it is responsibility of manager to follow guideline and quality standards in the workplace. In hotel industry, other causes of food spoilage are natural decay in foods and contamination by micro-organism. Through various ways such as oxidation, browning and ripening, tissues and components of the food and certain nutrients e.g. vitamin c, thiamine and carotene is destructed. It may develop in contaminated food in a short time and it is more dangerous than mould and yeast and cause infections in humans (Kumar and Shariff, 2011).
Improper use of transportation channels: In hospitality and hotel industry, poor transportation is the major agent of spoilage that can contaminate raw foods like meat, eggs, fish, oysters, crabs and other sea food. Apart from this sea foods and other perishable food items are kept in boat and other items are major agent of spoilage and affect health of people (Mensah and Julien, 2011).
2.2 Examining different types of food and the equipment required
Food can be preserved by using various techniques which include freezing, canning, fermentation and acidification. In order to maintain freshness of foods, hotel staff can use freezing techniques in which preparing and packaging foods activities perform effectively. This technique will be helpful for the cited hotel in terms of offering fresh and quality of foods within stipulated time to their customers. Bacteria, yeasts and fungi can ferment different foods. In addition, fermented foods convert some of food components into alcohols or acids and create negative impact on the health of an individual one (Koutsoumanis, 2012).
By applying canning technique, hotel staff can apply heat to food that sealed in the jar in order to serve hygienic and safe food to their customers. Several sea food items and raw materials are boiled under the water bath canning. It will help kitchen staff to remove all the microorganism bacteria (Macheka, Manditsera, Ngadze, Mubaiwa and Nyanga, 2013). Under pressure canning, kettle are kept up to 240 degrees in a locked compartment to remove all the bacteria’s from foods. By using water and stream canning techniques, microorganism bacteria can be removed from sea food materials such as clams, crabs, oysters and tuna fish etc. Acidification technique can be used by hotel in which some cucumber pickles are actually fermented and preserved foods are kept safe (Kang, Liu and Tsai, 2014).
2.3 Increasing effectiveness of food preservation methods in cited enterprise
Effectiveness of food preservation method can be increased within hotel by using various strategies that can be explored with help of example. Properly packaging food in freezer paper can prevent any deterioration in terms of making the food taste bad. In order to maintain freshness of fish, crabs, oysters and clams, hotel staff can apply freezing method. This technique will help company to procure and preserve food for long period of time. In addition, with help of this tool, hotel can offer quality of food and services to their customers at compatible price. On the basis of removing all the bacteria’s and harmful germs, effectiveness of food preservation technique can also measure. In this perspective, canning technique will be more beneficial as compared to freezing technique. In addition, through lowering the temperature to inhibit microorganism growth, food can be preserved. Cited enterprise can use freezing either by placing the foodstuffs in package or cold air kept in motion by fan. As per the given case of hotel and hospitality industry, freezing technique has been chosen because it is more appropriate in terms of preparing, packaging, and freezing foods at their peak of freshness. According to Havinga (2015) for freezing fruits and vegetables, hotel can use various techniques such as air blast, belt tunnel freezers and fluidized bed freezer. For example, for preparing soup, large amount of tomato will be required. Firm can purchase it in large scale and by using freezing technique enterprise can preserve the bounty of produce during the summer months also. Preserving food (fruit and vegetables) and keeping them longer time fresh with retaining more nutrients in foods make freezing technique more effective and help in the prevention of food spoilage. However, cost of storing and persevering food in freezing technique is high (Mortimore nand Wallace, 2013). Apart from this, shelf life of food products can be improved through applying various techniques such as vacuum-packing, controlled atmospheres and effective package of products will be helpful for the hotel in terms of reducing negative impact of irradiation and ultra-violet on food products effectively.
3.1 Produce a food hazard risk assessment
In order to minimize the risk and uncertainties regarding food safety, hotel should focus on controlling three types of food hazard risk. Physical hazard can create risk and uncertainties such as stones in rice or beans and bone pieces in meat etc. While on the other side, chemical and biological hazards are more complex and they can affect food products used in hotel as well as create negative impact on the health of the people who use services of hotel (Aung and Chang, 2014). By emphasizing on control systems including supplier safety assurance and purchasing raw materials from suppliers which provide fresh products, hotel can ensure their customers that they provide quality of services effectively. By maintaining and controlling records, hotel would be able to overcome hazards.
3.2 A food safety control system
In order to provide quality of food items to their customers, it is important for the hotel to follow food safety control system effectively that can be explored as follow:
Supplier safety assurance: By purchasing raw food items from suppliers, hotel can ensure their customers that it offers fresh and quality of products.
HACCP and critical control system: According to this system, hotel can increase safety of their foods and services through overcome negative impact of physical, chemical and biological hazards effectively (Mensah and Julien, 2011).
Safe food better business (SFBB): In order to successful run the business, it is essential for hotel to control over all activities and appoint quality analyst to provide the safe food and maintain quality in foods effectively so that customers can get fresh and quality of foods.
3.3 Explanation of food safety guide for legislation compliance
Regulation (EC) No 852/2004: In order to understand the level of quality standards, it is essential for the UK based hotel to follow Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 article 6(2) in a proper manner.
License: It is required to sell or supply alcohol, sea food sell permission and other items to their customers in a legal manner (Food processing technology, 2012).
Legislation: For hotel industry, it is essential to consider Food Safety Act 1990 and The Food Regulations 2006 to ensure customers that firm is followed appropriate regulation in terms of providing quality of food services to them While Food Labeling Regulations 1996 can be applied to increase transparency in the entire process (HSE, 2015).
Agencies: Different types of agencies are working in UK such as Health Protection Agency and local Environmental Health departments to ensure food safety in hotel. However, Environmental Health Practitioners (EHP) can play an important role to monitor and control over food and safety related issues rise in hotel industry.
By conducting this study, hotel would be able to gain understanding of the systems and processes required to produce safe food. Legislation and agencies can play a crucial role in terms of managing safety in food preparation and delivery. By following these guidelines, hotel would be able to prevent food contamination and food poisoning kind of incident in the workplace.
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