- A critical overview of different theories and functions.
- Provide critical thinking skills with appropriate theories.
Criminology is one of the major branches that are related to crime. There are various reasons that are related to the occurrence and performance of crime. These may include the psychological, biological, societal, and various others. With the persistence of these reasons, the crime would occur. This report discusses the criminological theories and associates them with the case of Sarah.
Biological theory of crime:
This is one of the major theories related with crime. As per this theory the cause behind the commitment of crime is related with biological factor (Polizzi, 2020). This means the sense and commitment of crime is passed from parents to their children. This shows the hereditary or the passing of physical attributes from parents to their children that wold lead to commit crime. As per this theory a criminal would be made from birth.
In general views it would be right to said that a criminal would be made from birth but still it is not necessary. This is because there are various other factors that are responsible for making a person to be criminal including the surrounding, peer and various other. But still it would be right to said that a person would be made criminal if it found such environment at its home.
As per this theory it can be learned that the crime and criminology is being continued from generation to generation. This is because if parents would not be able to give adequate direction and environment to their children then it will lead to a continuous rise in crimes (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 2017). This trend will remain continued from the past to the future if no improvement and adequate action would be taken from the parents towards their children.
It would be right to states that the theory is somewhat biased because it would be wrong to said that a criminal is born from birth. This means if a person wants not to become a criminal then it is easily possible. This means it is all depend upon that person that whether it chose to become a criminal as its parents or want to become a good person. In the same way the theory need to be improved because there are various other reason and conditions that are responsible in making a person to be a criminal. These may majorly include the economic condition, physical need and various other. Thus, it would be right to state that this theory need to be improved.
The positive aspect regarding this theory includes the aspect pf biology that is counted as a major reason and aspect related with crime. In the same as theory is related and associated with the biological factors that would be the major reason of making a person to be a criminal (Jeffery, 2021). As this theory involved the aspect of genes which would be counted as a major driver related the crime.
However contrary to this, biological theory fails because crime is a feature that is related with the society and not an individual aspect. In the same way a criminal act would be made and occurred but not only on one phase and aspect as explained by the biological theory. Its weakness is also related with the aspect of only focus on nature rather than other factor that are the major cause of crime. This theory does not equally applicable on every individual because every person and its thinking is different from each other.
Psychological positivism theory of criminology:
As per this theory the reason of crime is associated with the mental health and illness of an individual. This is because with the aspect of mental issues and psychology an individual is pursuit to commit crimes (Blevins, 2018). This may include the personality disorder and mental illness. As per this theory the personality and psychiatric factors are the major and root cause of crime. it establishes a link between crime and low intelligence. This can further be relating with the aggression, mental situation, personality trait and various other factors that may result in crime.
In general view this theory proves to be appropriate and right because it is related with psychology. As an individual would commit crime only when its mental state is not right. Since crime and wrong events are the direct and mental action that would result and reflect in the form of criminal activity. This means Psychological positivism theory proves to be right in almost every aspect.
The learning that is related with this theory is related with the aspect that the mental situation and balance is the major cause and reason that is related with the occurrence of crime. This may include the inner aggression, physical need or the mental imbalance. This shows that the theory hold good in majority of aspect related with crime.
The theory would not be counted as biased because the aspect and the major lead of the theory i.e. Psychological aspect is actually hold a major driver that may insist an individual to commit crime. This is all the game of mind that would lead to the performance of crime (White, Haines and Asquith, 2017). it does not required improvement except the aspect of involvement of other factor like the societal which may also be the major reason of the crime.
The strength of this theory may include its base i.e. psychology which is actually hold a major reason behind the commitment of crime. As this theory hold the mental balance and state of mind as a major reason of crime which itself counted as a major advantage of this theory because occurrence of crime and the mental state of the committer is closely linked with each other.
However, its weakness may include lack of credibility, accuracy and other aspects. This is because crime is not only associated with the psychological factor but it may also have related and associated with other factors including the biological, personal need and various other.
Thus, it would be right to state that psychological positivism is the major aspect that is related with the occurrence of crime and majority of crimes are being associated and have performed because of the mental disorder and the psychological factors including the aggression, anger, temperament issue and various other (Behrens, 2018). This theory would be made practically implacable because the state of mind would guide the action of an individual that may further lead to the commitment of crimes.
