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Management and Operations Theories

University: UK College of Business and Computing

  • Unit No: 4
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 22 / Words 5555
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: D/508/0488
  • Downloads: 173
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • What is management operations?
  • Discuss different theories regarding management.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Morrisons
In organisation, operation management is relative term which is used to increase the efficiency and productiveness by using different strategies and methods. For corporation and manufacturing industry, it is require to operate their business and run functions effectively which can satisfy the customers (Adams, 2016). Leaders and managers are different person who are playing different role and function in corporation in order to increase productivity and profitability. To understand about operation management Morrisons is selected company which deals with retailing sector by providing variety of products and services. This report has covered number of topics such as difference between role of leader and function of manager, in situational context the role and function of leader and manager, operation functions where leaders and managers are playing different role and relationship between leadership and management  which helps to complete the task effectively. 

Definition addition to comparison of distinct roles and characteristics and leader

Introduction of task

Management and operation are key business practices  through which huge efficiency level are created within company. The task highlights about organisational background, definitions of managers and leaders, comparison between leaders and managers on different basis.

Organisational background

Morrisons is leading company in retail sector of UK. The headquarters of the entity are situated at England, UK since 1899. It was established by William Morrisons and it was started  as egg as well as butter stall within Rawson Market of England till 2004. Earlier, its main focus of stores was only North of England and later through takeover of other company that is Safeway, it enhances its presence in various other locations that are Scotland, South of England and Wales. The company also produces wide product variety and provides its services to large customers. There are around 110000 personnels that serves to approx 11 million audiences each week. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

Definitions

Manager: The following are two definitions of manager:

  • According to the viewpoints of Market Business News (2019), manager is the person who is more reponsible to manage the entity. Manager may be departmental incharge or incharge of personnel that work in it.
  • As per Corporate law and legal defination (2019). manager is defined as the person who have same duties, priviledges, rights as well as obligations as similar to direct and officer of busienss concern for profit.

Leader: Two definitions of leaders are underneath:

  • As per Bariso (2018), leader is defined to the person who has followers.
  • In accordance to Verbeek (2017), leader is the human being who posses potentials to evalaute and forecast policies aloing with influnce people for achieving the determined strategy (Verbeek, 2017).

Comparison among leaders and managers

In the below mentioned table, comparison of leader and managers are described with key comparison areas of traits, authority and power along with roles and responsibilities with examples from selected firm that is Morrisons.

Comparison areas

Managers

Leaders

Traits

Managers of a company have huge traits. For example, managers of Morrisons have traits of self motivation, emotional resilience, passion for success, visionary, receptive, understandable, persuasive, adaptive and innovative (Managers traits, 2019).

Traits of leaders includes decision maker, emotionally stable, managing complexities, team builder, optimism, inspiring ability, confidence, sense of humour, intuition, honest, caring, communication  and commitment.

Roles and responsibilities

Managers of Morrisons company have role for coordinator and manager of all tasks, effective decision maker, working with compliance, thinking out for competition. At same time, some responsibilities of managers are to manage growth, improving efficiency, planning future, overseeing operations and managing work of personnels at workplace.

Leaders performs roles related to motivator, guider, organisational representator, integrators and reconciler of personal objectives with institutional goals, philosopher and executor of workings. Moreover, they have responsibility to improving personal productivity, understanding thoughts of other, stimulating people to work in different ways and communicating information among top level management and lower level performers (Annarelli and Nonino, 2016).

Authority and power

Managers of a company are allocated with powers of expert power, reward power,  in context to recruiting employees, compensating them as per performances, delegating work to others and making decisions. They have authorities for devising long term strategies and programmes, implementing changes, rewards people of firm.

Leaders have authority to supervise workings, giving orders, clarity of messages, inspiring others and implementing operations delivered by managers. Moreover, powers that leaders have are legitimate, charismatic, political, informational and connection powers within company. 

Characteristics

The managers of the organisation have key characteristics of strong communication, reliability, delegation and confidence.

The leaders of same business have characteristics related to honesty, positive attitude, creativity, sense of humor, courage, passion and concise.

