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Psychology for HSC

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Sample on Psychology for HSC

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Introduction

As it has been seen in the recent times that people are more focused towards their health and safety. Thus in order to build that environment in relation to that people are more of like having the responsibilities and duties. As the Health and social care sector have been coming to rise it is important for professionals to examine the people in such a manner that it does not harm them and their needs are full filled also(Barrick, Mount and Li, 2013). The present report is undertaken in order to make an understanding of the psychology of the person in relation to health and social care. Thus for this purpose different psychological theories have been undertaken so that reader of the report will find it easy to interpret various points from it and further can carry a research in relation to the subject matter (Ajzen, 2015).

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TASK 1

1.1 Comparison of Theories of Life Span Development

As in order to understand the behavior or perceptions of the people in relation to their health and safety measures (Ajzen, 2015). There are various experts who have given their precious comments on the life span development plans with respect to the study of different individuals and their psychology. Thus what this facilitates is that by having the knowledge of how an individual thinks it is important for the professionals to foster and improve the care techniques for them in order to keep the health standards on(Stephens, Graham and Clough, 2013). Thus in this series different theories have been given among which two are mentioned above.

  • Erickson v/s Freud: Sigmund Freud in his theory has said that development in a children happens in stages, which he termed them as Psycho sexual stages and following it Erickson also has given the stages and named them as "psycho social stages", which was pretty in similarity to the Freud theories. Erickson's theory main focus was on the issues and tasks which are being met at specific ages(Maynard, 2013). On the other hand Freud laid his emphasis on the psycho sexual energy or libido. Both of them made and emphasis to show that in both personality develops but among the two better was Erickson's one. As Freud theory focus was on sexual pleasure and when failure occurs then it might lead to personality disorders (Ajzen, 2015).
  • Psycho dynamic v/s Cognitive: As both this theory is concerned under psychodynamic approach behavior of people is not learned rather it is forced by unconscious. on the other hand in cognitive approach the behavior of people is learned as under cognitive theory it is said that information is processed and mental changes. Pyschodynamic approach is regarded as unscientific because it cannot be measured or manipulated while in cognitive approach it is a scientific approach because this is of the opinion that brain is similar to ac computer where information can be manipulated(Chen, 2013).

1.2 Psychological theories and their implications on Life span of Human Development

Thus many experts who by studying different individuals have framed different psychological theory which directly deals with the mindsets of the people and thus these theories have also showed the relationship between the outcomes of different negative and positive aspects of psychology (Ajzen, 2015). Thus different theories which are given by experts are:

  1. Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theory deals with the behavior of persons and this theory deals with the research over different type of behavior of people. Behavioral theory deals with the change in the behavior of the persons as the continuous change in the behavior of persons helps in knowing whither in which condition or situation a particular individual react in which manner thus this is the best basic and common study of the psychology(Panter-Brick, 2014).
  2. Cognitive Theory: A cognitive theory basically focuses on how our brain process the information and for this purpose research is done not in the real life rather it is done in the laboratory (Ajzen, 2015). This approach implicates that the mental disorders related to cognitive can be learned and so can be unlearned. Here in cognitive theory people are examined on the basis of three traits and that are there understanding, diagnose and solving the problems.
  3. Psycho dynamic Theory: Here in Psycho dynamic theory it is said that prolonged thinking which has no use can affect the health of the individual by creation of psychological problems and abnormal behavior(Gergen and Gergen, 2014). Thus this particular approach deals with the three parts of mind which are conscious, preconscious and unconscious. here the personality was also divided into three components that is ID, Ego and Superego. Conscious are the ideas or perceptions or thoughts and unconscious are the wishes and desires which is formed in childhood (Ajzen, 2015).
  4. Humanistic Theory: The humanistic approach is the study of the person at whole as the researcher researching on the individual not only sees them with the eyes of of observer, rather they are viewed as the person actually performing the activities or behaving(Gergen and Gergen, 2014). Thus approach is among the third force in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviorism. A humanistic theory of understanding the people is deterministic.

