Management and leadership is a major thing for an organisation which enable and support to manage health of various individual. An effective and appropriate management will enable and support to derive and determine the better and effective outcome in nature. Where as leadership stated for managing and directing a team in better manner so that effectiveness and efficiency could be promoted (Caruth and Caruth, 2013). This project is based on understanding of professional management and leadership in context of health of young children with example of NHS. Thus, management and leaders need to work in better and effective manner so that determined outcome could be estimated. This project will going to describe about the theories of management and leadership which is applicable to health care users so that better services could be deliver. Leaders and managers have multiple skills which need to understand properly which facilitate in defining their working properly. As a relationship could be identify in professional management and leadership properly which also used to describe in this project.
1.1 Theories of leadership and management
Scientific Theory: The theory was proposed by F.W Taylor that mainly focuses on analyses and synthesizes workflows. The primary objective of this theory is to improve overall efficiency and productivity of labours. However, this can only be possible every task became specialised and discrete. Therefore, Taylor emphasize on classifying the task or activities into smaller section so that chances of accomplishing it in an effective manner increases promptly. NHS is providing special services to its employees that leads to improve their overall productivity. It is a kind of rational approach which enables company to carried out task and measures systematically. This theory also contributes to major improvement in physical working condition of employees.
Human Relation Theory: The theory was proposed by Elton Mayo's and it signifies that the most influencing factor that exist in workplace and influence employee productivity are relationships that has been shared by all workers in an organisation. The researchers realized that worker's productivity increases due to their relationship shared among other co-workers. Therefore, it is chiefly important for an organisation to encourage open and healthy working environment that encourage employees to work incredibly hard (Colcleugh, 2013). With positive and friendly working environment workers can build great rapport with each other.
Contingency Theory: The theory defines that managers make decision based on the current situation prevailing in the company instead of “one size fits all” method. Managers takes appropriate decision or action based on aspects most that is most important as per the current situation. Moreover under this theory, employees are involved in decision making process i.e. encouraging them to participate which ultimately makes them feel valued and important (Fernández-Guerra, 2011).
Systems Theory: This theory is based on the assumption that how various systems affect the performance of worker and how an employee affect the systems around them. A organisation system is consist of a variety of parts that collectively work together to accomplish a goal. It is broad perspective that enable managers or leaders to evaluate events and patters in the workplace. With the help of this theory, managers co-ordinate work in such a manner that leads to achieve overall objective of firm in a cost-effective and efficient manner.
1.2 How theories of management and leadership can be applied to different situation
Theories of management and leadership assists in increasing productivity of organisation as well as its service quality. Managers use these theories at the time of implementing strategies within workplace. There are various situations takes place in firm in which managers use range of theories for making effective decisions. Some of the situations that may arise at workplace of NHS are defined below:
Partnership working: Many times, there are situation arise in health and social care organisation where partnership working is needed. In such conditions, all the employees needs to work together as team. Here, community teams play major role as they bring all the doctors and nurses into single team and work together to provide care required by patients. Manager of NHS apply management theories which helps them in taking effective decisions.
Motivating teams: It is very necessary for manager and leader to motivate teams so that effective working takes place within firm. In healthy and social care sector, if employees are motivated, they are enable to provide services to patients in more effective way. Here, multidisciplinary team plays an important role. In such them, each member have knowledge of distinct areas which helps in resolving difficult situations that may takes place within firm (Paula and RosaGetha-Eby, 2013). Contingency theory is applied by manager of NHS so that decisions can be taken on the basis of situations.
1.3 How value and culture influence the application of leadership and management theories
Value and culture of an organisation highly influence the application of management and leadership. The virtue of common culture and shared values is that it maximize integration and enhance coordination among the members of organisation (O'Brien, 2014). For instance, the common values emerges in NHS facilitates cooperation between managers as people share similar values and beliefs. When members of organisation buy into cultural values and norms, employees feels sense of belongingness with firm and their commitment will increase in order to find new ways that assists in providing effective services. The main responsibility of leadership and management is to develop and maintain the characteristics of firm that encourage and reward collective effort. The culture of an organisation depicts shared sense of way in which things are done whereas values of firm helps workforce in finding out purpose and meaning in their work & interrelate their individual efforts to entire firm. These culture and values helps in effective application of management and leadership models. If culture of an organisation is good, it assists manager of NHS in applying appropriate approach and taking effective decisions regarding activities of firm and its employees.
