This sample will let you know about:
- Discuss about the Content and process theories of motivation.
- Discuss about the Organisation behaviour concepts.
- Discuss about the effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Organisational behaviour is mainly associated with study of individual and group behaviour and attitude in a work environment that lead to create a significant impact on job structure, communication, leadership, motivation and performance of an organisation (Myerson, and Bichard, 2016). The organisation selected for this report based on organisational behaviour is Waitrose which is a well know British supermarket selling a wide range of groceries and is also the largest retail organisation of employees owned type businesses. The headquarter of Waitrose is situated at London, UK with around 353 retail outlets and 65 little Waitrose convince shops across the various locations of UK. This assignment includes a description about organisation's culture, politics and power together with critical evaluation to analysis their influence over individual and team behaviour and performance. Beside this, a description about content and process theories is also there which lead to effective achievement of organisational goals. Further, this report includes an understanding about effective and ineffective team along with relevant team and group development theories. Finally, this assignment consists of concept and philosophies of OB.
P1) Organisation’s culture, politics and power
The culture, politics and powers of an organisation are the factors that have significant effect on the motivation level and behaviour of individual and team theretofore plays a crucial role in successes or failure of an organisation (Smedley, 2017).
Overview of company- The Waitrose is the largest employees owned type of British supermarket that is having its headquarters in Bracknell, Berkshire, and Victoria, London, United Kingdom. It is an supermarket dealing in and providing a wide range of groceries items and other products offering coupled with their various strategy that makes Waitrose a fast growing shops and retailer in UK with more than 353 retail outlets along with 65 little convinces shops throughout the various areas of United Kingdom.
A description about organisational culture, politics and power together with their influence over individuals and team behaviour and performance is provided below in context of Waitrose. Ask for assignment help from our experts!
Culture- Culture of an organisation is representative of behaviour and values on which the psychological and social environment of a company depends. An effective, positive and healthy workplace culture within Waitrose organisation facilitates a better control and check on performance and efficiency of individuals and team therefore, lead to smooth flow of activities to have better productivity and overall performance of organisation (Furnham, and MacRae, 2017). As per the Charles Handy typology their are four main types of organisational cultures that exits within an organisation which are as follows:
Role culture- Under this type of organisational culture all the role, responsibilities and authorities are properly bifurcated and divided among teams and individuals therefore, facilitates more clarity and transparency in the organisation. Thus, under role culture individuals and team feel more motivated and positive as their are less chances of chaos and confusion regarding their role and responsibility which improve their performance.
Person culture- This type of organisational culture is mainly seen the professional firms which put more emphasis on single individual rather than entire organisation like firms and companies of doctors, lawyers, charted accountant, etc. Under this category of organisational culture, individuals are self directed and their objectives and interest are on top priority therefore, they feel more motived where as the team work and motivation is highly neglected (Vance, C.M. and Paik, 2015).
Power culture- It is mainly associated with the organisation where all powers are centralised and only the few peoples and individuals are sanctioned and have authority to make decisions. The Power culture is mainly seen in new start-ups and entrepreneurial organisations which includes several rules and regulation to have better discipline and administration to achieve organisational goal. Thus, an efficient atmosphere is provided to individuals and teams which improve their productivity but as participation and involvement of individuals and teams are not allowed in decision making therefore, lead to a reduction in their motivation level.
Task culture- Under this organisational culture more emphasis and importance is provided to tasks and various activities going on in the organisation which are properly divided and distributed among teams in order to ensure timely completion of work. Therefore, task culture provide better team bonding and positive relation among individuals within the organisation which ensure positive and healthy atmosphere and makes both individual and teams more competent and productive through leading better coordination and motivation within the organisation.
Out of theses four culture, Waitrose is having role culture where all the responsibilities and authorises are properly divided into individuals to provide clarity and transparency in their work. Adoption of role culture in Waitrose offer better motivation and positive behaviour in individuals and teams through making their job roles and work more clear (Sebastião, Zulato, and Trindade, 2017). Thus, role culture lead to a positive influence on individuals and team behaviour through reducing chances of chaos and confusion and leading better direction and coordination among individuals and teams to have enhancement in performance and productivity of organisation. Want to get Assignment Samples?Talk to our Experts!
