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Managing Change

University: Imperial College London

  • Unit No: 14
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 17 / Words 4359
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 350
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • What is Force Field Analysis?
  • Discuss the role of leadership in organizational change.
  • What are the different factors affecting organizational change?


Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Organisational change is inevitable and it is important for any company to bring new changes in it's products and services so that customers will not get bored and they are happy with new product. The main objective for change in any organisation is to provide something different and new to people. This is helpful in attracting more number of customers towards products of the company. Organisational change requires to have effective and strong leadership and management so that all tasks and operations of change are done properly.

The company which is chosen for change process is Marks and Spencer. This is an organisation of UK dealing in clothing, apparels and accessories. This company is undergoing change due to reduce in profits of the company. This company has decided to open more retail stores and putting sale on products that are bought through online service.  There are three tasks in this report. There is discussion  on various environmental factors that influence this organisational change. Task two will tell about various theoretical models of change. At last, the third task will include Approaches to overcome risks while implementing change and strategies used for communicating planned change to stakeholders.

Analyse the environmental factors which influence change in organisation

Any organisational change is affected by various factors within the business. It is essential for a company to analyse all consequences of bringing change in the company. The main thing that is to be focused on is external factors like political, social, economical, technological, legal and environment factors. The making of new retail shops of Marks and Spencer in different countries requires analysing of all these factors before implementing the change.

Change in Marks and Spencer and its impact



Marks and Spencer is facing problem of decreased sales and profits and due to this there is increase in employee and customer retention. To survive in market, it is important to have competitive advantage. The top level managers of M&S have decided to open retail stores of this company for increasing sales of products. This is helpful in increasing employment opportunities for various people.



Impact on Strategies

The M&S managers have developed strategies that focus on providing  effective services and products to customers.  The stores opened in various countries will provide products at best sale price. New products are provided to people at lower price. By providing quality products at comparatively lower price than other competitors, it is easy to attract more number of customers.

Impact on leadership behaviour

The organisational change in M&S will affect leadership behaviour and style of the company leaders. They have to change their way of managing and leading employees in new business environment. It is most essential to effectively control activities and processes of the company. 


Drivers of change

The reason behind change in Marks and Spencer include unemployment, high competition, reduction in sales. A proper change is needed for enhancing profits and sales earned by this organisation.

PESTLE analysis of Marks and Spencer

The PESTLE analysis is important to know what are the different factors that impact the development of new change within organisation. Marks and Spencer is opening new retail shops for providing employment to customers. Also, this company is offering heavy discounts on selling of products on website. The PESTEL analysis for this change is mentioned below -




When this company has to open new shops, the main thing that will affect this change is political rules, regulations, laws, etc. M&S has to follow all the trading laws while it is launching new products and new shops in various countries. Moreover, M&S has to ensure that it is launching new retail shops in politically stable countries. 




This is known as economic factor which affects functioning of business operations while adopting organisational change. In UK market there is new trend in which small retail stores are liked by customers. This type of change is helpful for the company to attract potential customers. 

Socio cultural

Many people nowadays prefer to go to small retail shops rather than going in a particular mall for accessing branded clothes. Thus, new shops opened by M&S will be liked by customers and sales will definitely increase.



This company is adopting latest technology for payment that is used in new retail shops for managing the work in proper manner.



After Brexit, there is change in all legal rules of retail industry. While opening retail shops in UK, company has to consider all the legal rules  and regulations. 




This company promotes itself by launching sustainable development for  products. It is helpful in creating goodwill and image and contributing for environment friendly activities. 

Internal factors that drive need for change in organisation

There are some internal factors which affect functioning of an organisation. Change is inevitable and thus it is necessary for managing different processes and tasks while implementing organisational change. In context of M&S, the different internal factors which force this company to undergo change are described below - 

Organisational performance 

 The sales of Marks and Spencer decreased since few months. Thus, there is need for the management to develop plans for increasing profits and money earned by the company. The solution with the management of M&S is to open new retail shops in which products will be offered at affordable price. 

Emerging strategy

 This company is facing problem of decline in sales and profits. Thus it is important to develop new strategy that will help in building trust and loyalty among customers. This company has started new retail shops for attracting lot of customers towards buying quality service and products. 


The feedback form customer was not good enough. They were not liking the material and quality of products. People are not linking styles offered in clothing so this company conducted market research for analysing new trends within customers. It is important for the management to ensure that customer's expectations are fulfilled and they are satisfied by the offerings of the company.

Ideas and innovation

The innovation that is adopted by management of M&S is that in the era of online shopping, they are opening new retail shops in different corners of street so that people can easily purchase Marks and Spencer products without waiting. Need Assignment Samples.Talk to our Experts!

Examine the potential change in organisations

The sales of retail shops is examined after six months. Customers are chosen for getting feedback on service and product that they are offered. The new retail shops will provide huge profit to overall sales of the company. New varieties of clothing products is given to people for enhancing the customer satisfaction. It is analysed that all customers are satisfied and happy by the products they are getting through M&S shops. After analysing the changes within company, it is concluded that this company needs following changes -

Improve efficiency - In order to improve the efficiency of working of retail shops, it is needed that this company has tools and techniques that can enhance the process and quality of clothing products. In order to improve the quality of process and techniques, it is important to work in effective manner.

