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Contemporary Issues in Criminology

University: Queen Mary University of London

  • Unit No: 10
  • Level: Post Graduate/University
  • Pages: 12 / Words 2886
  • Paper Type: Essay
  • Course Code:
  • Downloads: 10358
Question :
  • How does the British policing model balance public order with the right to peaceful protest?

  • What challenges do the police face in managing protests, considering factors like digital communication.

Answer :


Crimes in society are increasing due to issues associated with its regulation and ineffective management through governing authority. Here, it is very important to take the suitable action for the protection of people and lay down appropriate regulation for their betterment. The present report is based on ways to policed the protest by focusing the issues and challenges. For this purpose, issues and challenges which are being faced under the protest organisation and its regulation are explained along with incorporate of suitable examples. In addition to this, regulatory framework available in context of protect has also been explained.

Different types of protests

There are different types of protect which are initiated through which public of the nation. It consists of Sit in, Marching and Boycotting as well as legal action. Along with that, striking and breaking the law are also considered. This assists people to accomplish their desired task and meet their expectations in an effective manner. The first type of protest is of sit in under which people refuse to leave their place and be at a single place (Hasisi and Weisburd, 2014). This type of protest does not harm people due to their silence where they have their demands and accordingly they decide to move from the place. This would be effective to cater the requirement of all related parties effectively. On the other hand, marching is also applied through which people walk from one to another place along with several signs indicating their demand effectively. It can be understood with the help of Civil Rights March in Washington.

Furthermore, boycotting as another kind of protect take place among people under which people reduce the do business with a particular company or country. For example, Cuba was boycotted from US. In addition to this, legal action as another form of protest reflects that people come together for fighting against any kind of legal issues. In addition to this, striking take place among workers who reduce to go to the job due to particular issue related to working hours or pay etc (Hall and et. al., 2013). Apart from this, breaking the law is implemented through which doing something illegal which disturb the activities of nation or particular area to a great extent. Owing to this, suitable action is taken by the regulatory authority to make the people feel comfortable and meet their demand or expectations effectively.

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On a critical note, generally people protest in a group for resolving their issues. However, protect from a single people or individual might be considered for the remedies. Owing to this, it becomes important for public to join a group so that issue can be resolved in relatively less time span.

Rights for the protests

There are several kind of rights provided for the public in order to accomplish their work on time. It would be effective for varied parties to accomplish their task and fulfil their purpose in a most effective manner. However, there are several rights which are provided for general public of the UK through which they must be aware. The first one is of peaceful protest which make it possible to change the laws and policies effectively (Rogers, 2014). Here,general community have right to stand against any kind of oppression caused by government. This aids to promote the change in nation support people to live effective life. Furthermore, the convention of human rights deals with the freedom provided for individual to come together and join the team for the purpose of accomplishing certain task. On a critical note, government cannot interfere public in taking the right decision. In fact public can effectively work on the areas of improvement and accordingly take necessary action to work in the direction of justice. This particular aspect reflects that protect occurred by general public is justifiable and it would be effective in meeting the expectations of individual in an effectual manner (Wolfe and Nix, 2016).

In addition to this, new criminal laws are formed in order to address that security issues of the nation. This would be effective to reduce the growing fears of government. It enables people to implement the appropriate policy extra powers. This aids to deal with activities related to terrorism and anti-social beahviour of the general community. Though, the peaceful protests is considered under the right of human being but when it becomes to cover more and more space then authority is required to take the strict action. It is considered as the major challenge under which police can effective make it difficult for people to organize the protest in case they are not happy with the current situations (Studdert and Walkerdine, 2016).

For this purpose, public must be aware of the their roles and responsibilities effectively and accordingly complete the related task. This aids to cater their requirement effectively. Such kind of practices are implemented just for the sake of protecting the right of other general community involved in the group. Furthermore, breach of peace is another important aspect under which police has right to take the legal action against the public dealing with such kind of activities. For this purpose, protestors must work in the ground of give responsible and should not  go beyond the same so as to accomplish the related purpose effectively. The another remedy use for the protest is of injunction under which people get the right to raise their voice but at the same time regulatory authority can use the injunction. It is a civil order which facilitates to impose criminal penalties for the people involved under the protest. However, protestors can do apply the contest injunction and court notice (Ratcliffe, 2016). This in turn situation can be handled without any kind of harm to any party. But the breach of the peace might cause significant harm to all related parties. Thus, peaceful protest is acceptable but the unlawful act is not accepted and accordingly regulated body is provided right to take the suitable action to resolve their situation in an effectual manner. It would not attract police if the activities related to protest are completed effectively without affecting other parties.

