This assessment will cover further questions:
- Discuss the benefits and limitations of the type of research approach chosen and the data collection methods employed.
- Analyse key contributions, identifying their strengths and weaknesses, testing their internal consistency, and acknowledging and presenting the inevitable counter-arguments.
- Emirates is one of the top airline company which is based in Dubai. Reflect on the process of the research identifying what went well and what should have been done differently.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Training & development (T&D) programs are recognized as the main part of each and every organization. Moreover, it is directly associated with the productivity and profitability of business unit. In the recent times, high level of competition as well as advancements prevail in the aviation sector. Referring such aspects companies are focusing on conducting training session for personnel (Bulut and Culha, 2010). Moreover, in the service sector employees are the one who build distinct image in the mind of customers through the means of quality offerings. In the same way, to provide best customer experience to their customer, it is necessary to provide training sessions to every employee so that it will lead to improvement on the employee’s performance as well as productivity too. As every industry and company uses best training and development methods with an aim to improve the performance of employee so that they will put their best efforts to attain the defined aim and objectives.
This proposal is based on Emirate which offers airline services to the customers at affordable prices. In this report, dissertation will shed light on the extent to which training programs are significant for the companies in relation to improving overall performance. Besides this, it also entails reasons due to which investigation is conducted along with its significance. Further, study will present the strategies that Emirates should employ for managing as well as improving performance of its employees.
1.2 Research aim and objectives
The aim behind conducting current study is to analyse the extent to which training and development has an impact on organizational performance with regards to Emirates.
- To determine whether the training and development programs aid to enhance the overall productivity of employees at Emirates Airline.
- To find whether the training and development programs are producing any positive results for emirates in terms of increasing its profitability, as well as competitiveness.
- To analyse different training programs used by Emirates in order to identify any potential problems or positive implications associated with them.
- To propose appropriate solutions for Emirates Airline in order to enhance its current strategies for training and development of employees.
1.3 Research questions
By taking into account research aim and objectives following questions have been drafted such as:
Q1. Does the training and development programs that are used by Emirates Airline helping to enhance the overall productivity of its employees?
Q2. What are the training and development programs that are used by Emirates for its employees to help increase its profitability within the airline industry of UAE?
1.4 Rationale of the study
The rationale behind initiated present study is to assess how performance of an organization can be improved by taking into account training programs. This in turn can be recognized as issue because now technological advancement is taking place with the very high pace. Along with this, due to having high level of competition firms operating in aviation sector are placing high level of emphasis on the adoption of innovative business practices. In this regard, through the means of thematic analysis current study will shed light on the extent to which Emirates can improve performance by focusing on training programs or sessions.
1.5 Significance of the study
By doing assessment, it has been found that several stakeholders such as other scholars, firms operating in aviation sector will benefit from the outcome derived through investigation. Hence, other scholars who wish to conduct study on similar topic can undertake this for identifying gap and developing hypothesis for further study. This study will help develop a better understanding about the concept of T&D and its association with organizational performance eventually. In addition to this, business units operating in aviation sector including Emirates can identify the level to which organizational performance can be improved by employing training & development practices.
From the chapter one, research summarize the aim, objectives, research questions, significance and rationale of the study in which it is summarizes that using effective training and development strategies, Emirates will easily sustain the brand image and also improve the overall business performance. Moreover, it is analysed analysed that by using effective methods of training and development, company may also motivate employees and also stay ahead in the competition as well. In the next chapter, researcher describe literature review in which secondary research is conducted by using books, articles, journals and newspaper etc.
1.6 Dissertation structure
Chapter 1: Introduction
First chapter of dissertation contains brief overview of the research being investigated. Further, it also highlights research aim, objectives and questions that need to be addressed by doing thorough investigation. Moreover, researcher also describe the reason of selecting particular research topic and importance of the research.
Chapter 2: Literature review
In this chapter, brief thesis will be prepared by doing critical evaluation of topic through undertaking books, journals and scholarly articles. This is one of the main chapters of dissertation which in turn will be used for analysing data set gathered through secondary investigation and researcher uses relevant articles, books and journals which are already published in order to answer all research questions.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
This chapter will describe research type, approach, philosophies, data collection, sampling and analysis method. It clearly presents tools that helps in investigating issue in the best possible way.