Improve quality- This is important for an organisation to improve quality of products and services offered. In context of retail shops of M&S, it is seen that they are offering quality products and accessories that are able to impress customers. In this way, it is essential to work properly and enhance quality of service offered by the company.

Develop best practice - It is important for making use of best practise within company while managing work. Marks and Spencer has initiated the concept of retail store and attracting a lot of customers towards buying products offered by this organisation. When there is implementation of any change within company, it is required to plan and implement new regulations in the company. Want to get Assignment writing service? Talk to Our Experts Now!

Theoretical models for managing change

The change model used within Marks and Spencer is Lewin's model of change. This is application of Kotter's change model. This model has includes 8 steps which are  helpful in understanding and analysing organisational change effectively. The model given by Kotter is helpful for analysing the change within company and what is the impact of this change on organisation's processes. The primary step of this model is understanding change within organisation properly. This means the urgency for implementing change. In this step, company analyses the need for creating change in the company. In context of M&S, due to decrease in sales, there is need for adopting new change for maximising sales of the company.

The Second stage of this model is  team building.  This step focuses on development of teams within M&S that will focus on implementing opening of new shops. There is appointment of new employees and managers who will take care of new retail shops.

The next step is the  creation of vision . This means leaders and managers of M&S have vision for running the shops smoothly and selling products in specified time frame. This will lead to increase in sales and profits of the company.

Next step is  communication of vision to all staff and  employees. There is guidance  of all organisational goals in specified time.

The next step includes focus on short term objectives and plans. In case of Marks and Spencer,it is concluded that there is attainment of goals and objectives and for this there are presence of strategies. These plans are strategically planned and useful for the company. Employees are motivated and inspired for doing great work and achieve organisational goals in specified time. There is use of different models so that change can be effectively use and implemented.

Analyse the role of leadership in gaining commitment of others to change

There are different types of leaders present within Marks and Spencer that work differently when change is implemented within the organisation. Some of these are described below -

Charismatic leadership - According to this leadership style, leaders of M&S motivates employees and subordinates for attaining their goals in specified time frame.  This method focuses on goal achievement along with encouragement of behaviour of employees. This is done through different ways of communication and force of personality. The charismatic leaders of M&S retail shops help in motivating employees to do good work and achieve targets in specified time.

Laissez-Faire: This leadership style is another name for delegative approach. These leaders provide proper regulations and rules for doing work in effective manner. The laissez faire leadership approach is used by managers of new retail shops so that workers feel protected while working and they are free to share their views on different business scenarios.

Participative:  According to this leadership style, it is analysed that leadership plays an essential role when there is any change within company. There is need of change within company because of new technology, expansion of business, decline in sales, etc. Marks and Spencer is adopting change and opening new retail shops. The participative leaders of this organisation take advices and suggestions from employees and implement new ideas needed for improvement within company. 

Reason for engaging with stakeholders throughout the change management process

The stakeholders of company consists of internal as well as external. The internal includes   team members, line managers, senior managers, board members. On the other hand, external stakeholders are customers, pressure groups, government agencies, suppliers, partners, contractors. It is important to interact with all these stakeholders and inform them about new change developed within the company.

Internal stakeholders

Engaging in change management process

Team members

There are different teams within retail store of Marks and Spencer. These teams are given proper guidance for how to achieve goals and objectives in specified time frame.

Line managers

The line managers takes care of different work related in managing of different shops properly. As there is development of new shops, duties of line manager will be increased and they have to work accordingly.

Senior managers

The senior managers of M&S have to prepare their work and provide guidance for employees to work in proper manner.

Board members

All the board members of Marks and Spencer are given information about this new change by organising meeting. They are allowed to ask their queries and problems in this meeting. 


External stakeholders

Engaging in change management process


The customers of Marks and Spencer are provided with quality products ad services. They are the only stakeholder which are most important will help in increasing profits of the company. They are provided information about new retail shops through strong marketing.



The suppliers of M&S takes care of managing the supply of raw material for development of clothes. They are given information about new shops in effective manner.

Rational for initiating the change within an organisation

The main reason for implementing the change of opening new retail shops within UK is to maximise profits and sales of this company. This company is facing decline in sales since few months and also unemployment rate within UK is increased. Thus, it is important for this company to launch new retail shops in different corners of the country.

Develop a plan for change within an organisation

Force Field Analysis

In order to determine the change management, the managers of Marks and Spencer are   using force field analysis for measuring the importance of change adopted within the company.  The force field analysis was given by Kurt Lewin. There are five steps which motivates employees for working in new organisation change. These stages in context of Marks and Spencer are described below -  

Phase 1: It is first stage of this model and according to this step, the leaders of the company have to analyse market condition of the company before taking any action. It is concluded that after analysing the performance of company, there is need to improve sales and efficiency of company. Thus, the management of M&S has decided to open new retail shops in different streets of UK.

