This assessment will discuss further questions mentioned below:
- Provide an appropriate definition of crime and deviance with their nature of work.
- Analyze the development in criminology.
- Explain the awareness of criminology by applying crime and deviance.
- Examine, compare, and collate the empirical information of the module.
Criminology means the study of crime and criminal behaviour which is informed principles of sociology and other non-legal fields that includes psychology, economics, statistics, and anthropology. Also criminology covers about various kinds of aspects upon crime taking place within society. Criminology is based over study of various types of crimes informing about principles of sociology and various non- legal fields covered inn relation over individual living within society. Scope of criminology is wider as it covers about various aspects which is based upon criminal perspective existing within society. Nature is dynamic as it directly impacts society. In this file things covered is based upon statement which is related over positivist and classical school of criminology.
Statement: “Compare and contrast the positivist school of criminology with the classical (classicism) school of criminology, including an appraisal of the ensuring key theorists within each school of thought".
Crime means an unlawful act which makes punishable through state or other authority. Also crime includes modern crimes and criminal law within it that leads upon protecting society with various purpose(Brisman, and South, 2018). This is one of the most important preselective which helps in protecting society from criminal activities and category created by law. It makes laws applied over creating relevancy in relation over criminal law with applicability. Crime is based upon various kinds of offences making act performed that directly impacts community, society and state. In order to control crime legislation and act are formed within United Kingdom. Criminal law basically deals with public wrong effecting public at large. In criminal law offences like murder, rape, theft and sexual offences has been covered. The criminal offence handled within lower court and Magistrate court as per jurisdiction given to them. Trials and investigation process upon criminal activity is covered within criminal code that acts as comprehensive statute. The state (government) has the power to severely restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, death(Blagg and Anthony, 2019). Some jurisdictions sentence individuals to programs to emphasize or provide for their rehabilitation while most jurisdictions sentence individuals with the goal of punishing them or a mix of the aforementioned practices.
Crime has been existing from very long time within society and various perspective in relation to control it is explained by Adam and Eve. As the advancement of the concept took place various criminologists formed there opinion that made the terms coined in more effective manner. This gave birth to four schools which are Pre-classic school, classic school, positive school and neo classic school.
This school is an classic school of criminology which is founded by philosophers like Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham and Romill. These philosopher's made school develop over belief that men is an selfish part of society which leads upon making crime to be committed by him. In the school main aspects of committing crime is related to pleasure and pain gained through committing an offence. Further, the school related upon concept of demonism which relates over negative influence created over human through elements present in society. (Bottoms, and Wiles, 2020). Becacria has proposed that punishment for crime should be proportionate which is dependent over nature of crime. Also classical school has formed opinion that punishment should be equal for everyone allowing balance to be maintained upon in relation to adjudication. The ideology of school is coined upon creating judgement which is focused upon making criminal impact. The classic school makes principle developed in relation to punishments which is related to crime. In order to prove relevancy over the concept three main theory has been developed that has been explained as follows:
Rational Choice Theory
As per the theory crime committed is result of conscious choice. In this individuals require to choose over committing crime that is based upon free will decision. Also the theory has been making individual choose upon commuting crime with benefits outweigh the costs of disobeying the law.
Routine Activities Theory
The theory is related upon key elements based upon activities which helps in making offerings done by motivating offender with an attractive target lacking capabilities in relation over targets making offender face situations over presence making crime rate increased in society. Also the theory has made motivation provided within offenders helping in focusing over new and better life.
Situational Choice Theory
The situational choice theory is related over ideas making crime committed upon situations constraining as per opportunities formed. In other terms theory makes persons behaviour its main perspective leading towards committing crime. The theory is better developed over making situation take place leading upon committing crime as per its situations existing in society.
