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Critical Review of Research Design

University: Kensington College Of Business

  • Unit No: 4
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 8 / Words 2065
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 81
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss about the research design framework.
  • Explain both epistemology and Ontology assumptions as a research paradigm.
Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Research design provided an appropriate framework for a study and it is a collection o methods and procedure which are used in collecting as well as analyzing the measures of variables which are specified in the problem research. In the same way, for the chosen article discusses the content and causes of emergency power in democratic states. Therefore, exploratory research design is chosen for the article because the primary objective of exploratory research is to explore a problem in order to provide a perception and understanding for more fine research.

That is same done within a chosen article such that article introduce the democratic emergency power data set which further codifies formal rules of an institutional change at the time of emergency for all the democratic state (Hennink, Hutter and Bailey, 2020). However, it is also analyzed that to gain better understanding of an issue, researcher opted exploratory research design. Further, article also examine the determinants of an emergency power strength in the democratic nation. That is why, research opted exploratory research design because it mainly focus on discovery of the ideas and thoughts which is not possible in other type of research design. The entire process of an article is unstructured way and there is no pre- planned design available for the analysis while on the other hand if descriptive design method is used then it will be assist to get proper results even though it is a rigid in nature. Order assignment help from our experts! 

While on the other side, it is critically evaluated that researcher may used descriptive research design because it helps to describe the phenomenon or an idea. Or else, it is mainly concerned with describing the characteristic of a particular group. This type of research design main aim is to obtain complete and accurate information for the study and even the methods adopted must be planned carefully (Hunter, McCallum and Howes, 2018). It is so because as per the article, researcher wants to demonstrate how the effects of an emergency power can be quite dramatic and long lasting.

That is why, if researcher use descriptive research design then it follow the standardized methods while on the other side, exploratory study did not. In addition to this, exploratory research design form the basis for descriptive research design and even knowledge gain using exploratory research design is used to set the priority issue and asking questions that helps to get results. Thus, it is not possible in the case of descriptive research design and that is why, researcher opted this method.

As scholar only want to answer the question i.e. to analyze the emergency power in democratic states and also introduce democratic emergency power data set, that is why, research opted exploratory design (Reiter, 2017). On contrary, it is critically evaluated that to identify the relations between two variables, research may used descriptive research design that helps to examine the relation between previous and current conflict experience influence emergency power provision with domestic determinants that have an impact on the type of instrument states that institutionalize at the time of emergency. That is why, if researcher adopted descriptive research design that helps to protect against bias and also maximize reliability as well, also used probability method in order to get views of other that also support the research to generate exact results.

However it is also analyzed that the selected article is in unstructured format which is a characteristic of exploratory research design. It is so because researcher only explore the theoretical and historical explanation for the origin of an emergency power. However, on the critical note if researcher uses descriptive research design then it will assist to present the structural format with pre- planned design for analysis, which is not possible in the case of exploratory research design (Colorafi and Evans, 2016).

Thus, it is reflected that exploratory research results are remain flexible and also relies upon the aspect of problem which is not possible in the case of descriptive research design. Beside this, using a descriptive research design, researcher will minimize the bias and also maximize the reliability and this in turn help to get accurate results, that is not possible in exploratory design because it only explore one problem rather than including others to generate results.

Furthermore, in the selected article, researcher made small objectives in order to attain the defined aim and as its aim is to determine the emergency power in democratic state, that is why, uses exploratory method of research design. As the topic is non- quantified that is why, researcher may also use descriptive research design because this method helps to analyze the effectiveness of non- quantified topics and issues. The method also gives a better understanding of phenomenon on the basis of an in-depth study which helps to leads towards an accurate results.

As the selected article is completely based upon the emergency power of democratic state in which different states are evaluated. That is why, researcher prefer to use exploratory research design rather than descriptive research design. Rahi (2017) stated that when a researcher conducting a research and nothing is known, they they should use exploratory research design but when one relevant variable is identified then researcher must move to descriptive research design that helps to determine the casual relationship between those variables.Need Assignment Samples?Talk to our Experts!

It is further reflected that exploratory research design did not provide accurate results but it assist to give some conclusive evidence which help in understanding the problem in more effective manner. While on critical note, it is analyzed that descriptive research design validate sort of hypothesis while choosing a specific group of people. Thus, from the article it is analyzed that researcher provide an important source of comparative institutional variation for the democratic state that recent history suggest but did not exactly determine the emergency power which democratic state may used (Atmowardoyo, 2018).