Phase 2: Each and every change that has been executed by organisation comprises of certain risks. Thus, it is ensured by the management that company is working under low risk and there are less conflicts while working effectively. It is essential for Marks and Spencer to have back up plan in case the new retail shops do not make profits.

Phase 3: In this stage, top level executives of M&S have to observe the change plan and analyse whether there is requirement of  any organisational change or not. The top level managers analyse how changes can be brought within organisation for effective working environment.

Phase 4: At this step, M&S prepares an action plan after analysing all the factors needed for improving business sales. This step includes various modifications or alteration if needed  in the action plan. New retail shops are made for improving the sales of company.

Phase 5: In this top executives along with management of marks and Spencer will develop strategies for accomplishing organisational goals and changes in specified time frame.  It is necessary for this company to determine changes needed in M&S and also demands of customers.  

Tools for implementing and monitoring change

For Marks and Spencer, it is important to use tools that will help in continuously monitoring and assessing  the change implemented in company. Some of these are described below -

Gantt charts 

This is defined as a graphical representation in which there is representation of activities and tasks of process on the basis of time needed to complete that activity. The Gantt chart is useful for tracking what is the progress of change in the company and ensuring that all activities are done in specified time frame.

Communication and project plans

This includes there must be effective communication plan for managing activities of the new business project effectively. As Marks and Spencer is deciding to open new shops, it is seen that there is need for effective communication plan. There is need for circulating information to different managers working in retail shops. There is requirement of having a good project plan that helps in completing all business activities in specified time frame. 

Approaches to overcome risks and barriers to change

There are some approaches for overcoming risk and barriers for change. It is essential for Marks and Spencer to overcome risks that occur while managing change within company. Also, it is important to know about approaches that are barrier in change. Some of these are mentioned below -

Remote working 

This is a working style in which employees are allowed to work outside the traditional office environment. This is based upon the concept of doing work in specified time frame. The leaders of M&S can easily communicate to office every day from a designated desk.

Shift working 

People are allowed to work in shifts for developing plans and ideas while working in shifts. This is helpful in making new plans for maximising profits and sales of the company. This is important for an organisation to make it's employees work in better manner by working in shifts.

Resistance to change 

There are some barriers that affect change within organisation. It is essential for an organisation to manage the change in company effectively. In context of Marks and Spencer, it is important that there is proper change for enhancing sales and service of the company.

Develop strategies for communicating planned change to stakeholders

Communication is an important factor that is helpful in achieving organisational goals and objectives. There are different ways of media by which leaders communicate the change to employees and subordinates of the company. The change adopted by Marks and Spencer management is to open new retail shops. There is need for informing stakeholders of the company about this new change. This discussion will include all details regarding new plan and how it is implemented, what is  scope and purpose of this idea, how this plan will be implemented in actual. The different ways used for informing stakeholders are internal and external communication, consultation, huddles, meetings and briefings, webinars, podcasts, conference calls, blog posts, presentations, letters and newsletters, articles, case studies, etc. Marks and Spencer is selecting the medium of presentation for informing stakeholders about new change. Order MBA Essay Help now!

Assess practical methods to support individuals throughout the change management process

When new retail shops are started by Marks and Spencer, there is hiring of new employees as well as managers. Within these shops, manager is assigned which provides guidance to other staff for selling products to customers effectively. The managers take several meetings for informing employees. They also organise one to one meetings and workshops for encouraging staff to work more hard and achieve their targets. Continuous coaching and mentoring is provided to employees so that they are successful in maximising sales.

Methods for monitoring and measuring the impact of planned change

Feedbacks from customers is important as it helps in managing the performance of company. There are several ways by which feedbacks from customers can be taken. These include conducting online surveys, periodic reporting, surveys and questionnaires, interviews, benchmarking activities, mystery shopper, scorecards, data and metrics, audits, targets, workshops, observation, conversations. Marks and Spencer is focusing on conducting online surveys and getting information about the experience of customers.

Approaches to embed and sustain planned change 

Key performance indicators (KPIs) is defined as measurable value which demonstrates how effectively a project of the company is attaining objectives and goals. KPI is used by the companies for evaluating success and reaching the target set by the company. On the other hand, another method is  continuous professional development (CPD) requirements. This means continuing Professional Development which is used for describing learning activities for developing and enhancing abilities. Marks and Spencer has used CPD which is a methodological approach that is helpful for employees to develop their knowledge and skills. This enables maintaining sustainable and competitive advantage. 


From the above discussion, it is concluded that organisational change is an important topic that is affected by various factors within business. Change helps in taking company to a higher level and make more profits. There are various models of organisational change that are followed by companies while they are deciding to implement new ideas and techniques. The new organisational change is circulated among different managers of the company through effective communication. A proper plan is developed so that goals of organisational change are achieved successfully.

Read Also- Creating and Delivering Operational Plans


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