The positive school is also termed as Lombrosian School that has been founded by Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, Raffaeleo, and Garofalo. Also school is focused over criminals and not on crime(Blagg, and Anthony, 2019). As per the school positivist is having various understanding about right and wrong which helps in making crime to be punished. Also school has started upon making crime based upon environmental factors. Thus school is related upon three min theories which are biological, psychological and sociological relating with behaviour of crime. The positive school of Criminology is based up[on various aspects and theories in relation upon various patterns of criminal behaviour. This has been brought into light over various factors that includes criminality. This school of criminology makes crimes determined in relation to individual. Also the school is based upon measuring various aspects that helps in determining about factors which is related to crime and criminality. Also to prove this various kinds of theories has been explained given as follows:
Specific Theories within the Positivists School:
As the classic school and positive school pf criminology various important theories has been covered which is based upon scholars at the time and today used for explaining about behaviour or criminals(Baumer, Vélez and Rosenfeld, 2018). There are three categories of theory used within the school which are discussed as follows:
The theory is based upon and person biological and hereditary theory which makes theories implied which is not entirely an criminal fault. This makes them identifying with criminality. Lomborose has made suggestion which feels typical criminal with the book of Criminal Mann within which description is made over traits and characteristics of prisoners which makes criminality identified(Baumer, Vélez, and Rosenfeld, 2018).
Psychological theories has been dealing with mental health which an individual has been making analysis done. This is based upon crime and various kinds of abnormal activities which is related to inappropriate process related to personality of an individual. This theory covers about physiological perspective with needs of individual.
Sociological Theories in relation upon criminal behaviour that makes social constructs surrounding by an individual. These theories has been structured which is based environment around individual. This is the people that is related over close and intimate contact of an individual making taught done in relation over Social structure and context, as well as sociological theories are an important part making analysis possible over behaviour.
These schools has helped in making theories attempt to be explained in relation over connections with the facts which are observed in relation over patterns, construct policies, and better understand how factors are related(Nguyen and Loughran, 2018). Then definition of Renzetti's has defined the theories as those interconnection which is based upon statements or propositions which explained about two or more events or factors that is related to another perspective(Barak, 2018). These theories has helped in making balance to be created in relation over serving justice in its real sense. The classical theory has helped in developing deeper analysis over crime and its various aspects which made students of law attain string clearance over topic related to crime. Then it has helped students develop legal skills related to problem solving which has helped in making law students in today's world develop understanding about process related to crime. Also it has helped teachers to develop teaching techniques over crime which lead upon formation of criminology. Through the thinking of the school punishments were highlighted and there needs within society is understood with more effectiveness. Also through this legal aspect has been covered which makes crime and punishment understood more effectively. The positive school has made understanding developed about various perspectives which has helped in making factors and elements of crime to be identified more effective making modern criminal law developed more effectively. This has helped in preparing structure which is important over legal development. It has helped in making basic structure of crime understood in more effective manner. These schools has lead over making criminology recognized as more important study in relation to legal academic. The concepts of these schools made students learn about criminal law in better and effective manner.
It is clear that these schools has helped in making criminology enshrine with various perspective of crime. This made academic integrity in terms of law served which more effectiveness(Snaphaan and Hardyns, 2021). Also the schools has made sure that they are able to contribute in modern criminology studies. Further, theories given by these schools made Morden criminal law in England to be establish as per the legal standards making criminal problems solved in more effectiveness. Also criminology has made various aspects of crime developed which makes legal terms developed over crime helping in securing justice. Through concepts of these schools criminology has become more relevant study in relation to crime.
Research Project of Aviva Plc
From the above discussion it can be concluded that criminology means study of those aspects which is related to crime and its various elements understood in more effective manner. They are used for making law students develop appropriate knowledge, skills, techniques and tools which helps students to understand criminal law in better manner. Also there are various kinds of aspects that has been covered within criminology. The file is based upon tow schools of criminology which are classic and positive school. Both schools has lead upon making modern criminology studies established in better manner. The philosophers of these schools has made various elements to be identified helping in making criminology achieve more relevancy over criminal laws and crime. They made elements of crimes to be marked out which has helps in creating better understanding about criminal law in terms of criminology. Also various kinds of theories given by these schools has been explained with the concept. Are you worried about assignment help at an affordable budget? Contact our experts.