TASK 2

2.1 Social and biological factors of human behavior

Human behavior includes attitude, perception, individual personality that impacts on its psychology and his nature to deal with people of society. In this regard, different factors as personal abilities, socio-economic environment and so on. Therefore, various kinds of ethics, socialism, behavior and manner to deal with society's people are impacted on social and cultural environment. In this regard, in a family, there is behavior of family members is different in regards of their experiences and environment. Thus, human behavior is based on their psychologies and individual interest towards any particular thing (Akers, 2013). However, human nature is varies to varies from people to people. Including this, they behave differently at several places that impacts on their social ethics as well positive and negative perception for towards society and culture. It influence health and social care for human development as well providing them good quality features for sociology and positive environment. Including this, biological determinants are composition of natural or environmental contributions that is related to providing healthy and positive atmosphere through supportive nature of society (Ajzen, 2015). Along with this, it is determined that human psychology and their behavior are improved through various substances that affect on society and cultural environment effectively.

Nature vs. Nurture controversy:- There is difference between nature and nurture in psychology. However, nature is considered as behavior of any individual including his attitude and perception towards any particular thing. While, on the other hand, nurture is influenced by external environmental factors involves care from companion and family for any individual.

Social factors:- It includes people lifestyle, behavior, attitude and perception towards sociology and environment. In accordance to this, society and community's behavior and changes in their interest impact on human behavior. Likewise, all determinants related to human behavior and culture affects on environment and development. Thus, social factors impacts on human behavior to live in society and contacting with other people.

Biological factors:- These are external factors that affects human behavior. It includes nutrition, genetics and environmental factors for improving people sociology as well reducing diseases. Therefore, by providing care and creating positive environment, physical and mental development of an individual is possible. Thus, biological factors impact on human nature and thinking for behaving in society and community.

There is a case story presented for Gemma and related to health and social environment. Under this case scenario, it is recognized that Gemma is 5 years old happy girl child who does not speak yet. Through initial assessment, it is identified that she is not facing with any serious diagnostic problem. Therefore, she requires only happy and healthy environment to overcome her disease (Curtin and McGarty, 2016). In accordance to this, it is needed for her family to create social and healthy environment, contacting her with society and community that will be suitable for Gemma to reduce her disease. However, by making positive and applying social and biological factors for healthcare effectively. Thus, healthcare staff and Gemma's family's dedication can work out to supporting her to speak up as well understanding towards her needs and requirements only (Ajzen, 2015). Hence, by using social and biological factors, Gemma's problem can be solved out. It will be helpful for development and reducing the problem.

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In context of society, both social and biological factors are important for an individual's development. It is related with creating positive and healthy environment of society for improvements. Through this determinants, physical and mental development of an individual is possible as well healthy relationship among people can be achieved. Hence, human behavior affcets through social biological factors for proper growth and reducing disease effectively.

2.2 Significance of social roles to overcome Gemma's disease

Social roles:- Society and community plays crucial role in individual's growth. It is necessary for creating positive and friendly environment to reduce problems. For this purpose, family members and companion play effective role for improving skills and balancing individual's behavior. However, social role consists of behavior, rights, obligations, beliefs that affects human behavior and his environment to live in society. Thus, social roles are significant for proper development and reducing disease of an individual.

Social and biological factors are liable for creating positive and healthy environment that leads to develop human psychology and tendency for improving skills and reducing their diseases effectively. In this regard, Gemma's case study is related to providing her effective atmosphere as well working on to make her speak up. However, healthcare staff and her family can create positive atmosphere to overcome her disease therefore she can be frank more as well she will try for speak. In this process, social and healthcare sector can improve her disease that will be work out effectively (De Grandis and et.al., 2016). Therefore, social roles can play significant role through creating positive and developing environment there will be appropriate for Gemma's growth and effective for speaking up. Including this, healthcare staff and family's awareness that is useful for improving efficiencies as well increasing quality features for positive environment. In accordance to this, biological factors such as nutrition, creating environment is effective for implementing healthcare facilities. It influences positive and healthcare sector also useful for social development and cultural growth for effectiveness and increasing efficiencies at high level (Ajzen, 2015).

In this regard, social roles are important for increasing society's culture and its effectiveness for Gemma's improvement as through creating positive and healthy environment of society effectively. Therefore, it is required to increase sociology and growing environment that is useful for caring each individual of society as well making plans for reducing problems occur in country's effectiveness. However, in case of Gemma, healthcare staff and her family can create environment according to her well wishes and requirements, therefore she can play and live her life more happily (Ford, Scholz and Lu, 2015). In accordance to this, social awareness and development can be achieved effectively that impacts on society's development efficiently.

