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Health Promotion Theories

Role Of Health Promotion In Society

Introduction To Health Promotion Theories

Today in present scenario, world is continuously growing towards modernization. People are adopting various habits without considering about their health and well being. This is the reason; several types of diseases and health problems are arising in them. Especially the adult youngsters of age in between 18 to 25 years are becoming attracted towards rejuvenation to match with the level of present environment. Due to this, it has become very essential for all the nations to take serious measures so as to reduce dangerous risks for health of people (Evers, 2006). Also, government should make them understand about kinds of health problem thy can have along with its prevention by taking some initiatives. For this purpose, number of health promotions are there that are playing a crucial role in making people inform about their health issues by focusing on their habits.

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In the present report, there will be a study on one of the most common health issues that is being faced by almost all nations, that is, “Drinking” which refers to alcoholic consumption by people (Drinking Habits Amongst Adults, 2012). Here, data and statistics regarding health promotion for drinking habit of adult youngsters in United Kingdom will also be shown. With the help of two theories to promote health, avoidance of habit of alcoholic consumption with its resolving process will be discussed as well. These two theories are Transtheoretical model and Relapse prevention (Wimbush and Watson, 2000).

Details Of Chosen Theories And Stages For Action

The transtheoretical model is based on behavior change that assesses the readiness of individual for acting on a behavior that is healthy followed by providing strategies as well as precise of change. These are there to guide the individual through stages of changing to action and Maintenance.

Relapse prevention on the other hand is said to be a cognitive-behavioral approach which is based on a goal to identify as well as prevent the situations of high risk. It aids in treating of alcoholism and even alcohol dependence.

Application And Consequences Of Theories

Both these approaches will help in making adult youngsters of UK understand the risk they are having with this habit and it will also suggest them the idea and process through which they can avoid consuming alcohol. With the help of these theories, people can make understand about the importance of their life and so as their health and well being. Through it, they can be benefitted to develop a positive attitude towards physical and mental condition of them which would help them to keep away from tendency of drinking (Frost, 2008). Transtheoretical theory that is going to be explained in this report will give details about how a healthy behavior can be adopted and unhealthy one can be neglected. With particular number of steps, this theory supports a person to avoid his drinking habit and to lead a healthy and happy life. Relapse prevention theory will help adult youngsters in identifying the high risk situations like substance abuse, depression, obsessive compulsive behavior etc (Röthlin, 2013). For alcoholism patients, it proves to be one of the most effective health promotion theories. Both the approaches help individuals to quit their alcohol consumption practice and to change their behavior to live a happy life.

Among so many theories of health promotion, these two are being selected because of the reason that they play a crucial role in curing an addicted individual with the habits like smoking and drinking. They prove to be successful in making people ready to change their attitude to transform it into new healthier behavior. It will provide various strategies and processes so as to give guidance to people for crossing through stages of change to action and maintenance. These are like self control programs by which adult youngsters that are addicted with their drinking practice can anticipate and cope with the potential of these theories (Scriven and Garman, 2007). It also helps in analyzing risky situations like social pressure and emotional state of a person. Through these approaches, damage control programs can also be controlled with minimum negative consequence. Both transtheoretical and relapse prevention theory plays a significant role for alcoholism treatment and also suggests immediate determinants. Number of global and specific strategies is adopted in order to allow therapist and patient to meet each step of these theories and have a leading and successful life (Weber and Janet, 2001).

In accordance with the current statistics of adult drinkers in United Kingdom, alcoholism has become one of the most common issue by which population is getting affected. Because of this, nation is facing various challenges like in 2012, 58% of adults who used to live in their households use alcohol at least once in a week. It includes both men and women of the country. Ratio of males was 72% and for females it was 57%. 22% of the adult youngster’s population used to have drink 5 days a week in which 13% was of man and 9% was of women. People of age 18 to 24 were taking heavy drinks of alcohol at least once during a week with 26% of men population and 28% of women (Statistics on alcohol, 2014). On the day of heavy drinking, they used to take very hard drinks like stout, lager, cider, spirits or liqueurs. Generally who are smokers used to take alcohol twice a week with 25% population and non smokers used to drink heavily with 11% of adult youngsters inhabitants. In accordance with the statistics of 2011 and 2012, around 13,299 young adults were having health problems due to high consumption of alcohol. Approximately 108,906 adults were in structured alcohol treatment in United Kingdom. It was also found that on some special occasions, units of drinks which young adults take increased from 2 to 8 for males and for females it has raised from 1 to 6 (Statistics on Alcohol: England, 2013).

Many key components of both the selected theories are there which helps people with alcoholism to understand value of their health and well being. Transtheoretical model provides help in analyzing different levels of the process through which when people goes, it becomes easy for them to leave their those habits which are having negative impacts on them and their family like smoking and drinking. The manner in which an individual would get influenced for changing his behavior is justified from this model. So, in this way it can be said that it proves to be very supportive in rising awareness in people who use alcohol regarding their ill effects on their health and well being (Wimbush and Watson, 2000). Along with the health promotion campaigns, social workers also work in order to cure these people and to create alteration in their habits. In these programs, the patients and social workers are given with the opportunity to interact openly without having any hesitation and to make them understand the consequences that they may face if drinking would not be stopped. Through these practices, individuals become motivated to quit their habits and a positive attitude with encouraging change comes in them (Potter and Perry, 2006).

