As it has been seen in the recent times that people are more focused towards their health and safety. Thus in order to build that environment in relation to that people are more of like having the responsibilities and duties. As the Health and social care sector have been coming to rise it is important for professionals to examine the people in such a manner that it does not harm them and their needs are full filled also(Barrick, Mount and Li, 2013). The present report is undertaken in order to make an understanding of the psychology of the person in relation to health and social care. Thus for this purpose different psychological theories have been undertaken so that reader of the report will find it easy to interpret various points from it and further can carry a research in relation to the subject matter (Ajzen, 2015).
1.1 Comparison of Theories of Life Span Development
As in order to understand the behavior or perceptions of the people in relation to their health and safety measures (Ajzen, 2015). There are various experts who have given their precious comments on the life span development plans with respect to the study of different individuals and their psychology. Thus what this facilitates is that by having the knowledge of how an individual thinks it is important for the professionals to foster and improve the care techniques for them in order to keep the health standards on(Stephens, Graham and Clough, 2013). Thus in this series different theories have been given among which two are mentioned above.
- Erickson v/s Freud: Sigmund Freud in his theory has said that development in a children happens in stages, which he termed them as Psycho sexual stages and following it Erickson also has given the stages and named them as "psycho social stages", which was pretty in similarity to the Freud theories. Erickson's theory main focus was on the issues and tasks which are being met at specific ages(Maynard, 2013). On the other hand Freud laid his emphasis on the psycho sexual energy or libido. Both of them made and emphasis to show that in both personality develops but among the two better was Erickson's one. As Freud theory focus was on sexual pleasure and when failure occurs then it might lead to personality disorders (Ajzen, 2015).
- Psycho dynamic v/s Cognitive: As both this theory is concerned under psychodynamic approach behavior of people is not learned rather it is forced by unconscious. on the other hand in cognitive approach the behavior of people is learned as under cognitive theory it is said that information is processed and mental changes. Pyschodynamic approach is regarded as unscientific because it cannot be measured or manipulated while in cognitive approach it is a scientific approach because this is of the opinion that brain is similar to ac computer where information can be manipulated(Chen, 2013).
1.2 Psychological theories and their implications on Life span of Human Development
Thus many experts who by studying different individuals have framed different psychological theory which directly deals with the mindsets of the people and thus these theories have also showed the relationship between the outcomes of different negative and positive aspects of psychology (Ajzen, 2015). Thus different theories which are given by experts are:
- Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theory deals with the behavior of persons and this theory deals with the research over different type of behavior of people. Behavioral theory deals with the change in the behavior of the persons as the continuous change in the behavior of persons helps in knowing whither in which condition or situation a particular individual react in which manner thus this is the best basic and common study of the psychology(Panter-Brick, 2014).
- Cognitive Theory: A cognitive theory basically focuses on how our brain process the information and for this purpose research is done not in the real life rather it is done in the laboratory (Ajzen, 2015). This approach implicates that the mental disorders related to cognitive can be learned and so can be unlearned. Here in cognitive theory people are examined on the basis of three traits and that are there understanding, diagnose and solving the problems.
- Psycho dynamic Theory: Here in Psycho dynamic theory it is said that prolonged thinking which has no use can affect the health of the individual by creation of psychological problems and abnormal behavior(Gergen and Gergen, 2014). Thus this particular approach deals with the three parts of mind which are conscious, preconscious and unconscious. here the personality was also divided into three components that is ID, Ego and Superego. Conscious are the ideas or perceptions or thoughts and unconscious are the wishes and desires which is formed in childhood (Ajzen, 2015).
- Humanistic Theory: The humanistic approach is the study of the person at whole as the researcher researching on the individual not only sees them with the eyes of of observer, rather they are viewed as the person actually performing the activities or behaving(Gergen and Gergen, 2014). Thus approach is among the third force in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviorism. A humanistic theory of understanding the people is deterministic.