Issues and challenges of protect

It is very important for the public to maintain the peace and do not breach the same during the protest. In case they breach they same then it becomes important for police the take the important action against the public. However, the British Model of policing states or value for the tolerance in order to gain the consent of the public. The public order policing related issue is being faced due to the issue of new work of the protest (Manning, 2015). Here, digital communication age take place affecting the demand of mutual aid. For this purpose, police of the nation is facing problem in the management of peace and accordingly demand of changing world is not being met. Owing to this, dispute are increasing and economic climate is affecting the other sectors of nation to a great extent. There might be possibility that public or police knowledge is not sufficient to meet the specific requirement of the people. However, this results inappropriate use of police power and accordingly people suffered from loss of huge amount. Such kind of aspects demands for the  introduction of specific policies and practices which in turn government can ensure well being of people (Loader, 2016). The British model policing the handle the situation related to protest also become the reason of issue due to its style and responsibility. For example, it follow the independent approach which work for the respect for fight and accountable. On the other hand, responsibility work in accordance with the balance the right given the protesters and others. This aids to protect the public from several issues such as harm and any kind of threat to property too. It is typical due to the lack of consistency and command capacity.

Inappropriate political pressure is another potential reason through which police decision making power is affected with regard to protect. It violates the right of people because they are not treated in a right manner and accordingly crime is promoted in the nation. It is because when general community find it difficult to get their issues resolved from the public then they follow the approach applied for resolving their issues (Palmer and Whelan, 2014). However, misuse of the law is another advantage taken by the public. This promotes the criminology among public and in turn affect the security related aspects to a great extent. Here, it becomes necessary to follow the workable legislative framework to deal with the peaceful protest. It proves to be effective to cater the requirement of all related parties and enable them to get their demand fulfilled (The responsibility to protect, 2017).

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Another issue is related to economics which reflects that reduction in the police budget become the reason of several other issues. For example, cost tends to increase due to several kind of activities and enhance in the criminology. Owing to this, problem is discovered that what strategies can be applied for the improvement in the national public order policing capabilities in the set budget. This problem again affect the right of public as peaceful protest cannot be entertained by the police (Dempsey and Forst, 2013). For this purpose, general community get higher level of dissatisfaction and accordingly more and more space is covered by them. On a critical note, infective of use of power tends to bring-forth the outcome in the form of claim against the police. For this purpose, suitable action can be taken to address the issues which are being faced by the public. For example, cluster basis working can be promoted under the police department through which resources can be utilized properly and services will be rendered in a more effectively manner.

The another challenge under the protest is related to complexity under the framed regulation related to protest and action which can be taken on the same. This affect the right of people and do not allow police the take the suitable action as per the demand to the situation. For this purpose, police might pre-assume regarding doing favour to the public so they can complete the related task effectively. Owing to this, policy face specific issue related to use of the law that how they should deal with certain issues (O’Reilly, 2015). At certain point of time, they confront from the confusion related to relationship between public order legislation and human right act. At this juncture, suitable guideline can be provided for the department of police to apply the regulatory framework effective in the context of the well being of the people. They must be provided proper training to take the suitable action and clarify the department of police regarding the action taken for the breach of the peace and suitable action at the time banning (The Right to Peaceful Protest, 2017).

The issue related to use of force is fundamental problem under which problem in faced in codifying the particular areas of the policing activity. The major problem associated with the same is of improper use of the force under the police legitimacy action affect the overall activities related to protest to a great extent. Owing to this, principle to use the force should be followed. At the same time, planning and controlling of operation department must be done effective which is responsible for the entire department of police. It would be effective to utilize the resources in an effectual manner (Fyfe, 2014). However, special care should be taken in context of lethal force through which appropriate practices related to regulation can be implemented for the safety of the general public. On the other hand, communication is another important aspect under which is it important for the police to ensure disseminate clear information. For this purpose, public events must be handled effective by using the appropriate mode of communication. It is not being done properly through which public suffer very badly. This has direct impact on the performance of the regulatory framework. It is showing that there is need of effective communication in order to resolve the queries of protesters and promote them to work effectively in the direction of their well being. The major problem related to poor communication must be addressed among human being so they can build higher level of confidence among communities (Inspecting policing in the public interest, 2017).