TASK 3 (a)

3.1 Psychological theories application on given case studies

According to given case studies of Pet and Jennifer, there are different age group people stories presented (Ajzen, 2015). However, pet is eight years' old student whose father does not involve in his life. In this regard, he involved in TV, online games at most therefore, his behavior get impacted by his nature. However, his teacher swears as well his relationship with other students and staff is affected. Therefore, it is required to him to create positive and friendly environment so he can open up very easily as well can behave effectively with his friends and staff. In this regard, his family and school teachers should focus on his behavior and must create effective plan for reducing his numeracy task problem (Millner and et.al., 2015). Moreover, through this friendly environment, he can build up his own personality same as learning attitude would be improved. In this regard, applying psychological theories are significant for development of Pet and his abilities. Thus, social roles and society's awareness regarding creating friendly environment develops personality of an individual as well make them feel positive. In addition to this, the other case story related to Jennifer also presents requirement of social needs for effective human behavior and also remains useful for caring society's old aged people and positiveness. However, it is able to social welfare and improving their psychologies in respect of human behavior. It is effective for applying psychological theories for social justice and feeling them important to achieve effective bonding among family members (Pedras and Pereira, 2014).

Thus, through applying psychological theories, effective social growth and positive environment can be gained effectively. In accordance to this, human behavior and proper development can be achieved through this system. In case of Pet, it is needed for his family and school related friends as well teachers to create positive environment for him therefore he can learn effectively as well will be able to improve his skills. Therefore, creating atmosphere according to feeling him positive and expressing his opinions will be effective for his development. It will also influenced on his behavior with friends and teachers. However, efficiencies of students can be grown at high level that is useful for their development and increasing their abilities for perform at school and home (Ajzen, 2015).

Stress:- It is considered as feeling of pressure and reaction towards tension. It affects human body and emerges different diseases like blood pressure, decreasing immunity system, rapid heart pulse and so on. Therefore, body's nervous system get fluctuated due to stress.

Causes of stress:- Stress occurs due to tension related to personal and professional life issues such as; loss of job, death of any close one, moving and injuries due to chronic illness etc. Due to emotional problem and work related problems as poor management, working under dangerous conditions human body get impacted negatively.

Types of stress:- There are different kinds of stress, some of them can be expressed as:-

  • Acute stress:- This kind of stress emerges due to facing any new challenge, conflict in family or at workplace, response on fights and so on. These stressful situations covers under acute stress that obtains mental health issues.
  • Episodic stress:- This term of stress obtains because of human behavior like; short tempered, irritable, anxious. However, negative health issues are generated due to this stress also disturbs environment and human behavior.
  • Chronic stress:- If any problem does not solve out easily and takes long time period then chronic stress occurs. It includes poverty, family issues, unhappy married life and so.

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Benefit of psychological implication of stress using GAS:- Under this theory, study of human psychology is created by which different ideas are created for handling pressure. In this way, varieties of tips are obtained for reducing stress and behaving in stress. It is beneficial for creating positive and friendly environment as well behaving in society nicely.

Psychological for stress avoid/reduction:- Stress can be handled by following on tips expressed below:-

  • Take care of self and eating healthy food.
  • Connect socially and living in stress free environment
  • Determining solutions and prepare scheduled list to be followed on.
  • Live in space as take a break with work.
  • Avoid drugs and alcohol.

Discussion and recommendation:- Stress is negative feeling that impacts on human body negatively. It occurs various health issues and conflicts in relationship also disturbs environment. The causes behind stress are several such as family issues, work life problems and so.

It is suggested for stressed people to handle in their own way as they can. It is required for them to live in a friendly and happy environment and take a break with work load for a while. In this regard, it will be suitable for them to eat healthy food and avoid alcohol for happy and positive life.

Rationalization Denial projection transfer of formation cognitive reappraisal

Rationalization is a human behavior that is related with individual attitude and behavior towards stress and tension. It involves behavior of an individual as cool, calm and proper to handle any situation. However, for this ideal behavior to manage pressure rationally. It is state of mind at which, person remains calm and cool in situation of stress. Therefore, all through rationale behavior, any situation is handled effectively and intelligently.