With the help of relapse prevention therapy, individuals are given with assistance to avoid their use of alcohol or drug through various relapse prevention plans. In this, people are highly supported in reducing their stress or depression through several social interactions by which reason behind their consumption of alcohol is known. Along with that, a positive friendship with these patients is also built so as to make them comfortable for sharing their feelings (Thorogood and Coombes, 2010). Through so many initiatives that are taken in this approach, people become self controlled and developed that they can cope up with their situations. They are generally engaged with unidentified source of support and communication so that their hidden feelings can be known as it will provide help for curing them.

As the selected group of people who consume alcohol is of young adults in UK, they are mostly using these drugs in need of some social support and an environment which can make them feel happy. Generally they indulge with these habits because of stress with their work or personal issues. In these cases, they require healthy surroundings across them along with support of people who matters in important decision of their life. They need social and emotional hold up for quitting this tendency of them (Hassandoust and et. al, 2011). Individuals who suffer with alcoholism habit needs an encouraging and enthusiastic environment around them so that whatever issues they are facing, they would forget those and lead their life with smoothness and positivity in it (Marriner and Raile, 2005).

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In accordance with relapse prevention theory model, high risk situation is the key concept of it which serves as immediate indicator of initial consumption of alcohol by people. This model says that these are the high risk situations by which reason of people for consuming alcohol can be known. Response of an individual to these situations states their cognitive behavior which should be activist to get positive results. However, if there will be some threat to the individual’s sense of control, there may be chances of relapse crisis (Ford and Furlong, 2005). Alcoholic patients who had received impatient treatment can be categorized into emotional, environmental and interpersonal characteristics due to which they started drinking. In some cases, they have positive emotional state which makes them to have exposure to alcohol like by getting influenced by seeing friends drinking and enjoying. But it can be critically analyzed that there may be chances that they would have negative emotional states like anxiety, depression, frustration, etc. It comes under intrapersonal high risk situation with having highest rate of relapse (Norcross, Krebs and Prochaska, 2011).

The reasons due to which it may cause are like feeling of boredom or loneliness or might be because of the environmental events like aggressiveness due to heavy workload. In spite of having so many negative aspects, if a person tries to manage his conditions with his will power, he can deal with that. Another situation may be like in which individual would have some conflict with another person which is a type of interpersonal high risk situation. In this case, person has negative emotions and also it serves as triggers for more than half of all relapse. However, individuals should be strong enough to handle these situations (Paek, 2011). One more reason for occurring relapse is to have social pressure. When people have indirect, verbal or non verbal pressure on them, it leads to relapse.

Then coping with these situations comes in where people possess effective coping responses, they generally have confidence and trust on themselves that they can cope up with the situation. Here, the possibility to have chances of relapse decreases as people are strong enough to deal with the circumstances. Their motivational level along with will power is very high and they can easily resist alcohol in high risk situations (Chandler, 2006). Conversely, if individuals who consume alcohol possess ineffective coping responses would have less self-assurance about them that will result into initial lapse. In this case, people generally think that to consume alcohol is good for them and would not have any side effect. But it can be critically evaluated that these inhabitants have less ability to resist alcohol in high risk situations. This is the reason, probability of relapse increases in this case (Pender, Murdaugh and Parsons, 2006).

There is a critical difference in between initial stage when person starts drinking and the level when his habit becomes uncontrolled. Sometimes there are situations which make a person start drinking as after its consumption, they feel relaxed. On the contrary, whether this habit will be controlled or uncontrolled depends on the nature of situation and his response to that state of affairs. An individual who takes drink usually and made some mistake, if he would think in a positive way like if according to him a person learns from his mistake only, he would not get addicted to that habit (Naidoo and Wills, 2000). However, if he would feel guilty for the mistake that has been done by him and negative emotions occurred in him, then there are higher chances that the person will get addicted towards alcohol. This reaction generally occurs for avoiding the feeling of guilt and negative emotions for oneself. People who have strong determination are more able to develop many ways to cope with the high risk situations that that of those who have less will power. So according to this model, with the help of self confidence and strength of mind, people who use drinks can cope up with high risk situations and can avoid their habit of drinking (Aronson, Wilson and Akert, 2003).

This model provides the complete information about different stages in which individuals who consume alcohol behaves when they goes through from these levels. Through this model, it can be indentified that process of bringing overall change in behavior and thinking of these people helps them the most to cope up with their habit. However, it cannot be considered as an event or program as these changes are occurred because of the feelings that generates due to their drinking habit. There are basically five stages in this model, that is, pre contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance (Burbank and Riebe, 2002). In order to avoid and change this habit of drinking, individuals need to go through these levels. Each stage consists of certain factors of motivation which supports people in changing their lives in such a way that it will have an impact on their behavior and habit of drinking as well. But it can be critically analyzed that most of the individuals do not even realize that they should stop using alcohol as they enjoys it (Röthlin, 2013). These steps can be applied on avoiding practice of drinking of people and play a crucial role in changing their attitude and beliefs.

