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Difference Between Leadership and Management

Answer :
Organization Selected : Apple Inc.

INTRODUCTION

Leadership and management are two words which are very important for making task achievable. Leadership means to guide person for making targets achievable. There is use of various policies which has to be considered while planning any thing. Management consist of five functions which means to make task achievable with the joint efforts of employers and employees (Al-Ani, Horspool and Bligh, 2011). Five functions of management are planning, organising, staffing, directing, controlling. These are essential to be followed through which targets can be attained on time. Leadership and management are performed by top level management of association. There is discussion about Apple INC which is an multinational technology enterprise. Apple has headquarter in California. It deals in developing, manufacturing and selling software and mobile, computers, I-pad, etc. Steve jobs was the founder of this association and he is best example of leadership and providing direction. In this report there is discussion about qualities of good leader, difference between leadership and management, personal experience in the field of leadership.

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TASK 1

What is involved in being a successful leader?

Leader is just not a word but there are many qualities which are required to be present in him through which they can motivate peer members. There must be some qualities which are not present in everyone so this helps to make changes in their activities. As in company there are various activities through which they can achieve business objectives in effective and efficient manner. While making changes in business operations, then there is need of proper guidance and direction. So this is responsibility of mangers to provide direction and hence changes can be applied in effective and efficient way.

As in business there are many changes which are required to be taken, so when managers is able to accept changes and work under dynamic environment, then only team work is effective for achieving business objectives (Antonakis and House, 2013). To be good leader, there must be use of approaches which are competent for making changes in business goals. To use factors which are competent for performing business operations, then in this case manager must consist of mainly three qualities which makes him competent over others. Three approaches are as under-

INDIVIDUAL

This concept again divided into three skills. They are-

  • Traits
  • Skills
  • Styles

This provides a base to leader through which they can work to achieve targets. In case of alterations in business policies, manager has to use techniques which are competent for performing business objectives.

Traits- Theseare the qualities which are helpful in making actions in desirable manner.Traits which are applied by Apple INC is Big five personality (Dinh and et. al., 2014). In this there are five qualities which has to be present in person through which they can lead team.

Big Five Personality model is discussed as under-

  • Openness to experience- In this there is requirement of accept changes through which persona can able to expand knowledge and hence this helps to work as per current environment.
  • Conscientiousness-In this aspect there must be some concept which has to be considered by managers to make alterations in business activities. While making any changes it is essential to be conscious regarding activities.
  • Extraversion-Leader must be extrovert, so they can share information and new ideas with workers. This helps to make changes in their roles and responsibilities through which targets can be achieved.
  • Agreeableness-There must be consideration of points on which person must be agreeable. If team mates are not agree then there will be negative impact on operations.
  • Neuroticism- This is one of the most important qualities which must be present in leader to achieve targets. As per this quality leader must be neutral in every situation (Gardner and et. al., 2011). There are chances of positive as well as negative results which should not be expressed in way of happy, angry, fear, etc. So team helps to perform operations in proper in effective way.

Skills- Skills are the characteristic which makes person different from others. Skills can be polished any time but it must be inborn in person. There are various skills which are required to be present in person. Skills can be understood more clearly with the help of Katz’s Three Skills Model.

Katz’s Three Skills Model- As per this model there are varieties of job performed by employees to achieve targets. There are mainly three divisions in company, they are- Top management, middle management and supervisory management. As per this model there is difference in skills needed. There is need of technical, human and conceptual skills which helps to accept changes.

Styles- There are many styles through helps in making changes in actions and it helps to make changes in business roles and responsibilities (Gill, 2011). To understand styles of leadership, Kurt Lewin's Styles of Leadership is best example. In this leadership, there is use of mainly three styles which helps in decision making. Autocratic, democratic and Laissez- Faireshows various types of people which are working to know what as to done trough which changes are possible. In autocratic, there is no employees thoughts all the powers are vested with top level person. While democratic is reverse of autocratic approach. Laissez- Faire helps to know what has to be done through which ideas are taken from employees but a the same time power are lead with top level management.

