Management and operations refer to the process of making as well as creating efficiency levels within the business organization for increasing productivity in the marketplace. Along with this, it is a procedure of converting raw material into finished goods which provides end customers for maximizing profitability level (Baboli et. al., 2014). With the help of this, the company can easily attain predetermined goals and objectives. The current assignment includes Marks and Spencer which is a British multinational company in the UK. It offers a variety of products like home products, foods items, clothing, and many more in the marketplace as per requirements. This project includes the roles of leader and function of manager in company in a different situations. Various leadership theories and models are also mentioned in this project. Apart from this, key approaches of operations management and their importance are also mentioned which may contribute to maximizing the profitability level of the company.
The management structure of Marks and Spencer
Marks and Spencer is a big and famous retail company in UK. It was established in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. Mainly company offer home products, clothing and luxury food products in market place with the aim of providing higher satisfaction to its customers. Along with this, company operate their business globally and having around 84939 workers within the organization. The aim of this company is to serve quality services to target customers for capturing their satisfaction. (Bahmani-Firouzi and Azizipanah-Abarghooee, 2014). In addition of this, Marks and Spencer has flatter organization structure in which company can easily make quick decision. Mainly it includes number of layers of authority through which all the process is performing. By this company can easily accomplished predetermined goals and objectives.
Manager is a person who manage as well as operate all the activities of the company for attaining predetermined goals and objectives. They have ability to managing all the workers within the company for improving their performance level. In Marks and Spencer various manager operate their activities in different department. All these line manager, project manager are responsible for attaining set goals in appropriate time frame.
Leader is a person who has ability to guide and influence their team members to perform well at workplace. In this the main aim of leader in Marks and Spencer is to provide better support and direction to all the team members for making them able to perform best. (Hong and et. al., 2015).
Difference between manager and leader:
Manager has ability to managing and coordinating workers and their activities in company.
Leader is a person who is able to influence and encourage workers to attain set goals.
The main function of manager is to make plan , organise, and direct entire activities of workers and business organization as well.
In Marks and Spencer the main function of leader is to encourage their team workers for performing well.
Aim of manager of Marks and Spencer is to achieve all the goals in allotted time frame.
The main aim of leader is to enhance growth of the workers by providing them better direction (Johnstone, 2016).
Apart from this, some role of manager in Marks and Spencer is also there which help in enhancing the performance of the company at market.
Providing training: It is one of the important role of manager of Marks and Spencer. In this they provide training session to their new candidates as they can easily understand how to perform their task in organization. Along with this, manager also make induction program to make them able to perform well.
Provide development programs to existing employees: In this manager play important role in conducting development programs for employees to increase their skills towards the organization activities. This will contribute in making positive image of the company (Lindström and et. al., 2015).
Furthermore, leader also play an important role in motivating and encouraging workers at workplace. Apart from this role of a leader in Marks and Spencer is also mentioned:
Motivate workers: It is important for leader to guide their team members so that they can easily perform their task. In this, they motivate workers by providing them incentives, rewards and many more.
Prepare alternative ways to perform allotted task: It is also a vital role of leader to make alternative ways so that workers can easily execute their allotted task and attain set goals and objectives.
Manager and leader both play crucial role in business organization as they help in managing various situation that arise at workplace. In this context both are having their particular role which contribute in enhancing overall performance of the company at market place (Ma and et. al., 2016). As marks and Spencer operate their business in different countries with the aim of attaining higher success. Thus, various situations are occurring at workplace in which manager and leader both are play their important role and functions. It can be understood by following points:
Decision making: This type of situation play a vital role in organization because it directly impact on entire process of the company. For taking right decision, the main role of manager is to provide relevant data and information to leader so that they can easily understand all the activities performing in the business organization. In context of the leader of Marks and Spencer take fine decision by considering all the data preset by the manager. It directly contribute in enhancing productivity level of the company and its workers as well.
Risk taking:For attaining positive results, manager is responsible for taking risk through which they can easily determine the actual reason behind the risk at workplace. In this manager has ability to take risk for attaining the success (Mendis, Muttaqi and Perera, 2014). In addition of this leader of Marks and Spencer is capable for taking risk to converting into profitability. By this firm can easily enhance their favorable image at market and also increase the chances of attaining higher success.
Implementation of policies: Under this situation, both manager and leader play vital role because they are responsible for making as well as implementing policies to improve the entire process of the company in effective manner. For this, the main function of manager is to evaluate overall performance of the workers and provide information to leader so that they can make alternative ways to implement the policies. This will help in enhancing workers motivation towards he allotted task. It contributes in making workers able to attain set goals (Mohammadi, Soleymani and Mozafari, 2014).