Politics- Politics is basically a sum total of various activities and contribution related with overall governance and control of operations of organisation by the powerful and responsible parties in order to have balance between diversified views and interest of shareholders and workforce. Use of politics are made by Waitrose organisation to have a better informal and behind the scenes efforts to sell ideas and influence employees and teams of organisation to achieve targeted objectives and goals (Appannah, and Biggs, 2015). Use of politics is made in Waitrose organisation to have better control but the biased and inappropriate political tricks and more involvement in political affairs lead to reduction in individual and team performance as they become more involved in back biting and lack pulling which lead to negative workplace atmosphere and hamper flow of operations. Therefore, it can be evaluated, that use of politics can be made by Waitrose to have better decision making and control on employees but high interference and involvement in politics of organisation lead to dissatisfaction among employees and teams and spoilt the workplace environment that lead to an negative influence on individual and team behaviour and performance.
Power- Power is basically defined as an ability of an individuals or group to influence the activity and perceptive of others in order to make them or pressurise them to fulfil or complete a task (Kontoghiorghes, 2016). Use of powers are necessary for an organisation to direct and influence its employees and team members to behave in a competent and efficient way in order to achieve operational goals and targets on time. The various types of power used by Waitrose organisation and their influence on individuals and team behaviours and performance is provided below:
Reward Power- Under this category of power use of various types of rewards, perks and incentives are made to influence and motivate employees to perform a task. The Waitrose organisation is making use of tangible as well as intangible rewards like monetary benefits, gifts, bonus, appraisal, recognition, etc. to its employees and teams members to motivate them for accomplishing a task or goal (Biddison, and et. al., 2016). Therefore, use of reward power lead to a positive influence and impact on behaviour and performance of individuals and teams through motivating them for having effective and better productivity in their work to earn better incentives and get recognition.
Coercive power- Under this type of power use of strict punishment, coercive and threatening actions are made by Waitrose to make it compulsory for its employees to follow the orders and instruction imposed on them (Sands, and et. al., 2015). Use of coercive actions are mainly made on employees who are inefficient and not perform their jobs in an appropriate manner and include actions like loss of privilege, demotions, expulsion, etc. Thus, use of coercive powers create a negative influence on behaviour and overall performance of employees of Waitrose and hamper their performance and motivation level trough leading a feeling of threat.
M1) Critical analysis of influence of culture, politics and power
The culture, powers and politics of an organisation lead to a significant influence over attitude and behaviour of individuals and teams thus also have impact on their performance and success of organisation. The role culture facilitates better transparency and clarity within Waitrose make its individual and teams more efficient but at the same time slow down the phase of decision making (Roche, and Nicholas, 2017). On contrary power culture lead to centralised decision making which enhance viability and speed of decision making process but lead to demotivation in employees as they are not involved in decision forming process. Person culture are suitable for professional firms where more importance and emphasis is provided on individual goals and interest while in task culture team work and timely completion of work is having more importance. Therefore task culture lead to more integrated and well coordinated organisation which improve moral and performance of employees. Beside this, use of reward power by Waitrose organisation is also motivating and directing individuals and teams for better performance and enhanced productivity.
P2) Content and process theories of motivation
Motivation is basically a representative of drivers and desires that influence and direct an individual to do things in better and more appropriate way. Motivation theories are mainly classified into types i.e. Content and process theory which are explained below in respect of Waitrose organisation that makes it enable to achieve its goals.
The main focus of content theory is on the internal factors that direct and energize individuals behaviour for better performance and more efficiency (Bonny, Goode, and Lacey, 2015). Use of two factor theory of Herzberg is made by Waitrose organisation to identify and fulfil various needs and desires of its employees in order to motivate and direct them towards achievement of organisational goals and targets.
