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Principles of Management and Leadership of Organisation

University: High School

  • Unit No: 501
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 17 / Words 4153
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 290
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss about the difference between management and leadership.
  • Discuss about the Impact of organisational structure on management roles.
  • Discuss about the Knowledge and skills for management and leadership role.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Leadership and management are both important factors that affects the operations and activities within a company. A good and effective leadership is needed for managing all the employees working in the organisation. For operating a successful business it in needed that managers as well leaders have worked effectively for attaining organisational targets and goals. The company considered in this company is Marks and Spencer which is a retail sector company. The headquarters of this company are situated in London, United Kingdom. It was founded by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in year 1884. This company includes impact of legal status on governance of the company. It includes vision, mission and purpose of the company. There is explanation about relationship between management and leadership and impact of value and culture on leadership and management (Birasnav, 2014). There is discussion on Knowledge and skills required for management and leadership role and factors that affect communication techniques required for effective management.


Impact of legal status on the governance of an organisation

Organisations have the responsibility for managing and controlling various functions and operations which are to be performed within given time. There are basically three types of organisations present within market such as public, private and voluntary (Bolden, 2016). All these have their own objective and aim. The main thing that is common among all the organisations is that they want to earn profit and money. The legal structure of all these organisations is mentioned below -

Private organisation

This type of organisation is one in which main objective of running company is to make money and earn profits. These can be owned by single person, group of people, partnership, corporation and agency. The legal structure of private organisation is mentioned below -

  • Sole traders – These are defined as those organisations which have to manage business operations on their own. While running business, profit or loss whatever the result is, the consequences are faced by owner. The main owner of company focuses on different aspects like operations, legal and financial while running business.
  • Partnership – This is type of organisation in which less funds are needed for running business. There are two or more partners who work together for running business in partnership (Boyatzis, 2014). Example of private organisation is Lewis Partnership.
  • Public limited companies – These organisations can sell their shares freely within the marketplace. For example: Tesco and Sainsbury's.
  • Private limited companies – These organisations are owned by single owner but they cannot sell the shares within market, e.g. - Airdri.

Public organisation

These organisations are those which deals in products or services which are necessities in life of people (Bush, and Glover, 2014). This includes gas, oil, steel, coal, thermal energy, fertilisers, etc. Main objective of these organisations is to provide basic necessities to people. Lawful structure of the organisation is described below -

  • Central government department – These companies are managed by central government.
  • Local authorities – Such organisations are operated by local or state government.

Voluntary organisation

These organisations are started for providing free service to poor people. The legal structure of voluntary organisation is mentioned below -

  • Trust-In context of this, some specific trustees are there who provide funds and money for running the voluntary organisation. s
  • Others- Community, Royal charter bodies, etc.

Marks and Spencer is a private organisation that is providing products and services in more than one country. He legal structure followed by this company is a public limited company which is owned by Michael marks and Thomas Spencer. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

Purpose of mission and vision of Marks and Spencer

Private Limited:

The private owned organisations are those who have the aim of increasing profits and money earned. They also have the objective of performing well within market and develop goodwill and reputation among market. There is collaboration between top level and middle level managers for running business effectively. Marks and Spencer is a retail company that is dealing in clothes, apparels, super market, luxurious home products, etc. These products are provided in different countries and profit is earned. The global presence of this company helps in covering large target market (Bush, Bell, and Middlewood, eds., 2019). This company conducts effective market research for analysing trends and attitude of customers.

  • Background: This company was started in the year 1884 by two friends Michael marks and Thomas Spencer. This company serves in more than 12 countries across the world. The international expansion of this company got a great success since the the starting.
  • Vision: The vision of Marks and Spencer is to work in global congruence. The main objective is to guide strategy as well as decision making for the company.
  • Mission: The mission statementis to develop and provide inspirational and quality products to customers.
  • Objectives: The main objective of this company is to maximise profits and money. This company has an objective to increase market share of the company as well as reputation within market.
  • Products: M&S is offering various products like home products, top rated bedding, cookware, accessories, clothing, Egyptian cotton towels, crockery, dressing products, hair appliances, etc.
  • Size: This company is having around 959 stores across UK. There are more than 600 stores that are involved in selling food products.
  • Structure: Functional organisational structure is adopted in M&S. This makes it easy for managers to spread information to all organisational level (Cherry, and Jacob, 2016).