Summary: The above discussion summarised that managers and leaders are the human beings that plays essential aspects in managing people and influencing them respectively. In context to leaders, they are defined as the person who have traits related to emotionally stable, optimism, intuition and many more. They have power related to legitimate and informational. The plays roles and responsibilities for improving personal productivity and stimulating people. On contrary, managers are different from leaders as they have different roles and responsibilities, traits, powers and authority that from leaders of company.

Examining examples about how role of leaders and functions of managers are applied in different context of situations.

Introduction of task

The task is all about the roles of leaders along with functions of managers that they applies to distinct situational context. In this, managers functions as described by Fayol are explained clearly.

Fayol's description of managerial functions

HenryFayol is popular theorist who described managerial functions in one of the book that is “Administration Industrielle et Generale”. As per Henry Fayol, managerial functions are labelled in systematically so that all the workings are carry forwards sequentially to accomplish objectives (Berry, Broadbent and Otley, 2016). These functions majorly focus towards relationship between management with personnels that caters references to solve any type of problem creatively. The explanation of functions with relevance with managers of Morrisons is underneath:

Planning: Planning is referred to thinking process for the activities and operations that are needed to achieve desired business objectives. In simple terms, it is a thinking process that requires active participation of all members of company. In Morrisons, planning is important for  preparing for future through developing addition to adopting strategic planning for shaping operations to achieve objectives.

Organising: It is other function wherein managers works for establishing authority relationships with particular individuals, activities and workplaces in order to make the members of group or teams working together(Bryce, 2017). After planning, organising resources are considered by managers of the chosen production and service firm for the purpose of implementing actional plans.

Directing: Directing is said to instructing, guiding along with overseeing performances of personnel for accomplishing planned objectives. It is heart of managerial functions. At Morrisons, managers understands team members and accordingly provide instructions for completing works and deals smartly with incompetent personnels.

Controlling: According to the name, it is to control resources as well as teams for implementing the programme in accordance to set planing and aligning regulations of enterprise.  In other words, controlling is checking errors and making corrective actions on right time. Managers monitors, controls and make suitable actions for the workings that are going against the set criteria at workplace of Morrisons. 

Coordinating: It is concerned with ensuring that all the workings are going well (Bryson, 2017). Coordinating is integrating activities for ensuring efficient usages of available resources for succeeding towards objective attainment. In association to Morrison, managers coordinate team actions for achieves successful outcomes.

Application of functions by using examples related to managers in different situational context of Morrisons

Time delivering services: The managers of all company performs actions so to deliver services on time. It is important also to make timely delivery of demanded products and services  in market and to customers for retaining them and making profits (Carter and Price, 2017). But in context to Morrisons, its huge products and services are not delivered on timely basis to population. For such purpose, the managers applies their functions in huge ways. For example, planning function is applied for forecasting scenario that limits delivery and making schedules on the forecasted results. Then organising function is applied by Morrison managers to collect required resources, grouping tasks so to delegate responsibilities and makes contacts with vendors, distributors for delivering essentials on time. In addition, managers also sets standards or making comparisons for real results and standards in order to implement remedial actions for the diviational gaps. Further, within coordinating function, it is seen by managers that all operations, practices and activities are performed in coordinated manner among the different departments and people for making delivery of components of company on time. At same time, this situation affect leader's role such as motivator, organisational representator and executor of workings when personnels do not work as per the guidances in relation to deliver its valuable products to customers. Order assignment help from our experts!

Resolving conflicts: There are more number of people working at Morrisons within which conflicts arises any time due to huge factors such as cultural differences, miscommunication and so on. In this case, managers resolves conflicts by properly implementing their functions. For instance, planning function is adopted for forecasting conditions or workplace environment that causes conflicts. Further, With organising function, managers allocate resources including equipments, tools due to which conflict has arised. Moreover, managers also applies commanding function for providing instructions, coordinates workings through proper mechanisms. Moreover, managers also control variances and fosters integration that leads in solving conflicts at workplaces.