Two factor Theory
This theory of motivation was developed by Frederick Herzberg on the basis of interview conducted on over 200 professionals. The two factor theory argues that in every organisation there are two main factors that can be adjust in orders to influence and motivate employees of an organisation. These two main factors are explained below in context of Waitrose organisation:
Motivators – These are the motivating factors that lead to an encouragement in employees and individuals to work more harder to achieve organisational goal (Appannah and Biggs, 2015). The various motivators factors that are provided by Waitrose to its employees includes better growth opportunity, achievements, recognition, advancement in responsibility, etc. which facilitates an internal motivation in employees to work more efficiently and in a productive manner to achieve organisational targets (Myerson, and Bichard, 2016). The adoption and application of Motivators factors in Waitrose facilitates high level of moral and dedication in employees in order to get better recognition and growth opportunity. Thus, lead to improvement in performance and efficiency of manpower at workplace of Waitrose.
Hygiene factors-These are the factors that do not encourage for better performance but absences of which can lead to high level of demotivation in employees. The various hygiene factors accomplished and provided by Waitrose includes effective supervision, healthy workplace relationship, timely remuneration and salary, supportive company polices, positive and safe working conditions, etc. to make its employees feel more comfortable and committed towards their job in order to have a smooth flow of operations which facilitates achievement and accomplishment of goals and targets on time (Biddison, and et. al., 2016). The implication and adoption of Hygiene factors by Waitrose ensure better working culture and a healthy and positive workplace environment that ensures positive mind set and high level of internal motivations in employees, therefore lead to enhancement in their performance and efficiency.
The process theories of motivation includes focus on behavioural pattern of individuals in accomplishing their need and desires thus, involve procedures and theories which are aim at enhancing competences and capability of individuals in order to make them able to achieve better performance and timely goals (Smedley, 2017). Use of Goal setting theory is made by Waitrose an explanation of which is provided below:
Goal setting theory
Use of Goal setting theory by Waitrose emphasis on setting of difficult and specific goals with proper timely feedback and commitment which lead to better performance of employees thus, enable Waitrose for effective achievements of goal (Bonny, Goode and Lacey, 2015). The explantation of five principles of goal setting theory is provided below that motivates employees of Waitrose for better performance and facilitates timely achievement of goals and targets:
Clarity- The Waitrose must set a clear and specific goal for its employees so that it can be properly understood and accomplished by its employees without any error and confusion (Furnham, and MacRae, 2017). Application of this step facilitates clarity and more transparency at workplace thus, provide internal motivation to employees of Waitrose.
Challenge- The goal set Waitrose must be quite challenging and practical which motivates employees to have improvement in their skills and competencies to achieve a difficult goal in order get appreciation and rewards. This principal motivates employees of Waitrose to make more efforts to achieve a challenging gaol (Borkowski, 2015).
Commitment- In order to built loyalty and commitment in its employees, Waitrose ensures proper participation and involvement of its employees in decision making and gaol setting process so that it can be easily understood and agreed by whole workforce. This, lead to a feeling of commitment and loyalty ion employees of Waitrose that makes them more efficient and devoted for timely accomplishment of goal (Eubanks and et. al., 2016).
Feedback- It lead to an opportunity for Waitrose to timely clarify the doubts and confusion of employees in order to have smooth flow of operations for achievement of goals on time. This ensures better two way communication at Waitrose thus, motivates employees to perform in more effective way (Borkowski, 2016).
Task complicity- This principle of goal setting theory is mainly associated with the complexity of task and emphasis that mangers of Waitrose should provide extra care and proper guidance for accomplishment of a complex task (Vance, C.M. and Paik, 2015). A motivation should be provided to employees to ensure difficulty and handle complex task that facilitates a feeling of self sufficiency and confidence in employees that lead to improvement in their performance and productivity therefore, enable Waitrose to effectively achieve its goals and targets. This feeling of self efficiency and confidence makes employees more capable and enhance their performance and moral (Cater, Kidwell and Camp, 2016).