3.2 Relationship of psychological theories with case scenarios

Psychological theories are crucial for effective human tendency and improving their skills for ideal behavior. In this process, it is needed to apply different kinds of psychological theories for social awareness and creating positive atmosphere that is linked with personality development as well friendly behavior. In addition to this, psychological theories are interlinked with Pet and Jennifer stories that affects on their perception and tendency to behave in a group or society (Ajzen, 2015). However, various kinds of problems can be solved out through this process that is useful for growth and feeling them prior for effective psychology and presenting positiveness that affects on dealing with people as well remains able for social welfare. In this regard, various kinds of social roles as support from healthcare staff and family can be achieved effectively (Swartz, 2014). Thus, positiveness towards social behavior and human perception can be achieved that is valuable for implementing psychological theories. Through case scenario of Pet, a story is presented related to his behavior with school friends and family. It is needed to play role model of society and school for developing his personality. Including this, psychological theory is related to gaining their interest towards human behavior that affects society's welfare and development for human psychologies as well creating positive and effective environment through applying psychological factors. In addition to this, positive perception towards human behavior and services can be gained effectively. However, psychologies and social welfare is to gained effectively that impacts on social justice and group behavior (Akers, 2013). Hence, it is determined that psychological factors are interrelated with creating friendly environment as well value for all family members presence. It is good for personality development of Pet and improving psychological tendency of old people of the society (Ajzen, 2015).

Mental disorder:- it is mental health issue that affects human behavior, psychology, suffering and different diseases. It is disturbance and mental illness in which disorder of decisions and behavior of an individual appears. It occurs due to unstable mind, dynamics in behavior, mood and personality. Some mental disorders are as; clinical depression, bipolar disorder, dementia etc.

Types of mental disorder:- There are different kinds of mental disorder presents can be expressed as:-

  • Anger:- Reaction towards stress and intolerance of mistake occurs anger that hamper human body. This affects conflicts and more complex situations to handle personal and professional life.
  • Personality changes:- It is one of the type of mental illness occurs due to changes in behavior, belief and many other things.
  • Depression:- It emerges due to thinking on any issues deeply and sadly. However, it affects human body negatively and different diseases occur as BP and unstable mind.

Psychological theory about schizophrenia and its influences:- Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that impacts human behavior, emotions. It has three kinds as; positive, negative and cognitive. It usually affects from 16 to 30 years old age people. This issue occurs because of poor executive functioning, trouble focusing and so on.

Conclusion and link with case study:- Mental disorder is a health issue that affects human body negatively. The present case study is related to Jenifer case that related to his unnatural behavior as of his loneliness that increases depression and his behavior with other people. It is needed to create positive environment for Jenifer and emerging positive feelings. Thus, he will behave nicely and feel happy with his group and companion.

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Phobia:- It is disease that occurs due to fear of any particular thing. It created because of any individual's incident with any situation and negative mind set towards the thing. Therefore, phobia is obtained cause of fear of any individual thing and negative perception.

Anxiety disorder:- It emerges because of stress and mental disorder. It impacts on human behavior and relationship with other people. Anxiety disclosure is a state where negative reaction towards stress is obtained.

Neurosis:- It is symbol of mental illness involving anxiety, obsessive behavior towards any stress. It occurs mental disorder and dynamics personality and belief of any individual.

Psychosis:- It is a state where condition of mind is constant as well negative towards any specific tool. In this disease, patient get loss of reality as he behaves like to lost the things, any person and event.

TASK 3B

3B.1 Analysis of Psychological theories in relation with Mental Disorders

As discussed about the different psychological theories in relation with different people's perception it is important for the professionals to analyze the theories in relation to mental disorders. As far as behavioral theory is concerned it is important to undertake and examine the frequent change in behaviors as some people tend to have the practice of loosing the moral early thus it is important they need to be taken care of as it is the case of health of the person(Khan, 2014). Further cognitive theory says that brain process the information and thus in this sort of theory the mental disorders related to cognitive can be learned and so can be unlearned. As in cognitive theory it is important for the professionals to make the knowledge of the positions of the mind of the individual as this will make them to analyze the position of the people and further make the move to improve health of the people(Wallerstein, 2014). Thus psycho dynamic approach deals with the three parts of mind which are conscious, precociousness and unconscious. here the personality was also divided into three components that is ID, Ego and Superego. Thus it is important for the an appropriate examination and analysis should be taken into account so that the human behavior can be understood without any biases and further steps can be taken effectively (Ajzen, 2015).

Fraud/Erickson:-

Cognitive:- It is syudy of analyzing huamn emotional state as his mental and emotional stability. It also involves his attitude and manner to handle any situation and his thinking emotionally.