Summary: The mentioned explanation summarises that different functions are implemented by managers in regards to some situation. They applies functions that are described by Fayol such as planning, organising, controlling, commanding and directing in respect to different situations.

Application of various theories and approach models

Introduction of task: Leaders of company uses distinct approach models addition to styles as per pertaining condition. In this task, various leadership theories addition to approaches are explained and applied in various situational contexts.

Leadership approaches or theories are few aspects that organisational leaders uses in distinct scenarios (David and David, 2016). At Morrisons, leaders applies following theories and approaches in different scenarios:

Contingency theory: Contingency leadership theory explains that effectiveness of a leaders is contingent on the ways their styles to lead other matches the situation. So , it is the main working of leader to search for what type of style and circumstance they strives in.

At Morrisons, leaders applies one of contingency theory that is Fiedler Model Theory. The theory is related with either relationship  oriented or task oriented which depends of situation. Moreover, it is rated on the basis of Low along with High LPC rating of firm. In context to resolving conflict situation, leaders applies concept of relationship oriented wherein they performs the best through diagnosing situations for  managing addition to resolving issues or conflicts between people effectively. The strength of contingency theory is that its application aspects changes as per situations and it contributes huge in properly structuring organisational structure. Moreover, it also assist institutions in planning information decision systems. In contrary, its weaknesses is that it is reactive and complex in nature and various time unable to handle circumstances that becomes critical for leaders.

The other contingency theory that can be used by managers of Morrisons is Path goal theory. As per the theory, specific style is opted by leaders and managers of the entity to lead and manage people to achieve goals. It includes environmental characteristics, behaviour of leaders and subordinates' Personal characteristics. Task structure addition to work group are considered as environmental characteristics which states that when leaderships should be chosen as per the structure of entity. Subordinates characteristics involves perception of abilities along with locus of control of employees. When personnels feel that they are lacking abilities then managers must opt directive styles to lead them. Moreover, behaviour of leaders involves various styles that are or can be used by same managers in distinct situations. It includes four types of styles such as directive, supportive, participative and achievement oriented styles. The theory is flexible and can be applied in any situation which is its strength. However, it is characterised as undemocratic in nature and makes leaders rational in workplace that are its weaknesses.

The another contingency theory is contingency research theory that states that leaders explains, predicts as well as understands phenomena in various cases so to limit assumptions. Fundamentally, by using the theory, managers of the company will be able to predict contingencies and outline guidelines by empirical research. The strength of the contingency research theory is that it assist in adopting effective style and has dynamic nature. However, its weakness is that it creates complexities while applying in practical manner.

Situational theory: It is explained as the model that leaders utilises at the duration when enterprise moulds the aspects that were preferred by them related to existing business condition. It states that leadership styles changes as per changing situations (Drew,  McCallum and Roggenhofer, 2016).  Moreover, it states that in real world, no individual best leadership style exists. In relevance to Morrisons, leaders opts effective style as per situation. Within it, leaders finds that manpower do not work properly for delivering or providing demanded products by external population on time. And to resolve this, leaders applies situational theory wherein they monitors the workings and finds out main issues for late delivery. As per it, they adopts behaviour to act on contingencies, fosters communication, distribution that aids in providing company's essentials punctual. The theory is easily understandable and applied on various contexts, emphasizes on flexibility of leaders along with directs the ways in which leaders must act for gaining effectiveness that are its strength. But on other hand, its weakness is that it application is ineffective within business environment that are task oriented and only focus on immediate objectives.

System leadership theory: It is explained as the theory that enables business leaders to build circumstances in which individual can perform with fuller potentials (Gibson and Parkman, 2018). They can use principles associated with human behaviour for making strategies, social process, system designing and suitable leadership. Moreover, it is properly applied by Morrisons leaders towards critical issues or problems in which various departments are involved. For example, it is applied in situation of late delivering services so to handle various departments including logistics, supply delivery, operations, customer service and so on. Within it, the theory will foster coordination between departments and effectively resolving problem. The strength of it is that it assist in making orderly, sequentially and prompt action plan along with improving coordination among specialised operations and tasks. In contrary, it causes delaying decision making, fails to elaborate interdependence of activities and not always properly applied that are some weaknesses of it.