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In pre contemplation stage, people who consume alcohol does not care about their health and do not give any consideration to the fact that they should change their behavior and habit. However, if people do not accept the fact that modification in their practices is necessary, it can ruin their lives. They do not even take any initiatives in order to bring alteration in their drinking habit. In spite of the fact that most of the people who are using alcohol lie in this stage, usually they do not want to avoid this habit of them (Wight, 2008). There may be the reason that they might be not aware with the ill effects of drinking on their physical and mental condition. In contemplation level, people starts thinking that they should make alteration in their behavior as it having negative impacts on their health. They start caring about themselves and plans to take initiatives for their well being. But these plans are not converted into practicality in this step. Feeling of consciousness begins in them and they think that some measures to avoid this have to be taken. In this step, sometimes pressure of friends, relatives or family members exist who want these individuals to eliminate habit of drinking from them as it would be having very serious issues in future (Paek and et.al, 2011). It makes them conscious and they become bound to think that they should modify their behavior for them and for the people who matters in their life. On the contrary, somewhere they are one of the reason for which individuals start drinking.

Next is the determination stage in which individuals who are consuming alcohol becomes strong-minded that they have to change their drinking habit. They show strong commitment for changing their tendency of taking alcohol in their usual routine. However, it can be critically analyzed that just to have determination is not enough till the action is being taken. Various health promotion campaigns comes into picture at this level which plays a significant role in making people realize about to modify their behavior (Barnes, 2011). Support of family and society is also one of the most supportive elements for these individuals in this phase. After that, finally action is taken where actual alteration in the habits of these drinkers is made with the help of various activities in which they are required to participate. This process proves to be very helpful in making people avoid their addiction for habits like smoking and drinking. On the contrary, it can prove to be fruitful only in case of if this modification will remain maintained. So last but not the least, to sustain with the change and make it consistent is equally important (Evers, 2006). Only after this, people become benefitted with this process of trantheoretical theory. For people with habit of alcoholism, it is important not to try drinking once they have avoided it as it can be critically said that if it happens again, to avoid it another time would become very difficult.

Effectiveness Of Chosen Theories

In this respect, for the purpose of avoiding habit of alcohol consumption, two of its theories play a significant role in changing attitude and behavior of people. These approaches are Transtheoretical and Relapse Prevention Theory Models. Both these theories are effectivbe as they provide support in making people realize to make alteration in their behavior so as to have healthy life by keeping others happy too. These individuals highly require these changes and that can be done only by making individuals cross through the stages of these behavior change models. By the help of this, people who uses alcohol gets highly motivated to quit their habit of drinking (Scriven and Garman, 2007).

Implications For Future Practice

In order to change drinking habit of young adults of United Kingdom, various recommendations can be given by which they can be influenced to leave their habit. To handle these patients, first, social care workers should be very supportive to cure them with due care and affection. These people require other’s love only which makes them feel that they are not lonely. These health care workers should understand the mental state of the patient in a well manner as it will help them to provide him treatment in a correct manner (Weber and Janet, 2001). Along with that, there should be collaborative working across multidisciplinary teams so that every individual would become familiar with the same. They should show these patients sympathy and also, they should understand them too. Secondly, health promotion campaigns should not just focus on spreading awareness in minds of patients of alcoholism but should take various measures in order to motivate them to quit habit of drinking. Family members of the person should also be made aware with the fact that one of their members requires their support to change his tendency to drink which can ruin his life (Potter, and Perry, 2006).

Conclusion

From this present report, by seeing all the facts and information with justification, it can be concluded that with the help of health promotion theories, people with any habit can be influenced to change their behavior. The promotional campaigns of its theories proves to be very helpful in making people aware with the consequences that they can face if they would not change their habits. It makes them aware as well as provides them education about all the ill effects with which they might suffer (Röthlin, 2013).

References

  • Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D. and Akert, R.M., 2003.Social Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Barnes, H., 2011. Does mental illness have a place alongside social and recovery models of mental health in service users' lived experiences? Issues and implications for mental health education. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice.
  • Burbank, P. M. and Riebe, D., 2002. Promoting Exercise and Behavior Change in Older Adults: Interventions with the Transtheoretical Model. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Chandler, B., 2006. Diet, obesity and cancer – is there a link. Nutrition & Food Science.
  • Dixon, J., Hinde, S. and Banwell, C., 2006. Obesity, convenience and “phood. British Food Journal.
  • Evers, K. E., 2006. Health Promotion: The use of the internet for health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion.
  • Ford, V. and Furlong, B., 2005. Health Systems and Health Promotion Programs – the Necessity of Cultural Competence: An Ethical Analysis. Research in the Sociology of Health Care.
  • Gibson, S., 2010. Obesity: is it related to sugar in children’s diets?. Nutrition & Food Science.
  • Hassandoust, F. and et. al., 2011. Behavioral factors influencing virtual knowledge sharing: theory of reasoned action. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.
 
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