Project management refers the procedure related to working on a specific project for improving the performance of particular field. It enables corporation to integrate all related resources and complete the project related activities in an effectual manner. Present report is based on construction of Wembley stadium and its effective management related to utilizing the time and resources effectively. For this purpose, report covers the reasons behind failure of the public project management and understanding the varied issues or remedies available to improve the performance of the project in a cost effective manner. In addition to this, triple constraint triangle theory and importance of stakeholders etc are explained in context of the Wembley stadium project. Moreover, success and failure of the project has been explained along with application of suitable methodology to complete the same.
The project of Wembley stadium has been taken into account which is construction project. Here, the specific purpose of stadium consists of several functions such as rugby matches and football so as to organize the private evenest and other related concerts. Owing to this, issues related to time is faced along with higher cost. For this purpose, current project is being implemented in order to save time as well as cost so as to accomplish the purpose of the stadium effectively. However, the procedure of construction was delayed due to the bidding. For this purpose, lowest cost request was order for the contractors in order to ensure the optimum utilization of the limited resources (Alotaibi and Mafimisebi, 2016). On the other hand, implementation phase was delayed as the arch execution was challenging. For this purpose, appropriate project management work should be done under which bidding related issues can be resolved. For example, profession and qualified personnel can be invited for the bidding so they can focus on the services. Moreover, experienced engineers were needed so as to implement the more advanced design in the construction of Wembley stadium. Accordingly, project management related task has been completed through following the below mentioned steps or aspects.
There are several stakeholders associated with the project which are explained as follows-
- Contractors or engineers-The major issue related to Wembley stadium was associated with wrong suppliers and bidders. They were focusing on higher cost which tend to increase the budget to a great extent. For this purpose, qualified personnel were required to associated in the project who can manage the performance of the project effectively. However, advanced design of the project can be made possible with the inclusion of skilled and competent engineers (Heagney, 2016).
- Labour-Labour associated with the project must also possess the necessary skills who can effective contribute towards the success of the project. It would be more effective to cater the requirement of the project and complete the same in relatively less time span.
- Customers-The customers or audience are the main parties who will consume the services rendered through Wembley stadium. For this purpose, preferences of customers are taken into account while preparing the stadium. For example, appropriate ventilation, air facility and seating arrangement is taken into account. This in turn meet the expectations of people attention the event effectively (Richard, Sorooshian and Shariman, 2016).
- Community-The general community surrounding the stadium is also affected through several factors. At this juncture, project should be completed by focusing on their requirement and proper facilities related to disposal of waster etc. At the same time, water and air pollution should not be occurred to general community. These specific aspects are considered as the time of completion of the construction project.
- Sports people-It is the most important stakeholders associated with the project of Wembley stadium. They need several kind of facilities regarding practice, rest rooms and other facilities. It is considered at the time of preparing structure of stadium and providing the basic amenities for the players (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016).
- Government and shareholders-It covers people who invest the fund in the completion of the project. Government must specific the budget effectively as per the requirement of the project. At the same time, government or shareholders have certain expectations related to quality and return which must be accomplished through consideration.
However, some of the ways are applied for the completion of project should be effective under which business ensure to associate the qualified and highly skilled personnel. Similarly, the management team should be strong who can effectively cope up with the changes and address the issues which are being faced at the time of completion of the project.
Time management refers to the appropriate management of activities within the given time span. For this purpose, management must list all the activities to be covered under the project. The below mentioned table is showing detail information related to activities covered under the project. This proves to be effective for project management to assigning the right task to right people and ensure the accomplish the standards set for the project (Bresnen, 2016). The time line of each activity has also been presented through which it becomes easy for the researcher or corporation to meet the long as well as short term objectives of the project in a right manner. It would be effective to support all project managers or members associated in the team.
The management is considered as the most typical task in the project management. It assists employees to input their knowledge for improving service delivery procedure. These are explained as follows-
- Unreasonable allocation-It is very important in a specific project to allocate the financial resources and other related in accordance with different project. This enables project manager to control the risk and reach at the fruitful outcome effectively (Patanakul and et. al., 2016). Furthermore, unreasonable allocation tend to increase the cost and make the service delivery very poor.
- Cash-flow problems-The issue related to poor cash flow was also found under the project of Wembley stadium. This affected the project performance to a great extent because people associated with the same found issue regarding reducing the cost of operation. In addition to this, cost of operation was very higher in comparison to requirement of the project just because of association of poor resources allocation aspects.
- Poor performance-The performance of workforce associated in the project was not up to the mark. The personnel involved in the team was not skilled and highly talented through which they face issues in completing the project on time along with low cost. Though, the poor performance is the outcome of ineffective personnel who do not possess necessary skills and attributes (Sökmen and Çebi, 2017).
- Poor site management-Under this, poor site management is the crucial issue through which al associated members cannot focus on their task as they were guided in the wrong direction. It serves as the waste of the money and increase the cost to a great extent. Owing to this, it significant to include highly competent and experienced engineers who can handle the performance related to project in a right manner (Blomquist, Farashah and Thomas, 2016).