In business world, number of changes take place rapidly as it is crucial for every organization to implement alterations ways to acheive positive outcomes. Mainly, it is related with planning and organizing process that contribute in improving the chances of establishing positive image of the company at market place. Furthermore, operation management is appropriate function which consider various activities like managing and controlling all the factors that help in manufacturing quality products. As Marks and Spencer have strong image in retail industry because manager and leaders are effectively follow leadership theories. In addition of this, uncertain nature of business is also take place in which Marks and Spencer make changes accordingly. In this firm can easily sustain at global market to make their image competitive. In this context, there are some effective leadership theories which help in making performance of the company is appropriate. All these can be understood by following theories:
Situational leadership: This type of theory is an effective in which manager of company is responsible for making alternative plan and policies for every situation. With the assistance of this, company may not face any kind of issues and losses (Morschett, Schramm-Klein and Zentes, 2015). In this context, manager take initiate and make changes as per situation for enhancing the chances of attaining positive outcomes. Along with this, it includes four different factors such as telling, selling, participating and delegating. All these help in overcoming from complex situation.
System leadership: It is also an effective theory which help manager to improve overall performance by making no mistakes. By this, manager of company can easily attain predetermine goals in right on time and at the same time making entire process systematic (Nassiri and et. al., 2016).
Contingency leadership: This type of theory is helps in determining the various solution which used by the manager for handling entire situation within the company. In this context, manager of Marks and Spencer focus on this type of leadership theory which help them in accepting any kind of situation in effective manner.
Situational leadership:The main strength of using this type of theory is that the manager can easily make changes in their policies and reduce the risks factors. On the other side, the main disadvantage of this type of theory is that the team members are get dissatisfied because some tie workers are not ready to make changes. Get the best teaching assistant level 2 coursework help for students in the UK. Contact now.
Main advantage of using this leadership theory is that it saves time of workers and also influence employees to think something new method. On the other side, the major disadvantage of this theory is that workers are present less innovative ideas in front of manager.
The main benefit of using this theory is that it support company in dealing with external factors that faced by the company. On the other side, some time workers are easily accept contingency that lead negative impact on overall performance of the company (Prichayudh and et. al., 2014).
Impact of manager and leaders role on organization:
Leaders are play important role in Marks and Spencer because they contribute in enhancing the production level by improving entire operational activities. It helps in attaining higher satisfaction of the customers towards company products. In addition of this, manager also help in managing and directly all the activities of operational and workers for enhancing performance of the company at market place.
In this top management of Marks and Spencer needs to implement democratic leadership style because it help in increasing participation of workers. With the help of this, manager can easily take right decision and also improve productivity level of the employees. Along with this, it also support workers to share their views and opinion in front of top management which may contribute in enhancing overall performance of the company (Baboli and et. al., 2014).
operations management is an important process of business organization to managing whole activities of the production process. It help in making working style more effective and appropriate as well. In addition of this, it also helps in proving better guidance to employees as it help in making coordination at the time of performing activities(Bahmani-Firouzi and Azizipanah-Abarghooee, 2014). In this context there are some key approaches of operation management which are as follows:
Total quality management: It is one of the effective tactic which is related with reducing the errors in production quality. Mainly it focuses on improving the overall quality of operation management. In context of Marks and Spencer, manager and leader lay important role as they create effective process in order to implement TQM in business activities (Total Quality Management (TQM), 2018). In this leader ad manager perform as a change manager and include all staff members to determine the changes so that workers can easily make improvement. This will contribute in managing quality of the products in most effective manner.
Continuous improvement: This type of theory is related with contentiously improvement in operational activities. As it helps in enhancing the chances of attaining competitive advantage from its rivals. In context of Marks and Spencer, manager and leader tries to determine the opportunities for effectively organized all the task by cutting down the wastage. In this manager make plan to making improvement as per continuous basis after this, leader review the plan for implementing changes within the organization. This will directly contribute in enhancing the profitability level of the company. Along with this, it also aid in improving the standard of the products and services (Hong and et. al., 2015).
Lean production: It is a theory which used by the management for reducing the wastage with the aim of delivering quality products and services to its customers. For this, manager of Marks and Spencer implement new technologies to make the quality products. In this context, the main duty of manager is to guide workers to perform well and also tries to reduce the wastage of the product. Mainly, manager and leader both are focus on product quality which directly contribute in keeping brand image of the company competitive.