M2) Critical evaluation of influence of motivation theory
On the basis of above discussion about the content and process theory it can be evaluated that use of two factor theory facilities an internal motivation in employees through an improved and enriched working conditions that lead to positive impact on behaviour and performance of employees for better accomplishment of goals (Sebastião, Zulato, and Trindade, 2017). On the other hand use of goal setting theory makes an employees more committed and loyal together with enhancement in their skills and self confidence through achieving a complex and difficult task and goal on time. Proper two way communication and feedback from employees in Waitrose enhance viability and efficiency of decision making and goal setting process and also eliminates the hurdles and obstacles thus, lead to better accomplishment of goals. Beside this, use of monetary incentives and other perks also motivates employees to achieve difficult task on time therefore, lead to better success and performance of organisation.
The culture, power and politics have an influence on behaviour and attitudes of individuals and motivation theories act as driver that guide and direct employees for better performance thus, an interrelation exits between culture and motivation theory of organisation. Use of role culture lead to clarity in minds of individuals and use of two factor theory and goal setting theory motivates employees for better performance which together lead to timely achievement of goals of Waitrose. To have better performance and improvement in its organisational behaviour and culture following recommendations can be made for Waitrose:
- Use of task culture in place of role culture is recommanded for Waitrose as it is a fast growing organisation having many functions and complex activity, therefore dividing and groping similar task and allocating it to various efficient teams lead to better completion of task and ensure timely achievement of goals with more emphasis on team bonding and better relation. Use of task culture also facilitates better mix of skills, competencies and effective leadership within in each team for completion of wok in a more effective way thus, lead to better accomplishment of goals.
- Beside this, use of efficient content and process theory of motivation is also recommended for Waitrose to properly guide and direct its employees for achievement of goals on time. Use of two factor theory is yielding better results in Waitrose but for improvement in motivation level of employees use of Maslow's need Hierarchy theory can also be made as it provide a better hierarchy of needs and desires of employees that can be fulfilled by Waitrose to have better motivation and enhanced performance of its employees.
P3) An effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Team basically represent a group of individuals who aim achieving some specific and mutual goal through proper coordination of their efforts. A team can be effective or ineffective on the basis of achievement of targets by them. An explanation about effective and ineffective teams are provided below:
These are the teams that achieve the desired targets and objectives on time with optimum use of resources.
These teams are not able to meet the objectives and targets on time thus, inefficient in meeting the goal of organisation.
Proper communication is established among team members and leaders to transfer all relevant knowledge and information (Borkowski, 2016).
Lack of proper communication among team members and other associated parties is faced that hinders its performance.
In order to ensure efficiency of its teams and have better bonding and coordination in their efforts availability of various and hard and soft skills in team members and leaders of Waitrose is essential which are explained as follows:
Communication skills- This skill is necessary to properly transfer and deliver adequate information among team members to reduce and eliminate the chances of confusion and chaos for timely achievement of goals.
Self discipline- To achieve the targets and goal on time and with optimum use of resources and time it is necessary that every member of team of Waitrose must be discipline and well committed and dedicated towards their work (Miner, 2015).
Relevant degree and certificates- To ensure completion of each task in an efficient manner a relevant level of qualification and viable degree and certificate is necessary for all members of Waitrose to ensure efficiency of its teams.
Technical knowledge- To ensure timely achievement of objectives set for a team it become necessary that all member must posses all technical knowledge and information related with a project. Thus ensure balance and coordination among team members and direct their efforts towards achievement of goals (Borkowski, 2015).
Beside this, use of various team development theories are also used by Waitrose to have better mix of knowledge, skills and experience in its team to accomplish its functions and achieve targets in a better way. An explanation of theses team development theory is provided below in context of Waitrose:
Team Development Theories
Tuckman’s Team Development Model
Five stages of team development are provided by this model for formation of an effective team with proper coordination and cooperation among team members which are explained as below:
Forming- It is the foremost step where members of team of Waitrose are introduced with each other and a discussion about objectives and interest of team members is made to develop a better understanding and bonding among team (McShane, and et. al., 2018).