- Design changes-The risk related to managing the change remain higher under public project due to association of huge amount for the construction whereby increase in fuel cost due to economical and political changes has direct impact on the cost of material. It facilitates to support the business to a great extent and contribute towards the success of the business in an effectual manner. In addition to this, economic and political risk should be minimized with the implementation of the emergency plan. It contribute towards the long run success and completion of the all related activities of the project.
The team consists of workers, project management and financers in the project who actively take part in the process of project competition. However, the role of project manager, contractors and engineers is considered as the crucial who work upon the major activities and accordingly roles and responsibilities of all employees is decided in advance. This proves to be effective to integrate all related resources and reduce the cost of operation (Paquin, Gauthier and Morin, 2016). Project owner plays important role and in the current project manager will serve as the significant role.
The general director handle the work related to allocation of finance and other resources as per the activities of construction project related to Wembley Stadium. It assists members to get the right direction as per the activities defined in the project. However, team leader is responsible for the allocation of work in accordance with capabilities and skills of the personnel. This facilitates to shed light on time saving and cost saving aspect. It is because workforce get the work as per the requirement (Lakemond and et. al., 2016). However, the suppliers contracted must be coordinated properly so they will get to know about the requirement related to project.
For this purpose, management of the project complete the task regarding the appropriate communication procedure under which timely meeting is taken with the workforce and they are informed regarding he schedule of initiation of each activity. Not only this but they are promoted to reduce the time taken for the completion of the project. It aids to determine the allocation of resources effectively. It aids to cater requirement of all related stakeholders ans support project t get completed on time. It can be critically evaluated that conflict among team members occur due to less clarity in their work (Kivilä, Martinsuo and Vuorinen, 2017). This tends to affect their performance to a great extent and in turn they cannot contribute equally towards the success of the project. However, responsibility assignment matrix is followed by the project manager through which all related responsibilities of members is defined in advance and accordingly they get the power or resources to manage all related task in an effectual manner.
In addition to this, project manager follow the most suitable strategy or leadership style whereby workforce can be motivated and influenced in order to accomplish the given task. This aids to encourage them to put their efforts in the direction of growth and success of the project. Not only but they are provided reward for their better performance and achievement in the project. It can be made possible through continuous evaluation and monitoring of the project.
The below mentioned table is showing the total cost associated with the project. It covers cost related to each activity and its direct impact on the performance of the project. However, the total cost of the project was estimated to be £1 billion. The actual cost of the Wembley stadium has been stated as follows. It would be effective for the project management to accomplish all related activities. The higher cost was related to purchasing the site only which tend to increase overall cost of the project (£750m bill turns Wembley into a new Dome, 2017). Owing to this, suitable care should be taken at the time of allocation of fund. This in turn project manager focuses on reducing the cost associated with the project and meet the aim and objectives of the same in an effectual manner.
Tripple Contraint Triagle
It is considered as the most important theory under the project management which deals in the three aspects such as scope, cost and time. It proves to be effective for formulating and analysing the challenges faced at the time of formulation, evaluation and implementation of private or public related projects. For this purpose, project management team focus on allocation of financial resources effective with a purpose to reduce cost and increase overall rate of return. For example, Wembley stadium needs proper financial resources through which all facilities can be added at the time of the completion of the project (Kivilä, Martinsuo and Vuorinen, 2017). Furthermore, emergency sources must also be allocated whereby company or project can be funded in case of requirement of scarcity of the financial resources. However, expert of project in the finance department estimate the proper cost as per the activities covered under the project. This proves to be effective in determining the success of the project and deliver good quality of services to large number of buyers. This facilitates to meet the objectives of the project effectively.
Furthermore, certain portion of capital can be set aside whereby it is made possible to change the project development requirement in case needed. This helps to deliver good quality of services to large number of buyers and accordingly accomplish all related activities in a right manner. On a critical note, wrong estimation was done on the Wembley stadium project was not right. This was the biggest reason behind the delay in the project and affected. whereby it becomes easy to cater requirement of all related parties and project in an effectual manner. In addition to this, alternative ways of the financing must be decided in advance so that company can address the issue related to scarcity of resources and meet the expectations of all associated parties.
Time as another important factor of the triple triangle where all project have different time line. Here, timeline of the project is considered in accordance with the several formal and informal factors. It consists of workers associated with project or site through which they can successfully accomplishing the project in relatively less time span. Time management of the project determines its success whereby scheduling is done through project managers so as to estimate the proper time for each project management step (Blomquist, Farashah and Thomas, 2016). Though, time management covers all activities such as acquisitions of raw material and making the available to the site. However, the case study of Wembley stadium reflects that delay was caused due to poor time management and accordingly it was stretched to 5 years. It could have been completed in less time.