Impact of organisational structure on management roles

There are different departments that work together in M&S for attaining organisational goals and targets. They are interrelated to each other and collaboratively work for achieving the assigned goals within less time. The interrelation among these departments is described below -

Marketing and finance – Main aim of marketing department within M&S is to conduct marketing campaigns and attract more number of customers towards buying products their company. The advertising and marketing activities have to make positive decision in process of consumer buying. Finance is required for conducting various campaigns at different locations. The finance department provides budget for organising advertising campaigns and marketing programs. 

HR and marketing – The human resource manager of the company has responsibility of managing activities associated with personnel (Davis, and Jones, 2014). It is essential for marketing managers to have effective employees who can work in the company and make strong marketing strategies and plans. The collaboration between marketing and HR department is important as it will help in taking care of all the employees working in marketing department. On other perspective, talented employees will be hired in the company that will provide fruitful objectives by doing great work.

Organisational structure

Organisational structure is defined as the hierarchy that is followed within an organisation for performing various operations and activities. In context of M&S, there are various departments which are assigned particular tasks and activities for attaining organisational targets and goals. The structure followed within Marks and Spencer is functional.

The organisational structure in M&S can decrease bureaucracy for making employees to have knowledge about making positive decisions because of less communication between low management levels and upper management levels (Diamond, and Spillane, 2016). The structure followed in this organisation helps in achieving goals of high expectation of staff.

Communication department This is defined as the area in which there is exchange of information between two departments of the organisation. Oral communication is one in which conversation takes place while placing goods with other business. This can be in the form of conference. Written communication in M&S takes place between upper level and middle level managers for dealing with different business situations. Internal communication is one in which the exchange of information takes place using a legal format. This can take place face to face or through Email.

Discuss the impact of organisational values and ethics on management decision making

The organisational values and ethics is an important part of the company as there is need to provide quality products and services to customers. The decision making process of M&S consists top executives that take decisions and these are informed to lower level as well as middle level managers. The incorporation of addressing ethics in decision making of company helps in ensuring that company develops strategic goals that can be attained in specified time. Ethics has to be adopted in all process of M&S so that quality products are provided to customers. This is helpful in achieving customer's trust and loyalty. Another thing is increased value of company in market (Doh, and Quigley, 2014). All the employees working in M&S are provided guidance for doing great work and provide good services as well as products to consumers. Main objective of all employees and staff of M&S is to maximise profit and customer satisfaction. This is done through effective and strong marketing. Employees are provided timely bonus and incentives so that they feel involved and engaged towards working and attaining organisational goals. Also, it is responsibility of managers to make sure that they are following all regulations and rules given by the company while making and delivering products.

Impact of ethics – If Marks and Spencer decides to launch a new product within market, it is important that management is following all regulations followed by retail industries. This helps in increasing goodwill and reputation of company among customers.

Impact of organisation value - It is essential for Marks and Spencer to provide products that are of high quality and value (Donate, and de Pablo, 2015). As this company is serving in market since more than a decade, there is high value within market. This company is having advantage of attracting customers to buy products offered by M&S.


Relationship between management and leadership

Management: The administration system is definedas the control of all the tasks carried out by an organization. In order toensure the proper conduct of activities, it is very necessary for all companies to control their procedures. In Marks and Spencer supervisors carry out their duties properly, helping them function properly. The managers of Marks and Spencer often carries out the operations of finding better ways for company improvement and regulating all measures taken by staff. Proper implementation of all procedures enhances the firm's profits and efficiency.