Trait theory: The another leadership theory which is related to characteristics of wide number of leaders in both successful as well as unsuccessful aspects and is used basically for anticipating leadership effectiveness (Heizer, 2016). The main identified traits within leaders are trustworthy, honesty, creativity, high effort level, energetic, belief on other's ability, knowledgeable, emotionally mature, strong analytical abilities and many more. As there are huge conflicts between workforce of Morrisons, for this, trait leadership theory can be applied to get solutions. With distinct traits, leaders analyses reasons of conflicts and works to resolve them. They calmly listens both parties or people and makes decisions through negotiations or other aspect that influences workforce to initiate workings by resolving conflicts. The strength of trait theory is that it gives understanding and knowledge to leaders for different situations, provides benchmarks that leaders look to make their leadership effective. Considering the weakness, application is quite complex and do not accounts changes in personality and development of traits. In addition, it only offers limited guidances to use the traits that leaders have which makes thing difficult. Ask for dissertation writing services from our experts!

Models of leadership

Leadership style: Different leader uses different style to stimulate people for workings (Kerzner, 2018). Few leadership styles such as autocratic style, Laissez faire and democratic that are opted by business leaders. In relevance to leaders of Morrisons, they uses democratic style in which they motivates workforce to participate and share their ideas in decision making. In context to situations, leaders involve organisational people to provide views so to improve delivering of goods as soon as possible to customers. With this, huge solutions are generated and few of them are used for handling the situation. Strengths of it are it connects personnel with entity, promotes flowing of thoughts, encourage coordination within departments and develop more potentials in people. On other hand, democratic style has some weaknesses also, it stimulate morale of people when their views are not consider, delays decision making, creates workplace procrastination and causes huge uncertain scenarios. 

Summary: From the above information, it is summarised that organisational leaders applies wide theories related to situations. The also applies models of leadership as per situational contexts. Some of theories including system leadership, trait leadership, contingency leadership and situational leadership theories are widely implemented in situation such as conflict resolving along with timely delivering services.

Explanation of key approaches related to operations management along with role played by leaders and managers.

Introduction to task: There are certain operation management approaches wherein leaders and managers have different roles. The task highlights about key operations management approaches and role performed by leaders and managers in each.

Operation management approaches can be states to aspects which help business to initiate activities through improving efficiency (Lowe, 2019). These approaches encompasses strategies for maximising operational and production efficacy.  Few are discussed as:

Total quality management (TQM) – This can be consider as continuous method which is  used by business corporation to improve the efficiency of organisation by reducing and detecting the errors in manufacturing and supply chain management. Morrisons organisation is applying this approach to supply the best quality of products and services with the help of employees. The manager of Morrisons ensures that they are using TQM system to reduce the omission from operation and supplying process. Moreover, leaders helps to produce more goods and services at less cost  and time which increases profitability.

Just in time - This approach considered as a system which is required in business organisation to finish production and use resources properly by managing the inventory and  supplying process. It is related with operation management which helps to increase efficiency and effectiveness by reducing wastages from organisational functions. This approach is applied by manager of Morrisons in order to save the storage cost, increasing delivery, extra packaging cost etc. which helps to increase the customer satisfaction. In this, leader's role are as monitoring the actions which is taken by individuals and suggest them a way to removing any wasting resources from organisation operation.

Six sigma – This is also a technique which is used in operation management for improving the process (Nicholas, 2018). The manager of Morrisons uses this technique that gives opportunities to produce special feature in supplying the products with any detects. With the help of this, leaders efforts to achieve stable and predictable process by reducing variation process which gives good results.

Lean management - This is an approach to running by business organisation in order to support the continuous improvement in supply chain management. The uses of this system is relating to improving products, services, supply process and customer based which helps to make continuous improvement. This is effective approach which is applied by manager of Morrison organisation for improving supply process of products and increase the productivity. Herein, leaders identify the needs and wants of people about products and supply them with the help of employees by eliminating not created value.