In addition to this, scope of the project was also considered but still it leads to failure of the same. Here, scope of the project was considered in accordance with economic and technological changes. For example, construction project consider the economic changes that inflation and recession tend to affect the performance of the business to a great extent (Sökmen and Çebi, 2017). Owing to this, price of fuel might be increased which has significant impact on the material or transportation. This affects the performance of the project and in turn cost and time must be focused. The project related to Wembley stadium shed light on time and cost so as to effectively management the project related activities. On a critical note, in-spite of appropriate procedure related to quality, initial used raw material was of low quality. This affected the performance of the project. Thus, time, cost and scope of the project related to Wembley stadium was not decided effectively which in turn failure was occurred to the project.
Methodologies And Processes
There are several kind of project management methodologies which are selected in accordance with requirement of the project. As per the selected project of Wembley stadium following mentioned project management methodologies and processes are used for the success of the project-
Critical path method
This method is used for the reduction of the time taken to complete the project. Under this, all activities of project are presented with the help of Gantt chart so that management team can come to know about taken for each activity. Using the gantt chart take related to allocation of resources and responsibilities also become quite easier. The next step of forming the gantt chart is of critical path where longest path to complete the project in shortest duration is identified. Here, project management put efforts to reduce the time require to complete the project with association of highly skilled workforce along with advanced technologies. It contributes towards increase flow speed of competing the project (Richardm, Sorooshian and Shariman, 2016). Furthermore, critical path method is also applied other techniques related to crashing through which strategies related to cost reduction is applied along with further reduction in the time. It is made possible by competing several activities together. In this manner, business can effectively contribute towards the success of the project and ensure the increase overall rate of return and short time span. The critical path method is graphical representation of the activities covered under the Wembley stadium project so as to focus on increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the project in an effectual manner. It leads to reduce the cost and time both and complete the respective project on right time. It can be critically evaluated that the major reason behind failure of the Wembley stadium is of inappropriate allocation of time for each activities of the project (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016). However, it is also important to provide the training among personnel so they can work upon several activities together with target to meet the timescale allotted for the project. Similarly, PERT is also the appropriate technique through which appropriate path is decided in the project.
Total quality management
The process applied for the success of the project is total quality management under which six different aspects are focused. It consists different elements such as culture, cooperation and customer focus. Along with that, control, commitment and continuous improvement. For this purpose, culture of team is maintained and followed under team members are encouraged to follow the set standard and support project. For example, focus is laid on specific requirement of customers related to their comfort and basic facilities related to water and eatables in the stadium. On the other hand, commitment towards quality remains at the center of the project under which personnel get to know about the parameters set for the Wembley stadium project. However, earlier team did not follow such kind of approach and workforce were not supported properly due to exclusion of highly skilled personnel (Heagney, 2016). Owing to this, project failure was caused. In addition to this, continuous improvement is done as per the changing environment and requirement in accordance with current era. This is helpful for the successful completion of the project. Though cooperation must be provided from each member associated in the project team. This leads to long run success and growth and contribute towards higher rate of return out of the completion of the project. Apart from this, controlling is done with better monitoring and evaluation. This proves to be effective to understand the issue of the project and address the same by using suitable strategy.
Success And Failure
There are several factors caused failure of the project such as inclusion of less skilled personnel in the project. For example, bidding process was the most problematic due to consideration to the lowest bidder and accordingly project was given. On a critical note, quality of the project affected to a great extent and use of financial resources was increased at the same time. For this purpose, project management must take suitable action to select the appropriate personnel who can utilize the limited time in a most effective manner (Project Failure – Wembley Stadium, 2017). Furthermore, issue of communication was another significant barriers which affected the success of the project. For this purpose, it is important to shed light on the important task related to the project and accordingly take the suitable action. It is affect for the business to support the management related activities by providing the important information among personnel of the project. However, the chances of the conflicts is also reduce with the help of clear communication only.
For this purpose, it is very important for the project management to select the right kind of suppliers to provide the raw material on right time with cost effective transportation mode. This in turn management can ensure the utilize the limited resources in an effectual manner. In addition to this, personnel associated with the project should be provided timely training (Alotaibi and Mafimisebi, 2016). It can be made possible by shedding light on the requirement of the project and capabilities of the same. This proves to be effective to determine the long run success of the project and accordingly meet the long as well as short term objectives of the related parties. Apart from this, quality parameters and resources allocation of the project must be done or defined appropriately so as to complete the project in a successful manner.
The aforementioned report concludes that management project contribute towards maintaining the quality and reducing the cost. It is done by using appropriate techniques such as critical path method and other related advanced technologies. It proves to be effective to meet the expectations of related parties. It can also be concluded that public project must be completed by focusing upon transparency and proper accountability of the associated or suitable personnel. However, issues related to team must be resolved effectively through the proper communication so as to determine the success of the project. Apart from this, resources available and delegation of authority should also be made possible with the help of project management. In addition to this, cost allocation can be done effectively with the objective to reduce the time and ensure the effectiveness of the project.
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- Heagney, J., 2016. Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
- Richard, H.A., Sorooshian, S. and Shariman, M., 2016. Lean Construction: An Effective Approach for Project Management.ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11(3). pp.1607-1612.
- Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016.Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley & Sons.
- Bresnen, M., 2016. Institutional development, divergence and change in the discipline of project management.International journal of project management. 34(2). pp.328-338.