Leadership: This is defined as the method of guiding workers to accomplish personal as well as corporate goals. Leadership is regarded as management. We mainly have a duty to inspire and make employees efficient (Goetsch, and Davis, 2014). It is also responsible for supporting all workers in carrying out the tasks assigned. Different types of management are used by various types of organizations. Transformative leadership style is accompanied by Marks and Spencer where leaders offer subordinates special project and sense of direction and strive to achieve the same goals. Get Best Management Assignment Help from our management experts!

Difference between management and leadership:





Managers carry out all operations under supervision.

Leaders carry out all leadership operations



Managers monitor uncertainty in the cycle to save capital energy for potential growth and to improve overall production.

When conducting leadership operations, they take risks to cope with failure and result to the achievement of the company.


Long and short run

It is used to compensate for the shorter term, where administrators attempt to control wasteful business operations.

Leadership is a lengthy-term planning process and an endeavour that produces operational performance.

The table described indicates which leadership and management were the different roles of administrators and members. Both of them have specific responsibilities and it is of great significance that they all satisfy them properly. Leaders and managers of Marks and Spencer perform their responsibilities correctly in order to achieve increased profits through the entity and actual corporate productivity (McCaffery, 2018). When executives and representatives carry out their tasks efficiently, they will help businesses to identify and develop efforts to achieve their long-term strategic goals.

How management and leadership styles are adapted in different situations

There are different kinds of leadership styles which companies should follow to conduct business. They all allow companies to achieve their business goals. For leaders, it is important that they inspire their employees to carry out all their operations. these are discussed underneath:

Behavioral: The leadership manneris depended upon onevaluation of various workers ' attitudes. With the assistance of this, leaders evaluate what their fellow officers are prepared to do or what they are capable of doing. Manager build situations to evaluate where their superiors will face difficulties because their company needs to address future implications.

Contingency: This kind of leadership says that while the way leaders attempt to address a particular issue or style corresponds to the critical situation of a company's performance. By using this kind of leadership, business leaders of Mark & Spenser evaluate whether members will reliably operate when the effects of the productivity of the organization are impacted (Molchanov, 2016).

Charismatic: Max Weber, a German sociologist, established this style of leadership. With the aid of members of this kind, the employees are empowered to carry out all their tasks properly. This completely depends onto the charisma and persuasion of rulers and can manipulate followers with the aid of such attributes and ensure they fully discharge all their obligations.

Transformational: It's a style of leadership that most entities obey as it improves the work quality. In Marks and Spencer staff are inspired by requesting them of an input on the plans they devise to develop the whole business. The Marks and Spencer executives hold formal and informal sessions to draft a strategy in order to perform operation. Want to get Assignment help? Talk Our Expert Now!


Knowledge and skills required for management and leadership role




Percentage of personal development

Technological knowledge

The leaders of M&S must know what are the theoretical knowledge about new tools and techniques for delivering of products and services.

The leaders of M&S have good technological skills that help in analysing new and innovative techniques needed for improvement.

The personal development of leaders of M&S must be improved for managing work. s

Interpersonal skills

It is important for leaders to have good interpersonal skills and communicate with employees appropriately.

When leaders are having good interpersonal skills then it is easy to build trust and relation among employees.

The intensity of interpersonal skills of M&S leaders is more.

Delegate and enable delivery through others

The leaders have to assign tasks and activities to individual properly.

M&S leaders can effectively assign tasks and activities to people according to their abilities.

It is important for leaders to have good delegation and guide employees effectively.

Data, security and management and the effective use of technology in an organisation

This is also required by leaders to manage data related to their customers as well as products (Quince and et.al., 2014).

Security of data is important for the company to manage all activities of the company in effective manner.

In context of leaders of M&S, there is effective use of technology by leaders so that there are no errors and problems.

Time management and prioritisation techniques

Good time management is needed for planning and managing different activities required in the company.

It is essential for all leaders to properly manage their time and do great work so that targets and goals can be achieved in given time period.

Leaders must have the responsibility of managing and controlling different tasks in effective manner.

Leading and managing teams

It is important to manage and lead teams for attaining organisational goals.

There are different teams within M&S and they are assigned work according to their skills.

The leaders of Marks and Spencer are responsible for managing work effectively. 