Just-in-time: It is an effective approach which used by the company with the aim of improving whole system for utilizing optimum resources and at the same time also cut down the wastage. In context of Marks and Spencer, manager can easily maintain positive relation with their customers by providing them quality products and services as per their requirements (Johnstone, 2016). In this, the main role of leader is to provide relevant information about the customers to their workers so that they can easily provide them same.
In addition of this, there are some major roles and responsibilities of manager and leader by which company can easily enhance their productivity and brand image as well.
Manager and leader both are important for Marks and Spencer to perform all the activities in effective manner for establishing positive image. In this, the main role of manager is to analysis market trends and customers taste towards its offering so that they can easily implement all the policies. Further more, manager also provide training and development programs to their staff members so that they can easily improve their skills and knowledge towards the innovative technologies. With the help of this, company can easily established their positive brand image by maintaining their quality products in market (Lindström and et. al., 2015).
Operation management is considered as an effective process which help in executing as well as implementing operational activities in systematic way. Itit supports in managing product quality which directly contribute in enhancing the positive brand image of the company. In context of Marks and Spencer, process of operational management is helpful in making production process systematic as compare to its competitors. Furthermore, it also may contribute in controlling and designing entire activities by which company can easily improve positive brand image at market place. In this context there are some importance of operation management which are as follows:
Increase profitability level: Operation management is highly contributing in making quality products because it focus on reducing wastage within the production process. In context of Marks and Spencer, manager is responsible for evaluating customers’ needs and wants for making quality products accordingly (Ma and et. al., 2016). In addition of this, they also give responsibilities to their workers to perform well as also tries to create innovative products to satisfy customer’s needs.
Improve overall performance: It is more important for business organization to manage and coordinate all the operational activities to produce quality products and services. As it covers various activities like planning, organizing, coordinating all the activities which may help in making high quality products. This will directly contribute in improving overall performance of the company at market place (Mendis, Muttaqi and Perera, 2014).
Furthermore, there are some action that can be understood by following points which may help in making appropriate process of the operational activities within the organization:
Transformation process: It is an important process or activity through which company can easily produce quality products and services. Mainly it is a group of activity that includes one or more inputs with the aim of providing the quality outcomes to the customers. With the help of this company can easily attain set goals and objectives by reducing any kind of uncertainty in the process.
Process design: it is also an effective way to producing as well developing the quality products and services with the purpose of attaining higher profitability level at market place. In this products is breakdown in smaller part which can be contribute in providing value to the customers as per their needs and wants.
On the other side, in business organization if there is no effective operation management than it negatively impact on the production activities of the company. As it also increase the arising risk factors which may reduce the quality products (Mohammadi, Soleymani and Mozafari, 2014). Thus it is important fir business organization to includes effective operation management so that company can easily improve their performance level and also produce quality products. This will directly contribute in attaining success at market place.
Marks and Spencer is famous British multinational company which deal in retail industry. Thus, it is important for company to effectively analyses the market for determining the impact on decision making process of the company. As there are some factors within the business environment that affect the decision making activities leader and manager within the company are as follows:
Corporate social responsibility: It is one of the important factor of internal business environment which directly impact on the overall performance of the company. Mainly, it provide social and economic benefits to company. Thus, it is vital for manager and leader to ensure about the CSR activities before implementing any kind of strategies and policies. With the assistance of this can easily take right decision and also improve operation management within the organization.
Culture and values: It is related with the individual behavior and belief that influence the manager and leader decision making process. In organization, workers are belongs from different culture and backgrounds. They have different aspect and attitude to perform allotted activities at workplace. In this context, leader and manager is ensure that product process should not impact on any culture in negative way(Morschett, Schramm-Klein and Zentes, 2015). This will directly contribute in improving the overall performance.
Ethics and sustainability: This factor is also impact on the decision making of leader and manager. In this, manager is responsible for keeping all the information of employees confidential to maintain ethical working environment at workplace. It contribute n making overall performance of the company positive and competitive as well.
As per discussed report, it can be concluded that management and operation play vital role in managing and controlling activities related with products. It directly contributes in making brand image of the company is competitive. Along with this, manager and leader is also crucial in leading and managing entire task of company and workers. It contribute in enhancing productivity of the company at market place. In addition of this leadership theories such as situational leadership theory, contingency theory also discussed which help in motivating and encouraging workers at workplace. In context of this, management theories such as Six sigma, continuous improvement and JIT is mentioned which aid in making entire manufacture process appropriate. PEST analysis help in determining the impact of external factors on business activities and its decision making as well. All these will directly contribute in making brand image competitive.