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At a time when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act which causes emotional harm, injury and or death to a child is known as child abuse. There are different aspects of child abuse that is sexual, emotional, neglect, exposure to domestic violence etc. Physical abuse can be seemed and notices and other type of abuse such as emotional abuse which also leave deep, lasting scars. Further the physical signs of child abuse is knowns as beaten-up child symptom while this syndrome mention to many fracture which take place at the time when children have received them at the time of accident. Physical abuse may be take place at the time of stress (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014.). Further, children who are socially abused may still suffer from the effects after the injuries have healed. In physical abuse it includes injury that is shaking, throwing, hitting or causing suffocation. For instance female genital mutilation is one kind of physical child abuse which is illegal and prohibited in UK.
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From the adults report it has been identified that there are 28.3% and 20.7% of children who are being physically and sexually abused. National society for the prevention of cruelty to children shows generate report in 2014 in the UK which includes following:
From the above result it show that there are large number of children who are being maltreated. On the other side government statistics show that in 2013 -14 there are 66000 children in England who were bring up to local authority social care services.
There are some sign of physically abused in caregiver and parents which are as follows:
There are some sign of physical abuse in child which are as follows:
There are some professional such as school teacher, nurses, polices who are legally duty-bound to report if they detected any child abuse (Finkelhor, Turner, and Hamby, 2013). Along with this any person who think that any person any child is physically abuse then it need to report to child protection.
It is a duty of professional to act if any child abuse is detected or suspected. It is important involve senior colleagues and share information. Further if it has been identified that a child is in danger then professional must act in the child best interest. As per according to the General medical council guidance it is a duty of all professional to report concerns that child is at risk (Kemp, Maguire and Dunstan, 2014). Further, child protection will be measure and where necessary investigation will be done if a child is at risk of significant harm. There are some potential sign of child abuse which individual must know in order to protect in children form physical abuse.
Responding to sign of child abuse
Collaborative roles with other professional at the time of working with a child who has been abused. Collaborative roles play significant role at the time when working for welfare of children. Information about collaboration among child welfare is as follows:
Neighborhood and community play significant role for making sure the protection and well being of children by strengthening families (Cammarota and Fine, 2010.). They can make aware to family member if they found that there child is physically abused by others.
Law enforcement can respond to the certain type of physically abused children. They can take action against those who physically abused children (Gast and Ledford, 2014.). There can be a involvement of law enforcement if they found that any child is abuses. It can take action against those people who physically abused children.
At the time of providing treatment to a child who is suffering from the child abuse it is important to communicate with them in polite manner (oldstein, Faulkner and Wekerle, 2013). Further it is important to win trust of children so that it can easily share problem from which are facing at present. Along with this, children need to provide treatment according to their requirements so that they can recover their health fast.
Child maltreatment needed some host of ethical and legal consideration. There are some ethical issues which are related to the child abuse (Neuman and Robson, 2012.). Children has unique ethical characteristics as they are the only class of people who may be discriminated against legally. As children have less legal right but there parents and caregiver have unlimited legal power. Due to this child cannot give informed permission which create difficulties for them at of when they need medical intervention. Further children have some essentially vulnerability due to this they are first to suffer if anything go wrong (Neuman and Robson, 2012). Children are physically involved and they are also not much capable as compare to adults because of this reason they might be obliged into actions which they even not done or wish to do. It is important to kept information provided by children confidentially. Further there are some codes of ethics which need to be followed at the time of when and child get abuse by its family or others.
There are some legal act which are made in accordance to prevent a child from abuse
This act is most beneficial for children, because government make many rule and regulation for welfare of children. This act is created for certain purpose, one of the main aim of this act is to make sure that children not face any abuse by parents or caregiver. It idea of this act is to improve the overall well being of children (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014.). Further this act also support those children which are physically disabled for there welfare.
This act is created by UK government. This act is established for protecting children from injury. Further it is established to single body in order to make decision about individual who should be secured from working with children.
this act is made for the FGM protection order. It is a legally duty of health care professional and teachers to make a report to the police if any girl undergone from can act of Female genital mutilation (Sigfusdottir, Asgeirsdottir. and Sigurdsson, 2013). It is a serious crime if any girl under 18 is forces by their parents for female genital mutilation.
There is great impact of child development and well being of the child abuse. Every childhood has a right to a safe childhood and leave life free of violence . There is great impact of physical child abuse on child differently . Further this impact can be for long time on children which lead them to face difficulty in their whole life. There are some type of impact on child take place when they suffer from physically abuse by caretaker and parents or others. That is psychological implication, physical consequences (Sigurdardottir and Halldorsdottir, 2013). For example in physical consequences it includes damage to growing brain while in psychological implication it includes emotional difficulties, depression. Further long term physical health problem that is obesity, sexually transmitted disease
Some of the effect of physical child abuse is as follows:
Impairment of brain development
The development of brain at an incredible pace which take place at early developmental stage of childhood and infancy (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, 2015.). From the study it has been identified that development on brain take place in response to experience with family and caregivers. Due to physical harm on brain it impact important part of brain which may result in impaired physically and mentally. On the other side the stress of prolonged abuse causes a hyperarousal outcome by definite areas of the brain which result in anxiety and sleep disturbance.
Poor mental and emotional health: Adults who are physically abused at the childhood age face out many health problems such as eating disorder, depressions, physically paralysed etc (Radford, Bradley and Fisher, 2013.).
Further children who are abused by caretaker may ofently do not form secure attachment to them. This result in creating difficulties at the time of making relationship at adult age.
Professional have some role and responsibility in order to reduce the incidences and impact of child abuse.
It is important to create safe and and supportive environment for children in order to ensure that they are not physically abused by parents, caregiver or other people. Further creating a supportive environment is one of the five action area which has been identified by the ottwars charter for health promotion (Fergusson, McLeod and Horwood, 2013). If there is supportive environment then it can offer people protection from different factors which can impact good health. It is one of the critical for a person centered approach to health. Supportive environment is known as the setting in which children can live and learn. Furthermore health promoting hospital focus on improving the community and treating the harm and illness of children. For this purpose, health care professional can communicate with children in such a way that they feel secure and share all information (Cammarota and Fine, 2010). They can provide environment to them which help in promoting there health.
Furthermore, it has been observed that efforts to prevent child abuse have focus on directly improving the skills of parents who are engaged in child abuse or at the risk. But it can be recognized that negative forces within a community can easily overpower even well purpose parents, care is shifting forces. Further if family is prevent then it assist in preventing children from abuse.
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