At a time when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act which causes emotional harm, injury and or death to a child is known as child abuse. There are different aspects of child abuse that is sexual, emotional, neglect, exposure to domestic violence etc. Physical abuse can be seemed and notices and other type of abuse such as emotional abuse which also leave deep, lasting scars. Further the physical signs of child abuse is knowns as beaten-up child symptom while this syndrome mention to many fracture which take place at the time when children have received them at the time of accident. Physical abuse may be take place at the time of stress (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014.). Further, children who are socially abused may still suffer from the effects after the injuries have healed. In physical abuse it includes injury that is shaking, throwing, hitting or causing suffocation. For instance female genital mutilation is one kind of physical child abuse which is illegal and prohibited in UK.
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Prevalence of child abuse
From the adults report it has been identified that there are 28.3% and 20.7% of children who are being physically and sexually abused. National society for the prevention of cruelty to children shows generate report in 2014 in the UK which includes following:
- There were 69 children putting to death (Sigfusdottir, Asgeirsdottir, and Sigurdsson, 2013.).
- 44 children here died as the consequences of conflict of undetermined purpose.
- It is recorded that 7964 cases of cruelty or neglect.
From the above result it show that there are large number of children who are being maltreated. On the other side government statistics show that in 2013 -14 there are 66000 children in England who were bring up to local authority social care services.
Sign of child abuse
There are some sign of physically abused in caregiver and parents which are as follows:
- Cannot or do not want to explain injury of child, or they explained in such a way which do not make any sense.
- Indicates that child is not responsible or a liar (Sigfusdottir, Asgeirsdottir, and Sigurdsson, 2013)
- Not provide medical care on time or make delay in providing care.
- Any problem which take place in school or home and blame a child for that problems.
- Uses of harsh physical evidence or ask teachers to do so.
- Care giver of parents keep from school, clubs and church
- Parents or caregiver show little concern to the child
There are some sign of physical abuse in child which are as follows:
- Any harm to a child which is not creep yet
- Injuries which can be seen
- At various stage of healing, injuries can be shown
- Unexplained injuries that is fractures, burns and bruises
- Not provided medical treatment.
Professional steps to be taken when child abuse is detected or suspected
There are some professional such as school teacher, nurses, polices who are legally duty-bound to report if they detected any child abuse (Finkelhor, Turner, and Hamby, 2013). Along with this any person who think that any person any child is physically abuse then it need to report to child protection.
It is a duty of professional to act if any child abuse is detected or suspected. It is important involve senior colleagues and share information. Further if it has been identified that a child is in danger then professional must act in the child best interest. As per according to the General medical council guidance it is a duty of all professional to report concerns that child is at risk (Kemp, Maguire and Dunstan, 2014). Further, child protection will be measure and where necessary investigation will be done if a child is at risk of significant harm. There are some potential sign of child abuse which individual must know in order to protect in children form physical abuse.
Responding to sign of child abuse
- It need to consider most effective responses which will make sure that child protection and well-being. It cover following points which are mentioned below:
- Make notes: If any sign is identified then it should be record whatever is observed.
- Continue to observe: It is important to continue record observe.
- Consult colleagues: Need to get support from colleagues and supervisors. Then need to compare and brainstorm possible strategies.
- Making a action plan which is based on procedures: It is important to make procedure for taking an action (Fergusson, McLeod and Horwood, 2013).
- Need to take support of other agencies: It is important to take support from other agencies who are working for the welfare of children. In addition to this it is important to explain agency whatever has been observed. Some of the agencies such as child protection contacts, local government.
- Talk to the child: It is important to talk with child by keeping in mind that is information must be kept confidentially (Cammarota and Fine, 2010.).
Collaborative roles with other professional when working with a child who has been abused;
Collaborative roles with other professional at the time of working with a child who has been abused. Collaborative roles play significant role at the time when working for welfare of children. Information about collaboration among child welfare is as follows:
Community involvement for the protection of child
Neighborhood and community play significant role for making sure the protection and well being of children by strengthening families (Cammarota and Fine, 2010.). They can make aware to family member if they found that there child is physically abused by others.
Role of Law enforcement in responding to child abuse
Law enforcement can respond to the certain type of physically abused children. They can take action against those who physically abused children (Gast and Ledford, 2014.). There can be a involvement of law enforcement if they found that any child is abuses. It can take action against those people who physically abused children.
At the time of providing treatment to a child who is suffering from the child abuse it is important to communicate with them in polite manner (oldstein, Faulkner and Wekerle, 2013). Further it is important to win trust of children so that it can easily share problem from which are facing at present. Along with this, children need to provide treatment according to their requirements so that they can recover their health fast.