2.1 Social and biological factors of human behavior
Human behavior includes attitude, perception, individual personality that impacts on its psychology and his nature to deal with people of society. In this regard, different factors as personal abilities, socio-economic environment and so on. Therefore, various kinds of ethics, socialism, behavior and manner to deal with society's people are impacted on social and cultural environment. In this regard, in a family, there is behavior of family members is different in regards of their experiences and environment. Thus, human behavior is based on their psychologies and individual interest towards any particular thing (Akers, 2013). However, human nature is varies to varies from people to people. Including this, they behave differently at several places that impacts on their social ethics as well positive and negative perception for towards society and culture. It influence health and social care for human development as well providing them good quality features for sociology and positive environment. Including this, biological determinants are composition of natural or environmental contributions that is related to providing healthy and positive atmosphere through supportive nature of society (Ajzen, 2015). Along with this, it is determined that human psychology and their behavior are improved through various substances that affect on society and cultural environment effectively.
Nature vs. Nurture controversy:- There is difference between nature and nurture in psychology. However, nature is considered as behavior of any individual including his attitude and perception towards any particular thing. While, on the other hand, nurture is influenced by external environmental factors involves care from companion and family for any individual.
Social factors:- It includes people lifestyle, behavior, attitude and perception towards sociology and environment. In accordance to this, society and community's behavior and changes in their interest impact on human behavior. Likewise, all determinants related to human behavior and culture affects on environment and development. Thus, social factors impacts on human behavior to live in society and contacting with other people.
Biological factors:- These are external factors that affects human behavior. It includes nutrition, genetics and environmental factors for improving people sociology as well reducing diseases. Therefore, by providing care and creating positive environment, physical and mental development of an individual is possible. Thus, biological factors impact on human nature and thinking for behaving in society and community.
There is a case story presented for Gemma and related to health and social environment. Under this case scenario, it is recognized that Gemma is 5 years old happy girl child who does not speak yet. Through initial assessment, it is identified that she is not facing with any serious diagnostic problem. Therefore, she requires only happy and healthy environment to overcome her disease (Curtin and McGarty, 2016). In accordance to this, it is needed for her family to create social and healthy environment, contacting her with society and community that will be suitable for Gemma to reduce her disease. However, by making positive and applying social and biological factors for healthcare effectively. Thus, healthcare staff and Gemma's family's dedication can work out to supporting her to speak up as well understanding towards her needs and requirements only (Ajzen, 2015). Hence, by using social and biological factors, Gemma's problem can be solved out. It will be helpful for development and reducing the problem.
In context of society, both social and biological factors are important for an individual's development. It is related with creating positive and healthy environment of society for improvements. Through this determinants, physical and mental development of an individual is possible as well healthy relationship among people can be achieved. Hence, human behavior affcets through social biological factors for proper growth and reducing disease effectively.
2.2 Significance of social roles to overcome Gemma's disease
Social roles:- Society and community plays crucial role in individual's growth. It is necessary for creating positive and friendly environment to reduce problems. For this purpose, family members and companion play effective role for improving skills and balancing individual's behavior. However, social role consists of behavior, rights, obligations, beliefs that affects human behavior and his environment to live in society. Thus, social roles are significant for proper development and reducing disease of an individual.
Social and biological factors are liable for creating positive and healthy environment that leads to develop human psychology and tendency for improving skills and reducing their diseases effectively. In this regard, Gemma's case study is related to providing her effective atmosphere as well working on to make her speak up. However, healthcare staff and her family can create positive atmosphere to overcome her disease therefore she can be frank more as well she will try for speak. In this process, social and healthcare sector can improve her disease that will be work out effectively (De Grandis and et.al., 2016). Therefore, social roles can play significant role through creating positive and developing environment there will be appropriate for Gemma's growth and effective for speaking up. Including this, healthcare staff and family's awareness that is useful for improving efficiencies as well increasing quality features for positive environment. In accordance to this, biological factors such as nutrition, creating environment is effective for implementing healthcare facilities. It influences positive and healthcare sector also useful for social development and cultural growth for effectiveness and increasing efficiencies at high level (Ajz