Chapter 4: Data analysis & findings
Fourth chapter of dissertation is highly important which entails results derived through research. In this, themes and graphs will be prepared on the basis of responses gathered through primary investigation. Along with this, primary findings will also be supported through LR section.
Chapter 5: Conclusion & recommendations
Final chapter of dissertation highlights conclusion derived through whole investigation. In this, conclusion will be drawn by taking into account research aim and objectives. Along with this, strategies pertaining to training & development will also be recommended to Emirates that can be undertaken in the near future for enhancing organizational performance as well as overall growth.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
In the research, a Literature Overview helps in evaluating and ascertaining the previous work that has been done in the current field of research and therefore the different aspects of the current research topic can be evaluated. The previous articles, papers and journals that are published by authors who have already conducted research in this aspect has been evaluated in this section and the researcher will select the relevant research papers that have been published and will assist the current research project of the researcher. The researcher has formulated different themes for which the past literature that has been published will be reviewed and relevant insight has been drawn for different themes that were formulated on the basis of the objectives of the research (Miyato and et.al., 2018). The following themes have been segregated and developed and appropriate literature has been collected and reviewed for the themes developed so that relevant conclusions can be drawn and the significant insights can be developed in the research that was conducted in the past by different authors.
Theme 1: Overview of training programs and associated methods
As per the view of Larsen (2017) employee training refers to the continued efforts of the company in order to boost the performance of employees and this is generally provided in order to address the weaknesses among employees. Such that in airline industry, if the owner evaluates the workforce in closely manner, then they definitely determine the skills are lacking among employees. As a result, training programs are developed that further helps to expand the knowledge base of all employees and as a result, they definitely improve the performance of the employees. In the same way, in airline industry variety of training sessions are introduce that helps to train employees so that they generate better opportunity for a company. On contrary, Seidle, Fernandez and Perry (2016) stated that training programs have very specific goals and it is conducted for the particular topic and selected audience as well. Such that it is all about learning and how to operate a specific training on process and procedure in the firm. Overall, these training programs are important and key element of overall strategy of growth, process improvement as well as retention strategy too.
According to Sundstrom and et.al., (2016) most employees have some weaknesses at the working area related to workplace skills and human relation skills and that is why, training programs allow to overcome those weaknesses by strengthening those skills among each and every employee. Hence, this clearly reflected that for every new employee, proper training sessions are introduced that helps to improve the overall working performance of employees. As organization conduct the training in order to implement the new program and to adopt the new changes or trend, in the same way, aviation industry also keep changing the training needs in order to cope up with the change environment as well. Therefore, it is stated by Dodson, Kitburi and Berge (2015) through effective training session, learner’s expectations are also increased and as a result, they start involving themselves into the training methods so that they give their best output in the terms of quality and quantity. Hence, clearing that using effective training programs, a person may enrich the broader skills which are used in numerous situation and that is why, most of the organization provide development programs not only for professional growth but also for personal growth of the employees too.
As a result, this will strengthen the employee's skills which allow the firm to become a smarter workplace and assist to grow faster as well. That Is why, investing in training programs is considered as one of the good management practices in order to maintain expertise for current situation and for future as well. Therefore, every industry and organization should also invest in the same so that the performance of a company will raise and it may lead to further success as well. In the current scenario, the airline industry has been growing and developing enormously since the travelling in flights has become cheaper and the travelling through this mode has increased amongst the people i.e. travellers. However, the Torraco (2016) states that in the current airline industry, there is a specific need of hiring trained personnel who has complete knowledge of the company for which it is working.
Behnke and et.al., (2019) states that the employees can be given adequate training and their skills can be developed to match the current requirement that they require in order to operate in the current industry. There are different methods i.e. on the job training methods and off the training methods that can be adopted to train the employees working in airline i.e. aviation industry. The on the job training programmes are different for different categories of employees i.e. for the employees who are performing ground level duties in the airline company, for them the training is related more to accomplish the basic duties and objectives such as monitoring the schedules of the flights that are taking place etc. this helps in educating the employees and increasing their skills levels so that different duties can be accomplished and the company can give better services to their employees. Additionally, the Hawkridge, Newton and Hall (2018) have also stated that off the job training programmes assist in making the employees learn about other duties and educate them about different scenarios that can arise for the employees that are working in the aviation industry. This assists in increasing the skill level of employees and also make them learn about the different real life situations that must be dealt with effectively and the manner in which the employees can be trained to address these real life situations. They also state that the training needs to be regularly modified for the ground duty employees since pilots and other personnel are already heavily trained and equipped to deal with different life threatening situations that might arise.