2.1 Interdependencies between leadership and management
Differences between leadership and management:
It focused on empowering or motivating people.
It focuses on controlling and using resources in an optimum manner.
Emphasize on People
Emphasize on Organisational structure.
The main aim of leader is to get every one involved in the decision making process.
Their main objective is to plan, control or direct.
Leaders needs not be a managers
To be successful as a manager,one has to be good leader.
Similarities between leadership and management
Management and leadership entail working with people: The primary objective of every company is to yield higher profitability ratio and this can only be possible with the collective efforts made by employees. Here managers and leaders plays crucial role in encouraging and motivating workforce so that they can work incredibly hard (Grootenboer, Edwards-Groves and Rönnerman, 2015). Also they aid in formulating such policies or strategies that provides benefits to them in terms of higher incentives, flexible working condition.
Management and leadership involve influence: Both managers and leaders influence employees. Leaders mostly influence them through their thoughts, ideas, communication skill whereas Managers impact workers on the basis of their actions. Employee performance is depend upon the manner in which they see their managers or leaders doing their respective task.
Management and leadership concerned with accomplishment of goal: Every organisation aims at achieving business goals within stipulated time frame and this can only be possible if employees collectively work together. If employees are motivated and satisfied with the work environment prevailing in the company enables them to contribute more effectively towards achieving business objectives.
Interlink between management and leadership
Both leaders and managers play key crucial role in organisational success and growth. According to (Henry, 2017) leadership is an important part of effective management. As a main component of management, the role of successful leader is to build an environment in which each and every worker develops and excel. Also good manager needs to have some traits of leaders that makes them more effective and efficient in their work. Therefore, it can be concluded that both management and leadership are inter-linked with each other.
2.2 Analyse the conflict between application of management and leadership models
At certain times, it become difficult for employees to adapt changes embedded by leader or managers. The policies made by company may not benefit or satisfies employees in the manner in which they are thinking. There are certain times when management is dissatisfied with leadership style adopted by NHS leaders which leads to create conflict among them. Another reason that arise conflict between company's manager and leaders in due to ineffective communication among them. Managers take decision or formulate policies without the involvement of leaders (Lelmini and Fugazza, 2011). When managers frame policies without leaders it become difficult for leaders to execute them in a manner in which management is expecting. Moreover leaders can provide more detailed information to managers regarding employees so that when policies are made welfare and interest of workers can be taken into consideration. Ineffective communication between manager and buyers can hamper overall business activities that may impact overall performance of the company.
2.3 How these conflicts can be addressed
There are various ways in which these conflicts can be managed or controlled. For example: Lack of communication or ineffective communication can be solved by using proper effective communication that delivers right message at right time to right person. Selecting appropriate communication channel is very important for the company as it help in building strong relationship between manager and leader. Another conflict that arises in NHS is due to less involvement of leaders in taking management decisions. This can also be resolved if managers invite leaders to give their suggestion and opinion towards particular decision and also involve them in decision making process as well (Jellison, 2010). It makes them feel motivated and valued. If leaders are motivated or inspired them only they can encourage their followers to work incredibly hard and achieve company's goals in cost-effective and timely manner. In addition to that NHS manager and leaders can start conducting meeting on at the end of every weekend where their managers and leaders discuss issues that takes place over the week. This further aid in establishing strong relationship among managers and leaders.
3.1 Skills of effective leaders and manager
Skills of Effective leaders:-
- Ability to lead and influence others:-Leaders have the ability to influence others they are the persons who leads others. Having the ability to have the confidence to lead a team and be influential is a large asset. If leaders are not able to influenced others to become motivated around a common goal.
- Ability to relate and interact with peers, subordinates and superiors:- A strong leader needs to be effective and able to interact with individuals from all level within organization. They have the ability to communicate and collaborate with individuals from all levels.
- Ability to analyse information and make decisions:-Leaders who are able to analyse information and make good effective decisions are important for them for better results. They have the power to analyse the information and make proper decision for business (McLaughlin, Afsar-manesh and Martin, 2013).
- Ability to adapt to changes and be innovative:-Every organisation need change in their system for better growth. Leaders are the persons who are innovative and able to develop new ideas in business. Effective leaders are able to adapt changes to meet the requirement of environment.