Therefore, it reflect that exploratory research design did not leads to exact conclusion, but helps to provide small understanding related to topic. That is why, descriptive research design should be adopted that leads to generate accurate results and also develop further possible areas of study. As this method did not answer the question which are start from how, when and where but it involves observing as well as describing the behavior of a subject without influencing any subject in another way.

The research paradigm which is used in the selected article is Ontology and Epistemology. On the other side, Positivism research paradigm is followed in the article because the article is based upon the two factor which contribute to the success of study. Also, describe the relationship between these factors in order to attain the aim. In the same way, positivism research paradigm is a conceptual framework which help to analyze the relationship between two variables (McGuire-Adams, 2020). Thus, as per the article it is also analyzed that researcher examine how the effects of these emergency power can be quite dramatic and long lasting. While, scholar also introduce Democratic Emergency Powers data set which further codifies the formal rules regarding the states of emergency. For that, researcher also conduct Bayesian Factor analysis that helps to measure the latent strength of the power of an executive for each emergency provision. While on the other hand, it is critically evaluated that research may used interpretivism research paradigm that mainly integrates human into a study. Further, this paradigm also governed by the subjectivity and then study human behavior in their daily life rather than in controlled environment.

As research paradigm is consider one of the important part in the research methodology and it also has two important element i.e. Epistemology and Ontology. In the same way, the selected article also used these two assumption within its research In order to make the research more reliable and valid. Therefore, Epistemology is used to determine how researcher come to know something and it is also focus on the human knowledge which researcher used to make better understanding. In the same way, to determine the results in article through factor analytic model, researcher observe measures corresponding to the element within constitutional provision which are assumed to be inter correlated. It is so because they are driven by the same latent construct emergency empowerment. Further through an article also analyzed that each dimension is related to the strength of power which is granted to the executives at the time of emergency (Rooney, 2019). Further, there are many assumption which are presented in the research but it is critically evaluated that if researcher rely on information from people, books and leaders then this epistemology is converted into an authoritative knowledge. Therefore, it is reflected from an article that there is no sample is selected and researcher collect information from the assumption and books.

That is why, under epistemology assumptions, if the researcher put emphasis on understanding that knowledge is best derived from sense experience and objectives fact then approach leans towards an empirical epistemology. The same is also used in the article because researcher take factual evidence as a truth and develop a relationship between two variables in order to generate accurate results that mainly helps to meet the defined aim and objectives. Such that as per the article, researcher assume that of the 172 legal document, 117 begin at the time of democratic year, in which 55 are holdover from non- democracy time. Thus, it is analyzed that to get true results, from the secondary source, researcher proves that emergency power strength in Sri Lanka range from -1.02 in 1957 which increases by 1 in 1981 that cover nearly the total range of emergency power strength (Rooney, 2019).

On the other side, Ontology is mainly concerned with the assumption which a researcher make in order to believe that something make sense or is real. Thus it also examine belief system of a researcher that helps to conceptualizing the form and nature of reality. The same is followed in the selected article in which researcher present that there are many state which have stronger emergency power i.e. France and Turkey. While on the other hand, Trinidad and Tobago are also strongest emergency power which suggest that it is not simply the most obvious aspect of an international and domestic environment that leads to an emergency power provision. Therefore, this strong facts clearly shows that ontology element of research paradigm (O'Cathain, 2020). Struggling with dissertation , get dissertation help london from our experts!!

Thus, it is clearly reflected that this is consider an important element of the research paradigm which provide an understanding of the things that further constitute the world as well. Or else, through this element, researcher also examine underlying notion and some philosophical assumptions which helps to conduct the research in more variable manner. Further, using this paradigm, researcher also use Polity scores in order to difference between democracies and autocracies, its underlying assumption is such that the institution captured in the scores are static. But on the other side, to prove it true, researcher also examine the relationship between emergency power strength and polity scores and analyze the there is no relationship between these two variables.


Therefore, it is evaluated that researcher uses both epistemology and Ontology assumptions as a research paradigm in order to make research true and valid. But on the other side, it is also critically evaluated that by using interpretivism research paradigm, scholar may also get better results with better conclusion. Overall, through an entire research, it is evaluated that if researcher uses descriptive research design because the entire process is structured while in the case of exploratory it is unstructured. Therefore, to meet the defined aim and objectives and answer the research question in more better mode, researcher may uses descriptive research design rather than exploratory as it leads to get accurate results.

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