This sample will let you know about:
- What is Quality Management?
- Discuss Evolution of Quality Management.
Quality is one of the most important and crucial element for an organisation that is associated with developing a service or a product in a way that is quite suitable and align with the intended purpose for which it was made. Moreover, quality also refers to presenting the offerings without any flaw and in a perfect condition (Moutinho and Vargas-Sanchez, 2018). Hence, in this context, the report below is based on Airbnb, which is one of the leading community-driven hospitality company headquartered in San Francisco, California. The company is currently facing several quality issues for which, the report would include identification and description of concept of quality management, along with outlining the problems being current experienced by the company. Moreover, the report would also be emphasising on the impact of techniques such as KPI on he organisation, along with necessary recommendation for Airbnb to improvise its services.
Concept of Quality Management
DEFINITION OF QUALITY
Quality refers to the standard of a product or a service that is produced by an individual or organisation. Moreover, it is the interpretation of the state of the offering in comparison to other aspects of similar kind. In addition to this, it is a distinctive attribute within a product or a service of an organisation that is essential in order to provide value to individuals using these products. It is a necessary aspect within an organisation that is associated with better and more effective state of product possessed by individuals of an organisation. Order assignment help from our experts!
Evolution of Quality Management
Quality Management is a concept which is related to managing the overall effectiveness, performance, as well as sustainability within the products and services developed and delivered by the organisation. However, it is necessary that the evolution of the concept of quality is appropriately and effectively explained.
- Inspection: Earlier, the operative work within manufacturing of a product was inspected within businesses. Moreover, this role enhanced as per the increase in sizes of the company. However, due to inappropriate training and management, problems arose within inspection which led to development of a separate divisions along with “Chief Inspectors”.
- Quality Control: However, later with evaluation of quality control departments, “Quality Control Managers” came into existence with a more effective insight in terms of quality control engineering (Wong, Ji and Liu, 2018). Hence in 1920's there were several statistical theories which were developed by theorists such as Shewhart, who developed the first control chart, along with further development by Deming. However, countries like Japan were constantly facing major quality related issues for with the 1950-70 became the years of embedding the concept of quality within their management practices.
- Total Quality Management: Within the west in 1980's, the concept of Total Quality Management was formulated. As per this theory, organisations must thrive to provide individuals with perfect and effective climate where people within the company could develop their competencies, skills and effectiveness in a continuous manner. Moreover, this environment must also contribute towards continuous enhancement of quality within the existing products and services of the company. The notion upon which this management works is that each firm must effectively enhance the quality of offerings in a perfect and consistent manner, through continuously evaluating the techniques, tools and equipment and replacing the same with more appropriate and effective aspects.
There have been prominent individuals throughout the evolution of Quality Management who have provided an insight within how best an organisation could maintain the overall quality of its offerings and processes. Hence, it becomes important that these “Quality Gurus” are examined and analysed:
- Early 1950's
The very first theorists in this regard who delivered messages of quality to Japan was W Edwards Demings. He provided a Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle. This is an improvement methodology which is related to ongoing development, and check the effectiveness of processes and lastly, acting upon the same (Sainaghi and Mauri, 2018).
- Late 1950's
This was the era when theorists within Japan brought the message of quality back to America. In this context, one of the prime contributors was Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, who provided the concept of organisation-wide quality control, which provided a more human intervention in maintenance of quality (Luca, 2015). Moreover, he provided companies with several tools which are showcased below:
(Source: What Are the Seven Basic Tools of Quality, 2020)
This era was associated with Western Gurus taking up the concept of Quality Management, within which, a prominent individual was Philip B Crosby, who provided concepts of “Quality is Free” and “Zero Defects”. There are several absolutes of quality which he provided for managers such as quality being conformance to requirements, prevention being the key to quality, zero defect is the performance standard and measurement of quality is price of non-conformance (Kolar and ÄŒater, 2018). All these steps were major contributors within the quality for product development. Need Assignment Samples?Talk to our Experts!
Outlining problems being currently experienced by Airbnb
Airbnb is one of the most recognised organisations in the hospitality industry which has global operations and several facilities within at a worldwide reach (Lu, Chen and Law, 2018). However, the firm has severe quality issues which are recently being communicated and are being highlighted by the customers on several travel blogs and websites.
