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This essay is based on two different types of case studies such as Baby Peter and The Bournewood Case. The report basically examines the perception of disability, illness and behavior with an aim to appraise the services as offered by local authorizes to the person that has specific needs. In addition to this, the easy also showcases the impact of various kind of legislation on the provider of services. On the other hand, it also depicts about the effectiveness of various types of strategies that are being used by health care professionals with an aim to deal with the person that possesses challenging behavior (Thew and McKenna, 2009).
Definition of disability can be defined in two varied standards such as primary and secondary (Reeves and et.al. 2011). Primary standard of disability can be defined as the condition that weakens ability of an individual to perform anything. On the other hand, when person lacks in physical and mental health condition then it is known as the secondary standard state of disability.. In other words, disability is also the concept that is related to a consequence of impairment which not only include physical and mental but also cognitive, sensory and emotional as well as behavioral or some combination of all these. These are following conditions identified that are being counted under the concepts of disability such as lack of vision, hearing impairment, breathing problems along with learning disability etc. This concept can be applied to both the cases (Jackson and et.al. 2011). In Baby Peter’s case, disability had caused to him because of neglect and physical abuse owing to which he was injured very badly by his own mother and her boyfriend. During the period of 8 months, Baby P was so abused physically to such an extent that eventually led to his death.
On the other hand, in Bournewood’s case, it is seen that autism which is a type of disease that causes its significant affect on the information processing ability of person. Autism is a kind of disability which is by birth and from the case of Bournewood, it can be said that disability can occur as a result of a birth defect also. It is being characterized by following features such as impaired social interaction and learning disability which is seen in the given case. In addition to this, the person who has suffered from disability tends to possess illness in it. In both the cases physical and mental illness of patients has been seen. Behavior showcases the range of actions that person performs with respect to the situation occurring in front of him. The behavior as directed by Baby Peter’s mother towards him was not appropriate and it is the reason why he had suffered from lots of injuries. However, in the case of Bournewood, challenging behavior is being directed by HL because of his physical and mental impairment. From both the cases, it can be said that disability can be a consequence of abuse or harm caused to an individual by someone else or can also be a result of disability (Lloyd and Marjorie., 2010).
With an aim to analyze the concept of disability a comparison is being made between two different types of models such as medical and social model. Medical model believes that any kind of disability that is being caused to the person is because of their mental and physical limitation. This model is largely unconnected to the social or geographical environments (Medical Model of Disability, 2014). The medical model of disability views the problem of disability as a problem that belongs only to the concerned or disabled person and it is not an issue to concern anyone else. Impact of medical model on the individuals who are disabled is that it would aim to cure illness of the person. In case of Baby P and Bournewood, according to medical model, solution to their disability can be a cure of physical abuse and autism respectively. It has a positive impact but only to a certain extent.
In comparison to this, social model of disability assumes that any kind of impairment is being caused to the person because of the negative attitudes and exclusion as done by society towards an individual that is already going through with the difficult type of condition. In both the given cases, condition of patients had impaired in negative way because of an ineffective attitude complied by the members of society towards them such as friends, family and citizens (Sochocka and Anderton, 2011). Social model has more positive impact as compared to medical model as it aims to support the disabled by involving society as well so as to cure their disability to a certain extent. In both cases, support and helping hand from society to both Baby P and Mr. HL according to social model would be of more help.
The perception of society towards the person that has specific needs have changed over time. In this respect, significant change has been found out between the attitudes of people towards an individual that has particular need. For example, it is being considered by many of the society’s members that responsibility with respect to compiling an effective care of the children rests with the persons that are their actual care takers such as parents. In present scenario, abuse related cases like of Baby Peter are incensing regularly; it has changed the perception of people. On the other hand, in order to deal out with problems like home abuse; incidence government of nations are directing their varied efforts by forming various kinds of laws and regulation. It can also be said that now as people are becoming more and more vigilant and educated, they are able to understand the specific needs of persons suffering from various kinds of disabilities. Also, strict actions are taken by the officials against whom who intentionally harm or disable individuals.
In addition to this, there is also a significant change seen in the perception of individual towards the person that is going through some kind of disability (Race, 2012). Earlier it has been considered that the person that is suffering from autistic type of condition as seen in the case of Bournewood, needs to be impaired from any kind of social interaction. But, now days this perception has changed as now people consider that the person that is suffering from autistic type of condition can be treated well if they are to be provided an environment of utmost love and care. The change in perception is because of the increased intervention of the government and taking sincere efforts in order to raise awareness among public related to mental health problems like autism. Apart from this, there are now a number of interventions that are made available for curing and treating such patients so that they can also live a normal and healthy life. Owing to this, perceptions regarding various disabilities have changed. This is seen in the given case as here it is because of the utmost love and care as directed by Mr. and Mrs. E towards HL only, an improvement is seen in the situation in an effective way (Hebblethwaite and et.al., 2007).
