Organization change refers to making alteration in business strategies and models. With passage of time it is necessary for business firms to bring changes. Changes are inevitable in any organization life span because by making changes an organization grows (Elearn, 2012). There is a simple fact that there are numerous companies which have grown into giant organization and everyone knows these companies Facebook and Google are one of them. These organizations grow because they continuously bring changes in their operations. Whereas, other companies in relevant industries failed to compete with these. Hence, need to grow rapidly make changes inevitable in any organization life span. Survival of an organization is dependent on accepting change process. If business environment is changing rapidly but an organization does not bring any sort of change in its operations and strategy. Then organization will no longer survive in industry. If people demand will not be met and decisions will not be taken in alignment to change in business environment then profitability of the company will be eroded. Hence, with change in business Environment Company needs to bring changes in its strategies. If it does not do so its existence comes to end.
In order to bring organizational change it is necessary to analyze environmental factors. Environmental factors that need to be considered are social, economic, technological, political, legal, and ethical and environment factors. Without considering these factors it is impossible to bring change in an organization. If changes are bring in an organization then strong relationship can be build with people with stakeholders like creditors and debtors etc. Moreover, profitability can also be increased if changes are brought in an organization. Hence, it can be said that changes in an organization is inevitable for long term growth and survival.
Perspective of Change
In strategy formulation and implementation numerous internal factors play a key role. This means that organization culture plays a very important role in formulation and implementation of strategy (Brown and Osborne, 2012). If in an organization there is discrimination is not done among employees then there will be high level of group solidarity in an organization. Moreover, if there is a good relationship between employees and managers then useful suggestions can be received from employees’ side. In other words, it can be said that management will receive full cooperation from employees’ side.
Power and politics are the factors that can be seen in an organization. Both these factors hamper change in an organization. If in an organization politics are prevalent then no one will trust on each other ((Hughes, 2006.)). In that case if an organization will not be able to bring changes in an organization. If power is used in proper manner then it can prove boon for an organization. Thus, if organization culture is good then many changes can be brought in an organization which may lead to growth of the firm. In same way, if it is used for fulfilling own interest then it will prove curse for the firm. In same way, if it is used for fulfilling own interest then it will prove curse for the firm. Hence, in order to bring change in an organization it is necessary to control both factors. Learning and development is another area where managers need to pay attention. If managers will do consistent learning then they will be able to identify ways in which changes must be brought in an organization. By doing this managers can find out ways on which employees are also agree. Hence, consistent learning leads to easy implementation of proposed changes in an organization.
Approaches of Change
Planned change approach adopts the strategies which involve the set pattern for modifying the organizational and individual behaviour. The development of the organization revolves around the integration and implementation of the change in an effective manner (Van de Ven and Poole 2005). It is all about the planning of the objectives in such a manner that help to ascertain the change in context of the organization to sustain in long run. The organizations which adopt the planned change are British Airways, General Motors, Coco- Cola which developed the strategies to implement the change in a proper planned manner to expand and grow in the work environment.
Emergent change approach refers to that change which is unpredictable in nature. Changes occur frequently and are not predicted or planned before hand (Fernandez and Rainey, 2006). Emergent approach helps to understand the issues and determine the various options to meet the change and successfully implementing it.
Planned change refers to the pre determined change which is incorporated by the organization to properly evaluate the needs and requirement of the organization and evaluate those areas in which change is necessary (Senge, 2014). They properly plan in advance to bring the change in the organization.
Planned changes are generated systematically and deal with the various aspects which are essential for the organization to incorporate change.
Planned changes are efficient as they are framed while keeping all the perspectives which are prevailing in the market which retains the sustainability of the organisation in long run.]
Models of planned change:
Models are the framework which describes the organizational activities which are to be performed in future to implement the change.
Three stage model (Kurt Lewin): This model consist of the three stages which determine the change in the organization. The stage first is the unfreezing stage which determines and introduces the new aspects which strengthen the current attributes of the change to manage and identify the appropriate objectives. The second stage is the moving stage which led to the actual implementation of the change in the organization. The last stage is the freezing stage which helps the organization to ascertain the change and stabilizes it to accomplish the change in long run sustainability of the organization.