CONTEXTUAL

There is use of approach which are important to perform actions in effective and efficient way. There are possibilities that due to change in goals of company a manager has to use best decision through which targets can be achieved on time. While making changes in roles and responsibilities then this helps to alter approaches of leadership and motivation. Under contextual, there is discussion about two theories. They are as under-

Contingency Model- In business there are many problems which are faced by managers of association. This case manager has to take quick decision which must be correct and effective for performing business objectives. Contingency means problems which may arise any time. So this theory is effective at that time.

Situational Approach- There are many situations arise in business which are not planned, so in this case leader has to work through which they can apply changes in effective and efficient way. There are possibilities that due to use of these factors leader as to make decisions frequently trough which operations does not hamper (Hallinger and Heck, 2011).

RELATIONAL

Apple INC has god image in market. This is because they have good relations with internal as well as external parties of company. This helps to know about decisions which they are taking pace and hence this is effective for approaching new opportunities present in market. This an be understood by following theories-

Transformational leadership- As per this style there is energy follow in team and hence actions are performed ion effective way. There is use of approaches which are important for making changes in working style (Hallinger, 2011). Then manager must use this approach to get positive outcomes and this is effective for making changes in roles and responsibilities of peer members.

Servant leadership- This is leadership which tries to focus on demand of others before leader must consider his own need. This helps to work as per need and this is effective for making workers motivated to achieve goals and targets. When leader considers team member's demand at prior then there will good relations with team members and they are also ready to work effectively.

Person having these three concepts are good leader and they are able to balance balance various problems which may arise to perform actions. There s use of policies through which association can make changes in their roles and responsibilities and make policies achievable. This is essential as it helps to make good as well as use of strategies which are effective for making changes inn business policies. There are theories which are discussed at individual level and hence this is helpful for making changes in business operations successfully (Iyengar, Van den Bulte and Valente, 20111).

TASK 2

Can good leadership be developed?

A firm without an efficient leader is like a ship without a rudder. Leadership is the capability of a person to take ownership of various components of a firm in combination with an inner driving force to perform those tasks that are best for a company, Therefore a good leader forms a critical factor in the success and sustainable of a firm who induces motivation in workforce to perform a given task with best of their abilities in most appropriate way so that company could achieve its vision, mission and objectives within specific time period .A leader by is a visionary who by assessing individual needs, areas of lacking and key strengths of its team members implements most appropriate leadership style for encouraging individuals to be confident enough to take bigger responsibilities and face challenges in future, so that company can get an edge over its market rivals by having a competitive proficient workforce.

Individuals perspective:

Every individual is unique in the way he works, perceives things, learns and get motivated. Thus, one of the major task as well as responsibility of a leader is to ascertain the behaviour, personal aspirations and key drivers of each of his employee. This helps a firm like Apple Inc to formulate different plans, strategies and to use most efficient techniques to maintain a uniformity in actions and proper coordination and cooperation of every team so that there is no issue arising when different people with diverse mind set perform various activities together and so that goals could be achieved in efficient and profitable manner (Rodd, 2012).

Traits can be considered difficult to develop:

Traits can be defined as characteristics, tendency or quality that an individual posses or that could be developed by through constant practice of varied type of work to develop proficiency in it. A leader continuously works upon developing its team into proficient individuals by infusing different types of real life situations and conditions to ascertain probable behaviour or reaction of an employee and to get an idea about his capabilities to perform in such adverse or critical situations. By analysing critical incident performance of employees a leader is able to take effective decision and formulate appropriate plans and policies for growth and development of employees to maximize their as well as company's performance and productivity (Verba, 2015).