Hence, in order to highlight the issues associated with Airbnb and its quality, below are several reviews that the firm received on review website by the name of Trustpilot:
- A million of holidaymakers had fallen victim to fraud on Airbnb on account of lack of proper security measures and scourge of fraudsters using website of Airbnb to dupe holidaymaker and sending money to some scamp accounts.
- Airbnb is accused of being cancelling around 1.1 million bookings at last minute that has lead to troubles for holidaymakers and leave their customers on streets of unfamiliar city with no proper place to stay (Airbnb, 2020).
- Apart from this, every four of five customers of Airbnb has claimed that they had a bad experience on the basis of unhelpful act of management of Airbnb and rude and failed behaviour at the time of refund of money to customers.
On the basis of above reviews, it can be outline that currently following problems and issues are faced by Airbnb organisation:
Ineffective management- The first and foremost issues that is faced by Airbnb is associated with having an effective management that is not able to properly mange and coordinate the demand and supply of its services and therefore, has been accused of cancelling more than 1.1 million billion booking at last time (Kasemsap, 2018). Beside this, the management of Airbnb organisation is also unable top provide required help to its customers and often rude and failed to make timely repayment of money to customers. Therefore, it can be outline on the basis of reviews made on Trustpilot that the Airbnb organisation is currently experiencing a problem of ineffective management.
Lack of proper security measures- The another problem encountered by Airbnb organisation is related with lack of proper security measures due to which it has faced consequences of providing unreliable services and scourge of fraudsters through making use of website of this organisation in order to send cash of many customers and holidaymakers into scam accounts. As a result, almost a million of holidaymakers had fallen victim to fraud on Airbnb because of lack of proper security manures and check over use of its website (Van der Wagen and White, 2018).
Airbnb is a dealing in a service sector so it should fulfil the requirements of dimension of Service quality which is not properly done and meet by this organisation. A rationale review of dimension of service quality in context of issues and problems experienced by Airbnb on the basis of reviews of customers on Trustpilot are as follows:
Reliability- This dimension of service quality is related with the ability of organisation in fulfilling and providing the services promised in an accurate and effective way. It has been analysed from the reviews of customers that Airbnb is accused of cancelling many of its booking at last time thus, this organisation is not bale to fulfil this dimension of service quality as it has failed in providing the desired the services to its customers.
Responsiveness- This dimension is basically associated with the willingness of providing desired help and prompt services to customers and also includes the time taken by organisation in providing services and solving queries and problems of customers. The review of customers on Trustpilot has shown that every four of five customer has found that the management of Airbnb is unwilling and failed in providing required help and timely solving the queries of customers (Getz, 2019). Also a rude and inappropriate behaviour is also faced by customers at the time of making refund of their money by Airbnb thus, it can be reviewed that this organisation is also failed in fulfilling responsiveness dimension of service quality.
Assurance- This factor of service quality is related with creation of a feeling of trust and confidence in customers regarding the certainty and ability of organisation in providing best possible services to its customers to have better customer loyalty. The unhelpful nature of management together with lack of security measures has broken the trust and confidences of customers on Airbnb organisation thus, it does not meet the dimension of assurance of service quality.
Empathy- This dimension of service quality measure is associated with the providing caring and full attentions to needs and requirements of customers to satisfy the desire of consumers in a best possible way (Andrades and Dimanche, 2019). The reviews of customers about Airbnb organisation has shown that it has cancelled booking for almost 1.1 million of customers and left them on some unfamiliar locations without any adequate facilities and home to stays thus, Airbnb has failed in providing due caring and attention to its customers therefore this requirement of empathy is also not meet by Airbnb organisation.
Tangibles- As the services provided by an organisation are intangible in nature thus, the experience and comfort availed by the customers and the associated facilitates are the only tangibles that makes an organisation better than its competitors. The reviews of customers of Airbnb on Trustpilot has shown that its costumers availed bad experience and also faces many issues related with lack of security measures and last minute cancellation of booking therefore, this dimension of tangibles and better facilities is also not meet by Airbnb.Ask for dissertation writing services from our experts!