However, Manresa, Bikfalvi and Simon (2018) have criticized that the point that the training is only majorly limited to ground duty is false because other employees such as pilots and air hostesses also require regular training and update in the skills that they possess. For this fact, there are different techniques that can be adopted by the companies to train their employees. Simulation is the best training mechanism since it helps in training them about the encounters that they might have to face or experience while in the aviation industry. The authors have further stated that the techniques that are used must be developed accordingly for different batches of employees i.e. for different categories of employees.
As per the view of Hughes (2018) recurrent training Is another method which is also adopted by aviation industry such that it is a periodic training which takes place for all cabin crew members who have already received initial training. Author also states that capacity and efficiency to react in emergency situation needs to be taught and trained consistently. That is why, recurrent training is actually provided in which CRM and safety training are compulsory components of recurrent training (Different training methods, 2018). This method is considered to be one of the most important part of airline operations in which employees get enough knowledge how to handle complex situation and different practices are also used that helps to make cabin crews realize that there is a need to maintain better relationship with the customers because they are the only members who are responsible for their safety. Therefore, it is analysed that there are different methods of training which must be used by the aviation industry in order to generate best results
Theme 2: To analyse training programs which are undertaken by the firms
According to Jain and Sharma (2019) training methods are actually implemented in order to raise the performance of employees and also increase the overall productivity of a company. In the same way, aviation industry uses variety of training methods among all, simulation is the best. It is so because it shed the light on the underlying mechanism, which helps to control the behaviour of a system and in airline industry it is mostly used. In the same way, Emirates also uses this training methods in order to let its employees to predict the future behaviour. Linde, Caridha and Kunkler (2017)Highlights that the simulation training is implemented with the help of giving the road map of all the activity and the experience which will be seen by the pilot in the process of fling the plane. In which all the information and also the road map is provided to the pilot about the different situation which can be faced by the pilot in the process of performing the different activity.
Trivedi and Kollef (2016) highlights that simulation based training used to bring the variety of the impact on the performance of the employee in the organization. The biggest impact is that pilot are more on confidence and less hesitated at the time of flying the flight as simulation based training used to provide them with the real life experience at the time of training itself. Another reason behind the same is also that this training used to provide the immediate feedback to the trainee. It eventually helps the pilot in getting more information and the guidance as they are guided by the support team at all the level. Stevens and Kincaid (2015) highlights that another big plus point of the simulation based training is that it can be used for both to train the new as well as in improving the already adopted skill for the employee.
Jain and Sharma (2019) highlights that simulation training also used to have the negative impact as well, the biggest negative impact is that the pilot find it difficult to adopt the changes and the new challenges which is faced by the pilot at the time of flying the Flight. As they become very much habitual of the training procedure which are gained by them during the simulation training. Moreover, Hafeez and Akbar (2015) states that there are two unique elements in Emirates training such that it invests into its own training facility and have sophisticated simulators which allow to deliver realistic and experimental learning scenes. Further, training also uses advance computer programs which enable the training team to assume different emergency scenarios i.e. full motion, smoke simulation and visual and audio simulation. Another unique element is highly skilled trainers which provides training to cabin crew and each one of them has expertise in their own area and also passionate about their role to assist crew in order to meet the Emirates high standards.
As per the view of Hyland, Lee and Mills (2015) off board training methods are also provided to Emirates in which trainers provide training related to Augmented Reality i.e. AR which is the use of technology to position all virtual element in the real world application. It is so because from last many years, aviation industry faces shortage of training workforce because of speedy expansion of airlines, lack of training structure (Emirates training methods, 2018). That is why, providing training related to AR Emirates may easily deliver e-learning solutions without needs to certified professionals and as a result, it helps to improve the overall working performance of employees. Due to changing era, aviation industry also faces different issues related to training methods such that lack of time management and language barrier and that is why it affect the overall working performance of employees.
Hence, with an advance technology and different learning styles, the delivery of training and development is also changes such that they start using e-learning using games and analytics and simulations which further assist to boost the workplace productivity. Overall, using effective training methods adopted by Emirates will help the business to grow further level of success and also attain the defined goal aim and o