Contextual perspective:As per this perceptive, there is use of techniques which are effective for achieving targets as it considers personal needs of workers also. There is use of policies through which lead can analyse need of workers and then actions must be taken to analyse market. There is difference in actions of company through which they can apply changes in efficient way (Rice, 2013). There is use of approaches through which gap can be maintained between personal and professional targets. As per situation leader has to make policies through which situation gets improved and this helps to work as per need of subordinates.

Relational Perspective

Leadership is all about finding out ways to motivate and guide subordinates in order to make them proficient in performing and handling their own jobs and inducing them with confidence to develop into future managers. Leaders by encouraging subordinates to be proactive to participate in decision making process by giving their creative and innovative ideas, opinions etc. This helps in empowering them to be self reliant to make their own decisions. Also by analysing their needs and personal objectives a leader provide appropriate training to increase their capabilities making them more professionals. This efforts of leaders helps in developing a mutual coordination and cordial relationship between management and employees as well as among employees which helps in smooth execution of all pre determined tasks and activities reaping maximum output for the company.

TASK 3

What distinguishes leadership from management?

For an organization, its employees forms the cornerstone for its success as they are sources of knowledge and capabilities utilizing which an organization attain its objectives. The success and performance of an individual is generally the reflection of effectiveness of their leaders and managers (Walumbwa and et. al., 2011). Both leadership and management plays a distinctive role in the growth and sustainability of a company and thus could be address the complementary functions to each others. It is so because without having an efficient leadership it is not possible for a firm to come up with innovative ideas thereby staying competitive in market. On other hand in absence of good management it wont be possible for a firm to formulate policies , procedures and strategies that would help in acquiring customers satisfaction, earn higher profits and to maintain coordination among workforce (Wang and et. al., 2011). Thus both leadership and management forms primary function of a company requisite to attain profitability and growth.

Leadership: It can be defined as an ability of an individual to influence others to do a particular task. By applying several theories and leadership styles a leader assess the personal goals that each employees desires to achieve and align them with company's aims and goals so that employees could work in one direction to accomplish objectives with best of their abilities within specific time frame. They also are responsible for defining role and responsibilities of each employees and guiding them to find best possible way to fulfil them .

Management: Management is an art as well as science of getting things done through others. It is an effective technique utilized by mangers to control and handle its employee (Al-Ani, Horspool and Bligh, 2011). Management is quiet a broader concept as it involves various functions that starts from planing to controlling all firms' resources comprising human, finance and others, formulating policies and procedures in accordance with market dynamics so that company could maintains its edge over its rivals and to satisfy its consumers by providing them with products and services as per their requirements.

The comparison of leaders and manager are describing below:

Basis

Leadership

Management

Meaning

It is ability of a person to motivate and guide various individual to perform a particular task.

It involves directing and managing employees to achieve a particular objective beside carrying out various other functions including organizing, coordinating and controlling operations of various departments.

Emphasis on

Leadership focuses on developing individual and their skills and knowledge to make them competitive.

Manager's prime focus is to controls organizational activities,structure , availability of resources and system

Role

Leaders are the facilitators, coach or mentors that provides guidance to its subordinates for accomplish their given task.

Managers are bosses that give instructions and lay down rules and regulations that are to be followed by its employees.

Approach to task

Leaders find out creative and innovative ways to solve a problem and encourages individuals to handle problems and excel

Managers forms strategies and methods to combine teams and empowers employees by soliciting their values, views and principles.

 

Identification of key difference between management and leadership

  • Leadership is the ability of a person to influence others while management is the art of ruling (Antonakis and House, 2013).
  • Leadership is associated with innovating or inventing new ideas, process and technique as a solution to problem while management is concerned with handling and controlling what has been already established from people to system.
  • Leadership is the virtue by which employee are motivated to perform a particular task management on other hand is a process that involves controlling various business activities of Apple.
  • Leadership introduces change while management brings stability.

For instance Steve Jobs, the founder of world's largest IT firm Apple Inc, is one of the most unconventional and innovative leader of all times who from his effective and influential leadership style brought the Apple INC from its initial investment of$US1300 to$US215.64 billion per year making it one of the leading brands in the world (Dinh and et. al., 2014).