Sarah Everard case
This case is related with the murder of Sarah as a crime that is to be committed by the local police of London. This incident was occurred on 3rd March, 2021 when Sarah was kidnapped in south London when she was walking from a friend’s house near Clapham Common (Bhattacharyya, R., 2021). At that time Metropolitan police officer named Wayne Couzens arrested Sarah because of the breaching of covid guidelines. Couzen has taken Sarah to Dover where is was raped and later killed with the act of disposition of her body.
On 9th of March, Couzen was arrested with the aspect of her crime with the consideration towards Sarah kidnapping and later as a suspicion of her killing. The case continued followed with the death of Sarah and on 8th June, 2021, Couzen has admitted that the crime has been occurred and he was responsible for her death followed with the rape. On 9th of July, he was pleaded with guilty of murder and a life imprisonment was availed to it.
The chosen theory of criminology i.e. psychological and biological theory of criminology has a direct association with the Sarah case. This is because in case of Sarah case too the crime had been occurred including her death. But it would be right to state that the selected theories has a contradictory impact and association with the Sarah case because on the one hand it would be right to state that the crime had been occurred because of the aspect of biological aspect but at the same time it is highly related with the psychological aspect. This is because the persistence of crime by the Couzen is related with its psychological and sexual desire and need which lead to a crime including her killing (Grant, J., 2021).
This can further be understood as biological theory with its meaning that the reason of crime is related with the parents and the biological aspects (Inankul and Sayin, 2021). This can be made implied towards the Couzen which has insisted him to commit crime. But it would be wrong to said that the crime is completely associated with the biological factor because the psychological factor also play an important role.
Thus, on the contra dictionary note it would be right to states that psychological positivism is the most important theory in the case of Couzen that has insisted him to commit crime. Since this theory is related with the mental state that shows that the Couzen and its mental states in terms of committing the crime was not good. This means with the persistence of physical and mental need, Couzen has committed a crime that has resulted in the death of Sarah. This shows high implication of psychological positivism theory of crime.
The theories are offering a high concentration on crime that is related with the murder case of Sarah Everard. This is because when the crime was committed the theory of psychological positivism become active that has resulted in the occurrence of crime. However, out of the two theories the psychological positivism theory is more persuasive while compared it to biological theory. This is because the act of Couzen clearly reflect its mental peace and state that has insisted him to commit the crime. As being a police officer, kidnapping Sarah on the aspect of breaching of covid guidelines and performing the act of rape followed with the act of killing is clearly reflect its poor psychology. This is because on the persistence of its physical need it performed rape and with the aspect of its fear and poor mindset Couzen killed Sarah. This shows that the crime can be more related and justified with the Psychological positivism theory of crime that is related with the psychological factors that would insist an individual to commit crime.
This can further be said that the biological theory is not to be highly persuasive because there are no biological evidences in the present case of Sarah which shows that the crime was being performed because of the aspect of biological factors and aspects. In the same way this theory is highly concerned with the parental aspect and factors in relation with the crime so in the case of Sarah the indulgence of this theory is not right to be appropriate. But at the same time the psychological positivism theory would make it more clear and justified the case of Sarah and Couzen under which Couzen has performed the crime because of the involvement of psychological aspect and need. Thus, it would be right to state that the biological theory is less persuasive while making it compared it with the psychological theory in the case of Sarah because of the act of crime that is related with the case is highly concerned with the psychological aspect instead of biological aspects and reasons. This means that the theory related with psychological aspect is of more relevance while making it compared it with the biological and any other theory (Burke and et.al., 2019). The reason that would be counted with the relevance, applicability and persuasiveness will be based on the main aim and idea of the concerned theory that would lead to insist the crime to be occurred which is more applicable. If you are Looking for Assignment Help services in the UK contact Instant Assignment Help, We offer all types of Assignment help services for UK students. We have the best writer who can solve all your educational problems at a reasonable price.
From the above report it can be concluded that there are various reasons that would lead an individual to commit crime. These may include the biological as well as the psychological aspects. This report also explains the reason and the aspect that are related with the crime followed with the case