Storming- Under this stage efforts are made to resolve expected conflicts and chaos to have better team bonding and ensure smooth functioning of team.
Norming- It is the stage where skills and competencies of qualified and effective team members are appreciated by Waitrose to provide better motivation for effective performance.
Performing- Actual performance and evaluation of skills and talents of team members are done under this stage for actual completion of work. All the strategic planning and knowledge of team members are applied and executed in an effective manner to accomplish desired task and objectives.
Adjourning- This is the last stage where teams come to an ends and all the members are set back to their routine jobs in the Waitrose organisation (Eubanks, and et. al., 2016)(Song, , and et. al., 2017).
Belbin believes that each one of members of a particular team possesses different kind of characteristics which make them different from each other. However, there can be common patterns of behaviour in persons of a team which leads to progress of the team as a whole.Explanation of different roles which can be experienced by Waitrose company are illustrated below:
Resource Investigator:This kind of person is very creative in nature and uses innovative ideas to be communicated back to the team and which can be useful as well.
Team Worker:This person provides maximum cooperation and coordination to other members of the team so that it works just like a well-oiled unit.
Co-ordinator: This person facilitates coordination between all the members of a team and will try to avoid disputes between them and solve their problems.
Plant-Innovator: This person is very creative and innovative in nature and always has new ideas which can be utilised by other members of the team (Cater III, Kidwell, and Camp, 2016).
Monitor-Evaluator: This person monitors as well as evaluates the work done by various other members of the team.
Specialist:This person specialises in a particular field or subject and can offer in-depth analysis on that to members of team.
Shaper:This person oversees the work and shapes it thoroughly towards completion. The task is to ensure that the team members don't lose their focus.
Implementer: This person does the work of planning a strategy and implementing it in the project. The task is to make sure that the strategy is effective and efficient in nature so that the work is not affected.
Complete Finisher: This person performs the task of checking the work through various kinds of check and filter out errors and mistakes. The project needs to be thoroughly scrutinised so that it meets the quality standards which are set up and there can be no compromise on it (Mitchell, and Boyle, 2015).
Therefore, it is essential for Waitrose company's manager to evaluate the role of different personnel so that effective team can be prepared based on specialised knowledge and skill set. So the effective behavioural study helps in significant management of individual's roles and responsibility.
M3) Analysis of relevance of team and group development theory
The use of various team and group development theories like Tuckman’s Team Development Model and Belbin Team roles are effective in building proper cooperation and also lead to team dynamics through facilitating a proper mix of various skills and competencies in a team. Use of Tuckman’s Team Development Model bring more clarity in teams through proper introduction of each members and also reduce chances of conflicts and chaos thus, facilitates better team bonding and cooperation . On the other hand, Belbin team roles theory properly describes the role and function of each member thus bring more transparency and efficiency in team that facilitates better cooperation and achievement of task. Take Management Assignment Help from professional experts!
P4) Apply concepts and philosophies of OB within an organisational context
Organisation behaviour is the management concept which is considered as an essential field to study because it represent the activities which are concerned with understanding and influencing the behaviour of an individual within organisation. It comprises of essential values, customs, ideologies and principles that help staff to carry out internal operations systematically in favour of entity (Flaherty, 2015.Secchi, 2015). Thus, it is considered as an essential part in terms to predict, understand as well as control the behavioural of personnel to improve the overall effectiveness.
Organisation behaviour concepts
As the people differ from one other on the basis of physical attribute as well as psychological qualities. Like, employees have different capability in terms to learn, memorize, predict, understand, judge etc. So the manager need to have deep knowledge about their staff which is used to derive out best and innovative result (Concepts of Organisational Behaviour, 2017). Thus, before allocating or assigning the work to various employees, such differences needs to be effectively considered.
Motivation plays an essential role in terms to satisfy the needs of an individual and build up desirable behaviour. The needs of the people motivate them to strive hard and take actions to significantly fulfil them. For instance, Maslow have determined five different human needs which is Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem as well as Self actualisation needs. The efforts of the people to satisfy diverse needs determine their behaviour like if a senior staff is unable to get promoted then it may leads to frustration (Borkowski, 2016). Thus, the organisation needs to effectively influence affirmative behaviour of an individual in order to attain objective effectively.