Assessment of impact of techniques in delivering consistent and effective quality management
Definition of KPI
KPI is tool that is used by an organisation to have a quantifiable check on performance of its employees through prober analysis of efficiency and success of organisation to enhance overall performance of organisation over time through directing it towards achievement of goals it is necessary to use various techniques like Key performance indicator are made by organisation in order to deliver consistent and effective quality management to offer and provide better services and facilities to its customers. (Olsen and Trono, 2018). Use of KPI technique by Airbnb organisation facilitates following advantages and disadvantages for this organisation in terms of delivering consistent and effective quality management.
The biggest advantage of KPI tool is that it lead to increase in productivity and performance of individuals and team in Airbnb through keeping a close check and monitoring on their performance and efficiency. Beside this, use of various perks and rewards are also made under KPI technique to top performers of organisation which motivate all employees for better productivity and performance in order to get better benefits.
The use of KPI tool can lead to conflicts at workplace as any negative commitment in the process can distract the whole metrics and moral of employees that lead to negative mindset in organisation. Bede this, here more emphasis is given on individual performance and efficiency instead of meeting and achieving a highest level of performance by overall organisation therefore limit the scope the performance and efficiency (Lee, Kim and Kang, 2019).
Specific Example of benefit of application of KPI
Thus, use of KPI techniques facilitates a better control and check on the activity of management and lead to enhancement of their performance through making timely comparison of their actual performance with desired level so that corrective action can be taken on time to fulfil the performance gap and desired services and facilitates can be easily provided to customers without any case of cancellation of booking or any other inefficiency in management. Beside this, use of KPI also facilitates a better monitor and control over its security measures which help Airbnb organisation in eliminating the scourge of fraudsters while using its website and provide a check and control over sending cash of holidaymakers in some scam accounts through better provisions of security (Moutinho and Vargas-Sanchez, 2018).
Therefore, its usage meet and address both the problem of Airbnb associated with inefficient management and lack of security measures therefore, deliver a consistent and effective quality management through keeping a check and control over performance of its employees and business operations. Use of KPI makes management and employee more efficient through providing timely training and learning programs in the basis of their performance therefore, makes them able to properly coordinate and manage the services and facilitates provided to customers and also ensure improvement in facilities and security measures (Wong, Ji and Liu, 2018).
Total quality management is a concept that is associated with a long term success of organisation through continuous improvement and customer satisfaction approach (BASIC CONCEPTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, 2013). The main focus of TQM approach is on meeting customers expectation, identifying problems, leading and building commitment and promoting a open and factual decision making among workers and employees of an organisation. Use and effective implementations of following concept of TQM approach are recommended for Airbnb to address and solve problems identified within this organisation:
- A committed and involved management is recommended for Airbnb form top to bottom to ensure proper compliance of quality improvement program in the organisation in order to provide better services and resolution of queries of customers on time and ensure a more effective and helpful management for Airbnb to address the problem of inefficient management faced by this organisation. Timely training and learning programs can also be provided to employees and mangers of Airbnb to have more competent and skilled management.
- Use of a customers focused concept is also recommended for Airbnb organisation in order to coordinated all its efforts and activities in one direction of providing maximum satisfaction and best possible facilitates to its customers to achieve its targets of better productivity and profitability.
- Continuous improvement of business processes and establishment of better performance measures together with involvement of entire workforce is also recommended for Airbnb in order to solve its issues of lack of proper security measures. A continuous improvement in process facilitates adoption and implementation of better technology, control and security measure to Airbnb to offer a secure and safe website to its customers which safeguards it from fraudulent activity.
Thus, it is concluded from the report above, that managing quality in hospitality, tourism and events is very important for organisations to ensure provision of effective products and services as per the desired expectations of customers. Consideration of evolution of quality and quality gurus while describing the concept of quality management is important as it helps in determining how this concept has introduced and evolved effectively. Moreover, determining problems through using customer feedbacks enables in providing an insight to the specific issues which the organisation is facing on several fronts. Lastly, it is necessary that advantages and disadvantages associated with technique like Key performance indicator (KPI) is necessary to ensure the most prominent impact which these would be having on the firm.
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