Humanistic:- It is psychology study of human behavior that involves his perception, attitude and belief towards any person, thing and companion. However, actual personality of any individual is obtained through this study.

Behavioral:- Under this study, behavior of any individual is analyzed that involves his nature and understanding with companion and group related to him. Proper study involving his psychology and group behavior is recognized for living society and creating its environment.

3B.2 Evaluation of Psychological principles affecting behavior change

Principals of psychology affect the overall behavior of the persons. Operating condition is the main principal of the psychology which focuses more on the behavior modification. It is the technique that helps in promoting the desirable behavior and supports in decreasing the unwanted incidents. It is found the mentally challenge people behave rude with others and some time they react loud that affect others badly (Wallerstein, 2014). It is necessary to make them clam so that people can not get harmed by them. Principals make people aware and teach them about the use of language and clam attitude. It influences them and they change their mind and understand the situations well (Ajzen, 2015).

Cognitive principal is another concept of the psychology that emphasis more on the process to understand and re think about the society. It influences the people and they get developed. This principal look upon the emotional factor influence the judgment and give optimistic results to the person (Ajzen, 2015).

3B.3 Analysis on Psychological theories in relation to enhancement of relationships in HSC

There are many theories that guides the persons so that they can improve their health and can perform their responsibilities well towards the society. There are many people those who suffer from the mental illness these theories help in developing the relationship with HSC. By this way their mental conditions can get improved. Apart from this there are many persons those who suffers from other issues like depression and that create problem for them and they feel depressed (Khan, 2014. That affect their life style and impact on the society negatively. These concepts are closely related with the health and social care. With the help of this medical professionals can improve their health and that give positive sign towards improving the condition of the human being. By this way overall health of the individual can get improved. These concepts help in enhancing the retention rate of the persons (Ajzen, 2015).

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Behavioral change:- Changes is human behavior affcets his personality and perception towards any particular person and things. However, it is related with analyzing person's behavior and perception to take any particular thing according to his own mind set.

Stage model by Procheskka and Declemente:- This stage is given by Procheskka and Declemente that presents changes in human behavior stages. There are different stages presented for changes in behavior like complimentary to action to maintenance. In this stage, all steps are carried in spiral form in which human psychology is studied as well further determines manner to changes in human behavior.

Health belief model by Hochbeau (1968) and Baker (1974):- This model presents different benefits and guidelines for health promotion. However, proper human behavior and psychological aspects for positive is created through applying this model. Including this, different aspects of clinic utilization are provided in this model that affects human psychology and their health promotion.

Conclusion

The report is concluded that analyzing human psychology and their behavior is essential for development as well creating positive environment for growth. However, several theories of lifespan development are determined that is useful for overall life stages people such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood and final stage death. In this regard, various case studies for social roles and environmental factors related to displaying human behavior and further work upon it are introduced through this assignment. Including this, case study of Gemma as happy and deaf child is presented where social roles importance is identified. Moreover, case scenario related to story of Pet who requires social environment for effective creativity in his life. In addition to this, social development in case of Jennifer and her behavior is considered that is useful for using social theories to encourage her for better treatment. Apart from this, various therapeutic techniques including different stages of care are identified. Thus, human psychology and different tools for improving their behavior through social roles and taking care of all society's people is understood through this report.

References

  • Ajzen, I., 2015. The theory of planned behaviour is alive and well, and not ready to retire: a commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau, and Araújo-Soares. Health Psychology Review. 9(2). pp.131-137.
  • Akers, R.L., 2013. Criminological theories: Introduction and evaluation. Routledge.
  • Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K. and Li, N., 2013. The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38(1), pp.132-153.
  • Chen, M. F., 2013. Influences of health consciousness on consumers' modern health worries and willingness to use functional foods. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 43(S1). pp.E1-E12.
  • Curtin, N. and McGarty, C., 2016. Expanding on psychological theories of engagement to understand activism in context (s). Journal of Social Issues. 78(2). pp.227-241.
  • De Grandis, M. and et.al., 2016. Adhesion receptors involved in HSC and early-B cell interactions with bone marrow microenvironment. Cellular and molecular life sciences. 783(4). pp.687-703.
  • Ford, S., Scholz, B. and Lu, V.N., 2015. Social shedding: Identification and health of men’s sheds users. Health Psychology. 67(7). p.775.
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