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TASK 4

Personal experience in the field of leadership

Above discussed approaches are important as this helps to make changes in goals and objectives. There is use of approaches which are effective for making changes in roles and responsibilities of worker. As I am working in reputed firm at the post of supervisory, so in have to work after analysing environment proper. There are 70 worker working in my team. There is difference in thought process of workers and this affects change in roles and responsibilities which are performed by workers. I use various leadership styles such as contingency, situational. Democratic, etc. through which positive results can be generated. I am in favour of providing changes to workers in decision making, so they can know about relevance of deals in business operations (Gardner and et. al., 2011).

There is use of policies such as servant leadership, through which workers are motivated to work with full confidence as it helps to get chance to satisfy demand of team members. This helps to create familiar relations among peer members which is efficient to achieving targets. When workers get chance to share their views, then it helps to boost their morale and they feels like important component of association. Through democratic approach I can concentrate on various other essential matters. I can understand relevance of using these leadership approaches, this helps to work as per set standard and targets can be achieved on time (Kark and Shamir, 2013). As there are many changes occurring in business, which might be random or frequent in this case situational approach works. This helps to set example in front of workers.

There are many workers having varieties of demand, so in this case I have to analyse them which is possible when I have good relations with team mates. I am ready to learn new ideas from any source so this helps me to get positive results. When I am ready to work under dynamic nature ten this helps to motivate workers also to work under changes environment. To achieve this big five personality model is important (Miner, 2015). So at my workplace at the post of supervisor I have to provide proper guidance and leadership to workers.

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CONCLUSION

From the above report it is clear that leadership is one of the important concept which has to be undertaken by mangers through which business goals and objectives can be achieved in effective and efficient way. Leader plays vital role in smooth running of business operations. There are possibilities that due to use of leadership approaches workers are not comfortable while working and this affects overall performance of company. There are many changes which has to be accept and leader has to motivate workers to give best. Servant leadership is one f the best technique through which gap can be bridge between personal as well as professional goals. There are many workers in company working to achieve targets, so in this case leader has to select best approach which is effective for everyone. 

REFERENCES

  • Al-Ani, B., Horspool, A. and Bligh, M. C., 2011. Collaborating with ‘virtual strangers’: Towards developing a framework for leadership in distributed teams.Leadership. 7(3). pp.219-249.
  • Antonakis, J. and House, R. J., 2013. The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition(pp. 3-33). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  • Dinh, J. E., and et. al., 2014. Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives.The Leadership Quarterly. 25(1). pp.36-62.
  • Gardner, W. L., and et. al., 2011. Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda.The Leadership Quarterly. 22(6). pp.1120-1145.
  • Gill, R., 2011.Theory and practice of leadership. Sage.
  • Hallinger, P. and Heck, R. H., 2011. Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. In International handbook of leadership for learning (pp. 469-485). Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Hallinger, P., 2011. Leadership for learning: Lessons from 40 years of empirical research.Journal of educational administration.49(2). pp.125-142.
  • Iyengar, R., Van den Bulte, C. and Valente, T. W., 2011. Opinion leadership and social contagion in new product diffusion. Marketing Science. 30(2). pp.195-212.
  • Kark, R. and Shamir, B., 2013. The dual effect of transformational leadership: Priming relational and collective selves and further effects on followers. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. 77-101). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  • Miner, J. B., 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.
  • Rice, A. K. ed., 2013. Learning for leadership: Interpersonal and intergroup relations. Routledge.
  • Rodd, J., 2012. Leadership in early childhood. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
  • Verba, S., 2015. Small groups and political behavior: A study of leadership. Princeton University Press.
  • Walumbwa, F. O., and et. al., 2011. Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader–member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.115(2). pp.204-213.
  • Wang, G., and et. al., 2011. Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group & Organization Management. 36(2). pp.223-270.
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