Factors that impact on selection of communication techniques needed for effective management

Communication is the way by which leaders spread their message to different subordinates and employees. For leaders of Marks and Spencer, it is essential to have proper communication in order to attain organisational targets and goals. The different ways of communication used by leaders are oral, written, verbal, non verbal and visual. These are used by managers and leaders of M&S to attain the goals. Some of the communication ways are mentioned below -

Verbal – This is use of language for transferring information by using gestures and signs while interacting with others. This is an important communication type that is used by leaders of Marks and Spencer while giving presentations, phone calls and attending video conferences. This is also included in one to one conversations (Renz, 2016). Verbal communication is an essential and effective way of communicating message to employees and subordinates.

Non Verbal – This type of communication includes facial expressions. It is essential for the leader of company to smile while communicating with others. This helps in building good relations with employees and subordinates working in the company. Efforts are made for displaying positive body language when there is need of alert, open and positive about the surroundings.

Visual – This is type of communication used by leaders for communicating with employees effectively and managing work. While attending video conferences and webinars, leaders have to communicate with different people who are sitting in different parts of the world. Visual communication enables a leader to interact with subordinates in effective manner.

Written - This is an act of writing, printing or typing symbols or letters for transferring information. It is concluded that all leaders of M&S have to use the way of writing for communicating message to their employees. This means that they have to write Emails, letters and messages to the employees and subordinates for conveying their message effectively.

Behaviours required to be effective in a management and leadership role

An effective leader has various responsibility and they have to work towards success of the company. Leaders have greatest impact on decision making of the company. Some of the behaviours of leaders of Marks and Spencer are mentioned below -

Visionary with clarity of purpose – Leaders have to show compelling vision that can attract different people. Leaders develop innovative vision and the main aim of this is to make the organisation to move forward. The managers of M&S have developed great vision for their company to attract a lot of customers towards it's products and services.

Excellent communication – It is important for leaders to have good communication skills so that the can easily guide employees for working in better manner (Riaz, and Khalili, 2014). In context of M&S, leaders communicate with employees through video conferencing, Emails, face to face interaction, etc. A leader is successful when he is able to communicate vision and mission of the company with employees effectively.

Caring about subordinates – Marks and Spencer requires supervisors who can work in an effective manner. Employees can respond in effective manner with the people they are doing work with.

Honesty This is also an essential factor that must be present within leaders for doing great work and performing well. Honest leader is able to make other individuals work according to guidelines followed in the company.

Develop an approach for building a culture of mutual trust, respect and support with individuals as well as teams

It is essential to build mutual trust, respect and support with the employees and team members while working on the company. Within Marks and Spencer, it is concluded that it is developing culture of trust and respect within the employees for managing work in an effective manner. This can be developed within teams and individuals through following ways -

Listening to every person - It is essential for leaders of Marks and Spencer to listen to all employees working in the company. This helps in developing trust and care among employees (Rothaermel, 2015). It is also useful for controlling and managing personnel of the company effectively.

Providing employees sense of care - Caring is essential factor that attracts people of the organisation effectively. Giving employees and subordinates sense of care will bring managers and employees close and in this way, goals can be achieved in less time.

Helpful nature – Leaders of Marks and Spencer are helpful in nature and they provide good services to people across the world. Subordinates and employees need continuous care for managing their work effectively (Shin, and et.al., 2015). If leaders have good relation and bond with employees, it is easy to make them work according to the provided guidance.

Encouraging people to not copy others – A good leader is helpful for managing the work in an effective manner. There must be encouragement among subordinates and employees for doing good work and managing work in proper manner (Thorpe, 2016). It is not important to copy other people and have their own identity while doing work.


From the above discussion, it is concluded that leadership and management are two essential factors which helps an organisation to have smooth running of the company. An effective leader is responsible for handling and managing different business situations and having positive attitude towards attaining organisational goals. There are different leadership theories that are followed for managing the work in an effective manner. Knowledge and skills required for management and leadership role.

Read Also :- Product & Service Development
Managing Finance

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