According to the Equality Act 2010, equal treatment must be given to all persons regardless of their protected characteristics such as disability, age and gender etc (Equality Act 2010, 2014). The impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture is being analyzed on the ways in which services are made available to the people that have specific needs. In this respect, there are various kinds of legislation identified that can be correctly applied to the given situation. It comprises of following such as Mental Capacity law, Human Right Law and Children Act 2004. These identified acts also help in promoting rights of disabled persons. The act like mental capacity act works for the protection of those persons who are mentally ill and cannot take wise decision on their own (Mental Capacity Act 2005, 2014). This act can be correctly applied to the case of Bournewood. It is with the help of such type of acts, a strict action is being taken by Mr. and Mrs. E towards the hospital named as Bournewood that forcefully detained the patients in their care home (Goward and et.al. 2005). It is due to the presence of this act only an improvement has been found out in the services as offered by hospital towards the person that is suffering from the condition like Autism. In the similar way, by complying with the help from human right only Mr. and Mrs. E were able to take action against the hospital that was abusing HL.
On the other hand, Children Act 2004 works to provide protection to those children that are unable to protect themselves from any kind of abuses. This is seen in the case of Baby Peter who is 17 month old. With the help of this act, compliance of person can be created towards an individual that are going through the conditions like physical and mental abuse. In addition to this, social policies like “Every child matters” works in a manner of providing safe environment to the children. These policies cause its impact on the services offered by an organization towards children which are safe and secured environment and protecting them against the various kinds of abuses and providing them accurate attention. The perception of the society towards the people that are going through with specific kind of diseases affect the services made available to them. For example, in some country autism is considered as untreatable type of dieses. Effect of these types of taboos can be seen on the services made by health and social care organization towards autistic patients. As the result of it they will not get an appropriate service from the hospitals (Grant, 2010).
As per the given case studies, there are varied care needs of both individuals such as Baby Peter and HL that are identified. It involves following such as communication need, physical assistance along with social need. For 17 month old child like Baby Peter the needs relating to the communication plays important role. By complying with the activities like gesture and posture etc child can express his view towards the parents. On the other hand, in Bournewood’s case communication need had aroused. The need of communication in this case is important as by making use of oral and sign language, Mr. HL can make others understand his feelings and can express them well (Smith, 2013). In addition to this, aspect relating to the social need can be applied to both cases. In order to make people feel that they are the part of the society the need relating to the society plays crucial role. Situation of autistic people can be improved if utmost care and love is provided to them which are seen in the case of Bournewood. In this similar way, this need plays very important role in the life of children also as this makes them feel like that they are in the safe hand and place. Physical needs of HL has aroused because it is also necessary to provide him the adequate support so that he can cope up and perform routine activities like washing and dressing himself and this can also be seen in the case of Baby Peter. As a child, he also requires proper physical support of his parents so as to help in his routine activities and also make him learn for future. The services offered by community based rehabilitation programs comprises of following such as assessing an effective care home for the patients that are suffered from any kind of disability and ensuring that they are properly treated by health care individuals (Community-based rehabilitation (CBR), 2014). The services offered by such type of programs help the individual like Baby Peter and HL in terms of fulfilling their physical and social needs in an effective way.
The current system plays very supportive role in terms of providing their assistance to those individuals that have specific needs like Baby Peter and HL. It comprises of following such as Human right act 1998, Children protection Act 2004 along with policy like every children matters etc (Mackenzie and Watts, 2009). This act tends to provide assistance to both types of individuals such as normal as well as people with specific need. In this respect, distinction is made between basic need of normal individual with that of person that has specific needs. The people who have suffered from the disability like autism demand for more social interaction, love and affectionas they do not get all these things in a simpler way. But this need is not seen in the case of person who is normal as they easily get it. The current system has provided their effective support to an individual that has specific need (Mackenzie and Watts, 2011). For example, another system which is also included in this is European Court of Human Rights. This system favored Mr. and Mrs. E to support and provide a complete safe environment to HL who was forcefully detained and continuously abused by the employee at Bournewood’s care home (Human Rights Act 1998, 2014). In the similar way, by complying assistance from the Children protection Act 2004 and policies such as every children matter, children like Baby Peter can be protected from the physical and mental abuses type of conditions. With the help of these acts only, a person with specific need can avail an opportunity to live healthy and free life.
There are numerous kinds of services offered by NHS (National Health services) to an individual like Baby Peter that has particular need. NHS organizes various kinds of parenting related programs for the couples that has newly born baby in their home. The organization also provide counseling services to parents so that they can understand the specific needs of their children and especially of those who are suffering from any kind of disability. Day acre services are also provided in order to take care of the offsprings. It also provides services to support parents like community based and residential so that proper care can be taken of the children. If these all identified services were available at the time when Baby Peter was going through with the abuses then his death had not occurred (Morgan, 2013). Apart from this, there are a number of officials and government authorities who are there to support and safeguard children from any kind of abuse. Overall it can be said that services available in local community plays very important role in providing assistance to those individuals that are in need.