Seven stage model (Ronald Lippitt and Associated): This model consist of seven stages which are essential to plan the change for the organization. At the first stage of this model the need for developed in the planned manner. In the next stage the relationship between the agents and clients need to build up to bring change in the environment of the organization. In the next stage the needs of the client are clarified and diagnosed properly. At the fourth stage the alternative routes were ascertained to meet the need for change. At the next stage the action are to be transformed for actual change so that the organization is able to bring the change. At the sixth stage the model is stabilized and generalized to meet the change. And the last stage the relationship between the client and change agent is terminated.
Advantages and disadvantages of planned change
The organization change goals will be specifically defined which will aim at the successful implementation of the change.
This may affect the functioning of the organization and it will lead to disorganization of the work and its responsibilities.
Emergent change refers to the change which occurs suddenly and is not determined. They are influenced by the change which is occurring in the environment in which the organization is working.
Emergent changes are not predetermined before hand as they are the sudden aspect which influences the change.
They help in successfully implementing the change as per the requirement without any delay.
Models of emergent change:
The Emergent models describe the organizational activities to meet the present need of the organization.
Kotter's change management theory:
This model consists of eight stages which describes the various activities to determine the change to meet the needs. The first stage determines to identify the urgency for the change to be brought up in the organization. They ascertain the need of building up the skilled personnel team which will determine to meet the change in the organization. After the formation of the team they obtain the clear view of the needs which ascertain the perfect vision to bring the change. Proper communication regarding the change and its need to the people to communicate the various aspects of change is udnerstood. At the next stage they design the action to get the things move towards implementation of change. They also focus on the short term goals to implement change to attain the ultimate goals after designing the action. At the seventh stage they try modify the work environment so that the employees does not give up and enhance their potential to the greater extend. At the last stage they try to successfully incorporate the change in effective manner.
This model basically deals out with the frequent aspects which are to be incorporated to meet the change. This model indicates that there should be proper awareness about the need and requirement of change. With the awareness of the needs for change they can desire to implement the change. With the effective use of the knowledge which they inherit in them they can bring the change in the organization. They can also enhance their abilities and potential to incorporate change on regular interval that reinforces their ability to implement in an effective manner.
Advantages and disadvantages of emergent change
Through emergent change there is increase in the flexibility in the organization which help to implement the change in an effective manner.
They do not offer the genuine strategies to implement the change which affects the operational aspects of the organization to implement the change.
Conclusions about which model is the best and why
As per the various approaches the kotter's change management theory model is best in ascertainment and implementation of the change in the organization. This model is effective because it consider all the aspects to attain the ultimate goals with the help of attaining the short term goals.
The emergent approach is more suitable in the 21st century to ascertain the sustainability of the organization in the long run with the implementation of the frequent changes as per the market trends (Ramanathan, 2009). They have to properly follow the ethics which does not affect the organization culture and help to ascertain their corporate responsibilities towards the society in which they operate.
Nokia failed to sustain in the long run as they lack behind to bring the change in the work culture which led to decline in the profitability and the customer share is reduced as they switch to the other brands and this affect the company image.
Kodak camera laid back in bringing the change in the product but led to decline in profitability and the image of the company get affected with efficiency to bring change.
Analysis and evaluation
It is very essential to properly bring the changes in the organization to sustain in the long run. Through proper analysis of the various aspects which relates to the organization, changes can be evaluated as per the need and requirement to ascertain the changes which determine the sustainability of the organization in long run. It emphasizes on the perspective as meeting with the change to generate maximum profits. As it is an essential element of the organization.
Books and Journal
- Brown, K. and Osborne P. S., 2012. Managing Change and Innovation in Public Service Organizations. Routledge.
- Elearn., 2012. Change Management Revised Edition.Taylor & Francis.
- Fernandez, S. and Rainey, H. G., 2006. Managing successful organizational change in the public sector. Public administration review.
- Hughes., 2006. Change Management: A Critical Perspective. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
- Ramanathan, R. T., 2009. The Role of Organisational Change Management in Offshore Outsourcing of Information Technology Services: Qualitative Case Studies from a Multinational Pharmaceutical Company. Universal-Publishers.