Path goal theory: This theory signifies adoption of particular leadership style as well as behaviour that can effectively help the employees to work in the particular environment in terms to attain the objective. As an organisation operate in dynamic surrounding which comprises of diverse situation so it is the responsibility of leaders to understand specific situation and accordingly guide their activities or behaviour. Within, Waitrose company application of suitable leadership theory can help to deal with situations like increase in conflict that may affect the interpersonal relation and resistance for change management which can hamper overall productivity (Miner, 2015). Thus, to adopt effective conflict and change management techniques leader positively direct the behaviour of employees involves different elements that are described below:
Directive leadership: Within this type of leadership style the leader guide as well as overview the task of employees. They basically inform their followers regarding the way task needs to performed and accordingly schedule time to coordinate the work. It is considered as an effective way to deal with people if they are unsure about the about the procedure to carry out the particular performance. This style is suitable enough to address the situation under which company needs to adopt the desirable changes in order to sustain in dynamic environment. Based on this the employee need to acquire new working pattern or regime for which leadership supervision is required. This helps to effectively coordinate the changes within dynamic environment and undergo sustainable performance.
Supportive leadership: As per this style the leader support their worker by showing positive concern for them and establish desirable relationship with them. This is an effective way to keep employees engaged by paying attention towards their personal requirement. Herein, Waitrose company's manager can adopt this style to cater the personal needs and provide tehm the growth opportunity. This enhances their motivation level and help to overcome the situation like interpersonal conflict or chaos as it improve the internal relationship and maintain coordination. Thus, it helps to create synergy amongst the team member and effectively work with one other to collectively attain target (Borkowski, 2015).
Achievement oriented leadership: Here the leader set challenging goals and expect the member to remain task oriented. This improve the potential of employees due to which they remain competitive enough to meet the expectations of leaders. It is considered as an effective element that can be opt by Waitrose company to deal with situation like low productivity and decrease in sales due to the dynamic environment. At this level the competitive team members are considered as an asset due to which leader allot them difficult tasks which basically maximizes their potential (McShane, and et. al., 2018). Along with that they significant dealt with the dynamic environment by simultaneously acquiring the changes which leads to improvement and enhances the footfall of each and every store.
M4) Justify and evaluate a range of concept and philosophies in both positive and negative manner
The diverse philosophies or concept associated with organisation can either positively or negatively influences the behaviour of an individual. Based on organisation behaviour concept the employees of an organisation needs to effectively involve themselves to enhance the performance. For this Wairose company can encourage to build the desirable behaviour and relationship through positive or negative reinforcement technique like reward, promotion, demotion, termination and recognition based on which standard performance is managed. Similarly, Path goal theory too comprises of positive and negative element which help to effectively influence the behaviour of an individual. For instance, directive leadership style support the actions but it restrict the opinion and creativity of employees. On contrary, participative leadership style influences health relation or environment but at-times slow down decision process making.
D2) Critically analyse and evaluate the relevance of team development theories
With an organisational the behaviour of employees differ on the basis of their motivation level, perceptions and desire to accomplish task. This makes it essential for an enterprises to develop competitive team with the applications of theories like Tuckman team development model and Belbin theory. This assist Waitrose company in terms to build the competitive team based on similar skill set and knowledge which further enhances coordinate and manage positive behaviour within workplace.
On the basis of above report it can be concluded that culture, power and politics of an organisation lays a crucial and most vital role in success of an organisation through influencing behaviour and performance of its employees. Use of role culture, task culture etc. are made by organisation to have a positive and healthy workplace environment that boost performance of employees. Beside this, it can be concluded that use of content theory like two factor theory and process theory like goal setting theory are made by an organisation to direct and guide its employees. Use of various team development theories are also made to have cooperation and efficiency in team. Finally, it can be summarised that various philosophies and concept of OB are also their that lead positive impact on behaviour.
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