The issue related to communication can be resolved with the help of positive practices such as Bluetooth, community engagement and dialogue policing etc. This would be effective for the purpose of management of crowd dynamics and enable people to conduct the protest related activities effectively. Hence, introduction of clear communication strategies is very significant and helpful for department of police to effectively meet the requirement of all related parties in an effectual manner.  In addition to this, governance and accountability is potential key message for policing the protect wherein police are held liable for the use of force or any other action taken by them. Similarly, police just act the servants of the people and they cannot work without the consent of the people and their support (Tyler, Goff and MacCoun, 2015). Hence, appropriate mode of communication would be effective for the public to understand the strategies applied to resolve their issues.

On a critical note, lack of clarity and accountability among police is another potential issue through which they face problem in resolving the issues which are being faced under protests either peaceful or other. At this juncture, it becomes crucial to ensure certainty related to the role of the home office and other related to companies or legislative authorities. This aids to cater the need of respective people and promote their betterment effectively. It can be resolved effective with the help of monitoring of public order policing under which public event can be organized effectively. This leads to ensure the growth of the business and accordingly address the issues which are being faced by them in an effectual manner. For this purpose, British modelling must be improved in accordance with requirement and issues of the public. Thus, common guidelines must be communicated to police in order to accomplish the target of general community (Hasisi and Weisburd, 2014).


The aforementioned essay concludes that appropriate regulatory framework is established to take the action against the unlawful protest. There is strong link between the protests and police so as to accomplish the related activities effectively. However, additional right are provided for the public through which they can ensure their own well being and fight for their right effectively. It can also be concluded several issues are faced in the department of police which must be resolve with the implementation of suitable strategies such as communication and clear order etc. Not only this but the appropriate guideline must be provided for the police to understand the use of force and breach of the peace. This proves to be effective for establishing the peace in the nation.

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  • Dempsey, J.S. and Forst, L.S., 2013. An introduction to policing. Cengage Learning.
  • Fyfe, N.R., 2014. A different and divergent trajectory? Reforming the structure, governance and narrative of policing in Scotland. The Future of Policing, London: Routledge, pp.493-506.
  • Hall, S. and et. al., 2013. Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state and law and order. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hasisi, B. and Weisburd, D., 2014. Policing terrorism and police–community relations: Views of the Arab minority in Israel. Police Practice and Research. 15(2).  pp.158-172.
  • Loader, I., 2016. In search of civic policing: recasting the ‘Peelian’principles. Criminal law and philosophy. 10(3).  pp.427-440.
  • Manning, P.K., 2015. Democratic policing in a changing world. Routledge.
  • O’Reilly, C., 2015. The Pluralization of High Policing: Convergence and Divergence at the Public–Private Interface. British Journal of Criminology. 55(4).  pp.688-710.
  • Palmer, D. and Whelan, C., 2014. Policing and networks in the field of counterterrorism. Examining political violence: Studies of terrorism, counterterrorism, and internal war, pp.145-166.
  • Ratcliffe, J.H., 2016. Intelligence-led policing. Routledge.
  • Rogers, C., 2014. Maintaining democratic policing: The challenge for police leaders. Public Safety Leadership. 2(2).  pp.1-7.
  • Studdert, D. and Walkerdine, V., 2016. Community Policing. In Rethinking Community Research (pp. 187-210). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  • Tyler, T.R., Goff, P.A. and MacCoun, R.J., 2015. The impact of psychological science on policing in the United States procedural justice, legitimacy, and effective law enforcement. Psychological science in the public interest. 16(3).  pp.75-109.
  • Wolfe, S.E. and Nix, J., 2016. Police Officers’ Trust in Their Agency Does Self-Legitimacy Protect Against Supervisor Procedural Injustice?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, p.0093854816671753.
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