In large retail store such as Morrisons, store manager plays important role in operations management. The important roles that store manager plays are maintaining entire store image, ensuring that store meets all the targets as well as earning profits, recruiting candidates for the store and managing assets of store. Along with these, store manager also have roles in different operational approaches. In approach of lean management, store management performs role of ongoing improvements in the store and improving supplies top other department. In context to six sigma, store manager plays role of supplying products to distinct departments without any defects. In TQM approach, store manager supply effective quality of products and reduces the omission from operation together with supplying process. Moreover, store manager of the same organisation also performs functions of planning upcoming activities for the store, organising required resources for store and controlling activities of employees in the store. 

Summary: The above task includes approaches in context to operations management that maximises efficacy of key departments that are operation, production and management. Leaders and managers plays important roles in each approach.

Explaining importance addition to values of operations management for attaining business objectives.

Introduction of task: Operations management is designing, initiating, implementing and controlling production process as well as re-engineering operations in similar field. The task includes importance and values of operations management in large retail store.

Operation management is management term which considers various functions in order to make effective functions and completing the goals (Orlady, 2017). This involves planning, organising, directing and controlling the activities which are majorly related with manufacturing, production in order to provide good quality of raw material and finished goods. The importance and value to operation management in context to operation management is defied as:

Customer satisfaction This is creating value of operation management by running all functions effectively that ensures goods and services with good quality are rendered to all buyers  that helps to increase customer satisfaction. To increase their sale and customer satisfaction is the foremost objective of Morrison company where leaders are adopting Total quality management approach in order to provide better quality of products which gives result of customer satisfaction and incremental sales. The manager are using Six Sigma approach which helps to deliver the qualitative product by filling customer needs and demands that helps to attain the business goals.

Quality of products and services –(Ravinde and Kollikkathara, 2017). There are two criteria such as reliability and durability consider as serving good quality of products and services. In context to Morrisons, TQM approach is useful for managers which is used to deliver the standard and qualitative product after going through various process. In this, manager identify the errors, monitor and control the product quality line which leads to better quality of products and services. By using this organisation is providing better quality of products which enhance value of organisation and brand image.

Wasteges reduction The main element and goal of operation management is to reduce the wastages and non effective process so, profits can be earn in effective time period. By reducing wastages organisation can increase their production and profits in certain period of time. In context to Morrison, manager are using JIT approach which helps to track the inventory and finished goods effectively. This helps to provide products and services in certain time which gives goods results and increase the organisational profitability. The leaders of such organisation focuses on waste reduction process which increases value of operation management by delivering product in less time.

Incremental in revenues To increase the quality of products, supply chain management and customer satisfaction helps business corporation to save cost and time (Sennewald and Baillie,  2020). By reducing cost and time company can increase their revenues which helps to maintain the good performance of business organisation by attractive people. Morrison is having good brand image and market share as managers and leaders are understanding customer's demand and providing products by removing extra packaging cost and transportation charges which results incremental in revenues. Moreover, it attracts people and provide them qualitative products which helps to maintain existing and new customers in marketplace.

Leaders and managers can improve the efficiency of operation management by using different approaches such as TQM, JIT, Lean management and six sigma which are effective approach and helps to meet with organisational objectives successfully. Such as Morrisons's objectives is to increase organisational profitability by reducing wastages and delivering quality of products. So, managers are using TQM and JIT approach to improve the quality of products in order to provide less time. Moreover, leaders are focusing on lean management approach which remove the wastages and improve the quality of products and delivering process that helps to meet with business objectives successfully.

Summary: As per mentioned information, it is summarised that operations management is hugely important for all companies. It is significant for ameliorating entire production, utilising resources optimally,  increasing revenues and reducing wastage in production field of company.

Assessment of  factors in business environment that have impact upon decision-making by leaders and managers addition to operational management

Introduction of task: Business environment means various all external and internal dimensions or factors having ability for affecting organisational functions either positively or negatively. The task involves various factors which have impacts towards operations management in addition to decision making by managers and leaders.