Intervention strategies are the systematic plans that reduce the incidence that can affect the mental and physical ability of the persons in negative way. In this respect, numerous intervention strategies identified that tends to provide their effective support to an individual like Baby peter and HL that has specific need. It involves guardianship and advocacy. Guardianship is the type of approach that has an aim to provide protection to those individuals that are physically and mentally abused by their parents as seen the Baby Peter case (Gleave and et. al., 2010.). They provided all kinds of legal assistance to those persons that were being abused by their family members. The death of Peter would have been prevented if some guardian is to be appointed by the government of particular nation. Another approach is related to advocacy. Here efforts are made by government of nation in terms of employing people that work for the protection of people that has physical and learning disability. By seeking assistance from such type of approaches strict actions can be taken against those persons that tend to affect the people like HL that are suffered from autism (Whitehead and et.al., 2008).
The intervention strategies identified for protecting individuals like Baby peter and HL are found as effective. The effectiveness with respect to the guardianship approach can occur when the appointed guardians are able to fulfill their duty relating to the work for protecting an individual that are disabled like Baby Peter in an effective way. Guardianship works in the manner that a guardian properly understands the needs and wants of the disabled person. Also, the person is able to express his or her views effectively to the guardian and accordingly more appropriate care is taken. Also, it is the protector who is always willing to safeguard and protect the disabled person and is always ready to help and support them. In the similar way, if timely and appropriate action is to be taken against the person that abuses people like HL that are suffered from autism then only the effectiveness with respect to the concept named as advocacy can occur. Beside this, there are other interventions strategies identified that can be applied to the given case. With the help of an effective parenting program guidance can be provided to those individual that are new parents. On the other hand, by appointing language tutor, behavior of autistic people can be assessed (Bernard, 2013).
The emerging development in the field of technology has played an effective role in supporting those individuals that have specific needs. Earlier when such type of modern technology was not there at that time the health and social workers ware required to make several efforts to cure the patients effectively. In this respect two examples of an individual whose life has changed because of the presence of such type of technology in the field. For example, Sally was suffering from multiple-sclerosis; this type of diseases causes its significant effect on the memory. The person who suffered from such type of disease forgets to perform the work which they are currently pursing (Game, 2007). Thus it can be said that it causes short term loss to the memory. In order to solve out this problem of her, she has taken assistance from the technology like personal digital assistance. This technology reminds her task which she was currently pursuing and forgets to perform it because of her short term memory loss. Another example is of child who has suffered from autism and in order to understand the behavior of other individual he has taken assistance from the technique like Visual Representation System. With the help of this system visual photograph of persons, objective and things can be displayed to the person that is suffered from autism. In my opinion advancement in the field of medical technology can be proved as beneficial aspect for both patients and doctors. This is because by complying with all such type of technology behavior of an individual can be assessed and according to this various transformation can be done by health and social care individual in their services (Hadad and et.al., 2013).
There are different concepts of challenging behavior identified and it is being directed by the persons in the following manner such as showing aggression towards other person, scratching and screaming etc. However, such type of behavior is basically directed by the persons that are going through the condition like physical and mental disability (Moore, Parahoo and Fleming, 2010). This can be correctly seen in the case of Bournewood where challenging behavior was being complied by HL who has suffered from autism. This type of behavior is being complied by him because of his learning and physical disability. The Department of Health perceives that the person that possesses challenging behavior must be provided individualized type of services and must be given special treatment which tends to enable them in a way to recover from their diseases in an effective way.
The task with respect to handling the condition of person that possesses challenging behavior has caused significant effect on the working of health and social care organization (Zwetsloot and et.al. 2010). Handling the condition of an individual that directs challenging behavior is not a simple task as this type of activity causes work related stress and frustration among care takers. It is because of this aspect only, many individual working in health and social care organization has leaved their services. It is due to the presence of this aspect only services as provided by an enterprise to the patients that have specific need have hampered in negative way. But the challenging behavior of a person that possessed its positive impact on the working of an organization too. In order to handle the person that has any kind of disability, corporation organizes various types of training programs with respect to the same. This will enable care takers to deliver their services towards the patients in an effective way (Watters, 2011).
Numerous strategies identified that can be used by health and social care individual with an aim to deal with the person that possesses challenging behavior. By appointing behavior specialist, behavior of such type of patients can be analyzed that have suffered from autism and other similar diseases. It can be said that appointing behavior specialist is an effective method and it also works well. This is because he or she is the one who would be able to comprehend the behavior of disabled persons in proper manner. On the other hand, by forming strict regulation and policies with respect to the handling the patients that have specific needs, workers have to follow on their daily routine basis and effective services can be provided to the person that are needed. Further with this, by providing communication training to the professional people that have suffered from any kind of disability can be managed in an efficient way (Ndetei and Gatonga, 2011).
Overall, it can be concluded that by determining the specific needs of an individual, services as provided by health and social care individuals can be improved in an appropriate way. In addition to this, with the help of different types of strategies, an effective assistance can be provided to those individuals that are in need.
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