Skill of effective managers:-
- Time management:- A good manager is person who are able to take decision on time so that the productivity and the efficiency of organisation can increase. They know how to stay focused and organized the work in effective manner (O'Connor, 2015).
- Team building:- It is ability of manager to work in a team so that they can achieve organisation goal on time for better growth. They are trying to motivate their employees for better performance by giving rewards.
- Resolves conflict:-Managers are the persons who are able to resolve conflicts .They are able to clarify issues quickly and fairly.
3.2 State why manager in health and social care or social care and young people setting need both leadership and management skills.
Both management and leadership skill is a very important skill that is taken into account in almost every single organisation discipline. This covers the health care sector as well where poor management is a matter life and death for patients. The significance of leadership and management skill in health care sector cannot be underestimated as hospitals and moreover its staff or workers needs to professionally trained by special training that makes them effective and efficient in their work. Following are some of their skills:
- They must able to systematically collaborate with other departmental heads
- They must good at financing and budgeting
- They must be able to find skilled and competent personnel
- They must be good communication as well as solving issues or problems by framing effective and efficient decision.
3.3 How leadership skills can impact value of an organisation
- Ideal behaviour and attitude:- Every management want friendly attitude in their workplace (Reiman and Pietikäinen, 2012). Change can only implemented in organisation when management want to implement it. According to the trait theory of leadership, management can set a personal qualities and characteristic such as intelligence, good judgement etc. for the people to follow him.
- Establishing purpose, vision, and goals among the employees:- People always need a purpose to believe to know that what is expected to them in organisation. Employees communication in the organisation is important so that the need and productivity can be maintain (Robert, Tilley and Petersen, 2014). This may not only increase productivity but also give a chance to emotionally connect with other co-workers.
- Establishing a culture of accountability:- It is one of the way for leaders to influenced the culture of organisation. This help in giving detailed job descriptions and clearly establish measures and goals. Communicating the HR manual and policies of organisation to employees and making them necessary to read is another major step. It is necessary to take important action for remove discrepancies.
- Motivation and interest:- This requires a personal connections with their subordinates in order to understand their need. By using Maslow's hierarchy of needs help in assessing the interest of employees. Due to this positive change can be developed in organisation.
3.4 State why leadership styles needs to be adapted to manage different situation
There are different types of situation prevails in the work environment that enable leaders change his style as per the requirement of situation. For example: Earlier in NHS autocratic leadership style is followed by their leaders in which the power of making decision remains in the hand of leaders only. However, this proves to ineffective for the company as well as for their employees. As a result, their leaders have changed their leadership style into participative in which they involve their followers in decision making process which makes them feel valued and important (Shirey, 2011). At the time of infective communication, leadership can follow democratic style of leadership which enables them to achiever company objective in cost effective and timely manner.
4.1 Factors that influence policy drivers
Policy drivers refers to the things that is reason for new policies which to be written. It may be local authority, change in legislations or may be CQC requirements. These drivers refers to local and national priorities which influence strategic decisions of adult social care, health and children social care. Factors that influence policy drivers in NHS involves risk assessment in which changes are made in main policies (Zhu, Devos and Li, 2011). In health and social care sector, there are various policies made regarding health of patients which brings positive outcome in providing effective services to them. Physical intervention at the time when dealing with patients has influence and change policies.
4.2 Emerging themes and trends that impact on management and leadership of health and social care
Continuous reviews regarding person centred practice & safeguarding led to staff induction and guidelines to improve and change. These changes improves the awareness of new staff about expectations and job role of them. NHS made changes in their safeguarding procedures , guidelines & informing registered administrator to filter referred amount and looked at what might become theme in future (Wilson, 2017). Information recording was updated and training related to child protection was introduced. A assurance and quality manager was introduced who develops clearer benchmarks that meets the requirements of CQC as well as local authority. Requirements and forms were standardised all the areas across firms. A medication audit improved and changed the idea of updating new medication policy.
It get determine from this project that leadership and management are a core part of business which enable and facilitate effective and appropriate working. There are various theories get determine like transformation, contingency, situational leadership which reflected on a leaders of a business environment. On the other hand, management theories signify with scientific management etc. which used to direct a project in better manner. There is a relationship between professional leadership and management which enable and facilitate in providing better outcome so that deriving outcome could be assess. Managers have a skill to do anything where leaders have an ability to manage any kind of change and enable in dealing with any kind of problem properly. Such aspects of leadership and management will used to enable in providing better and effective services to young children.
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