In present era, huge factors exist in business environment that impacts decision taken by administrators and operations management of company. Analysis of all the factors in competing scenario is essential for achieving favourable outcomes. Certain facts that may impact operation management and determinations of Morrisons leaders and managers are underneath:

Corporate social responsibility: In present times, all companies have to fulfil corporate responsibilities towards society (Waring, 2016). When they fails to do so, then faces huge impacts on managing operations and determination making. CSR is important concern to plan products for customer needs as it helps in ascertain the perception of society members for business along with provides information to set financial and social goals that further creates good impacts for entity in performing efficiently, attaining growth and profits from them. In relevance to Morrisons, CSR impacts decisions of leaders and managers to plan products and operations for meeting societal needs. When social members are happy with the products and uses them continuously will help in producing in huge volume and building image in competition scenario that shows positive impacts of managing operations addition to determination  made by leaders and managers for the commodities.

Organisational cultural values: These are described to shared values, beliefs along with supposition that governs behaviour of people in company. Cultural values of company impacts performances and motivations of personnels. Morrisons managers and leaders consults with each other and makes determination to hire required competent and skilled personnel to strengthen its cultural values. When suitable candidate is not hired or the selected personnel do not posses skills to perform operations in desired manner then it negatively influences management of various operations and decision making of the leaders with managers.  

Organisational ethics: Standards along with principals through which company operates are said to organisational ethics (Wilmshurst and Wallis, 2016). Working in ethical manner such as give quality in operations and adhering legislations impacts positively of company's operations management as quality in production results in successful outcomes. Within Morrisons, ethical working is more promoted by leaders in addition to managers through implementation of various standards in operations and production. This improves morale of personnel that can enhance retention, loyalty along with potentiality in huge working resulting positive impacts in decisions for standards of leaders and mangers and principles for operations management.

The ways mentioned influences operations and large retail shop

Raw material requirements: When required raw materials are not available with the production department of a company then it influences negatively on the operations as without raw materials no production will be done that will hinder other workings. At same time, large retail shops require raw material to produce various commodities as per the customers and when available on time then will impact positively of success of large retail shops.

Processing retail store: Decision making to process retail store generally impacts positively on operations and large retail shops. When retail shops are processed to new locations then it will attract many customers and achieving success becomes easy through this the operations are influenced positively. At same time, processing retail store helps in grabbing market shares and making revenues that influences large retail shops to work effectively.

Planning customer needs: When company plans customer needs and accordingly performs activities that it influences its operations positively as this will help in making profitable outcomes. On other hand, working as per planned needs of customers will assist large retail shops like Morrisons to satisfy all customer requirements and build image in market.

Hiring skilled people: When effective sources are used to hire skilled personnels then operations are influenced positive as skilled people will work without any much guidance and this will help managers to focus on other operations also. At same time, when large retail shops makes hiring of skilled people then they can promote the business in effective manner that will attract huge population and assist in strengthening position in market that will lead in positive influences.

Summary: As per the task, it is summarised that business environment have huge factors that impacts operations management and devised decisions. It is crucial to consider all factors related with operation management and leaders or managers decisions as they impact sin huge extent.

Conclusion

The above report concludes that all companies have business practise of operation management in which materials and other production factors are translated into efficient commodities. Leaders have traits such as managing complexities, honesty, optimism and commitment. Role and responsibilities that leaders have in company are guider, philosopher, work executor, improving efficiency, stimulating manpower and communicating proper information. At same time, Managers posses traits of innovative, self motivation, understandability and many more. They perform roles related to coordinator, decision making and forecaster. Managerial functions as explained by Fayol comprises of planning, coordinating, organising, directing and controlling. Theories and approaches like trait theory, system leadership, situational leadership and leadership styles are applied in scenario related to timely delivering services or resolving conflicts. TQM, six sigma, JIT and lean management are different operations management approaches that are important for customer satisfaction, wastages reduction, revenue incremental  and improving quality of products. Factors that can impact operation management are organisational cultural values, CSR and organisational ethics.

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