Legal, moral and ethical issues related to child abuse
Child maltreatment needed some host of ethical and legal consideration. There are some ethical issues which are related to the child abuse (Neuman and Robson, 2012.). Children has unique ethical characteristics as they are the only class of people who may be discriminated against legally. As children have less legal right but there parents and caregiver have unlimited legal power. Due to this child cannot give informed permission which create difficulties for them at of when they need medical intervention. Further children have some essentially vulnerability due to this they are first to suffer if anything go wrong (Neuman and Robson, 2012). Children are physically involved and they are also not much capable as compare to adults because of this reason they might be obliged into actions which they even not done or wish to do. It is important to kept information provided by children confidentially. Further there are some codes of ethics which need to be followed at the time of when and child get abuse by its family or others.
There are some legal act which are made in accordance to prevent a child from abuse
Children act 2004
This act is most beneficial for children, because government make many rule and regulation for welfare of children. This act is created for certain purpose, one of the main aim of this act is to make sure that children not face any abuse by parents or caregiver. It idea of this act is to improve the overall well being of children (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014.). Further this act also support those children which are physically disabled for there welfare.
Safeguarding vulnerable group act 2006
This act is created by UK government. This act is established for protecting children from injury. Further it is established to single body in order to make decision about individual who should be secured from working with children.
Female genital mutilation act 2003
this act is made for the FGM protection order. It is a legally duty of health care professional and teachers to make a report to the police if any girl undergone from can act of Female genital mutilation (Sigfusdottir, Asgeirsdottir. and Sigurdsson, 2013). It is a serious crime if any girl under 18 is forces by their parents for female genital mutilation.
Impact of child abuse on child development and well-being
There is great impact of child development and well being of the child abuse. Every childhood has a right to a safe childhood and leave life free of violence . There is great impact of physical child abuse on child differently . Further this impact can be for long time on children which lead them to face difficulty in their whole life. There are some type of impact on child take place when they suffer from physically abuse by caretaker and parents or others. That is psychological implication, physical consequences (Sigurdardottir and Halldorsdottir, 2013). For example in physical consequences it includes damage to growing brain while in psychological implication it includes emotional difficulties, depression. Further long term physical health problem that is obesity, sexually transmitted disease
Some of the effect of physical child abuse is as follows:
Impairment of brain development
The development of brain at an incredible pace which take place at early developmental stage of childhood and infancy (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, 2015.). From the study it has been identified that development on brain take place in response to experience with family and caregivers. Due to physical harm on brain it impact important part of brain which may result in impaired physically and mentally. On the other side the stress of prolonged abuse causes a hyperarousal outcome by definite areas of the brain which result in anxiety and sleep disturbance.
Poor mental and emotional health: Adults who are physically abused at the childhood age face out many health problems such as eating disorder, depressions, physically paralysed etc (Radford, Bradley and Fisher, 2013.).
Further children who are abused by caretaker may ofently do not form secure attachment to them. This result in creating difficulties at the time of making relationship at adult age.
The role and responsibility as a professional in reducing the incidence and impact of child abuse
Professional have some role and responsibility in order to reduce the incidences and impact of child abuse.
- Early childhood program hire large number of qualified staff to work with children, it help them in providing adequate supervision to children. Further, if the number of children are limited for which adults is responsible to take appropriate care of children in order to meet their needs (Goldstein, Faulkner and Wekerle, 2013.). Teachers are better which help children who are abused. They support them in making changes in their behaviour and to overcome from fear.
- The program environment both indoor and outdoor: Children's who suffer from abuse need to provide opportunities to overcome their loneliness. Further the program environment should be designed in such a manner that it help children in their development physically and mentally (Godbout, Briere and Lussier, 2014.). Further it is important that individual if it find any suspicious of child abuse then it need to report to its family.
- The professional can monitor by public agencies which make sure the basic acceptable level of quality in early childhood program. They can make aware and teach them what action they can take at the time when they are abused by someone. Professional can help children by providing them proper care and emotional support which they need at childhood stage (Gast and Ledford, 2014).
- Furthermore, health promotion is the process to make sure that people can easily control and improve there health.
- Build healthy public policy: It is important to build healthy public policy in order to prevent child abuse
It is important to create safe and and supportive environment for children in order to ensure that they are not physically abused by parents, caregiver or other people. Further creating a supportive environment is one of the five action area which has been identified by the ottwars charter for health promotion (Fergusson, McLeod and Horwood, 2013). If there is supportive environment then it can offer people protection from different factors which can impact good health. It is one of the critical for a person centered approach to health. Supportive environment is known as the setting in which children can live and learn. Furthermore health promoting hospital focus on improving the community and treating the harm and illness of children. For this purpose, health care professional can communicate with children in such a way that they feel secure and share all information (Cammarota and Fine, 2010). They can provide environment to them which help in promoting there health.
Furthermore, it has been observed that efforts to prevent child abuse have focus on directly improving the skills of parents who are engaged in child abuse or at the risk. But it can be recognized that negative forces within a community can easily overpower even well purpose parents, care is shifting forces. Further if family is prevent then it assist in preventing children from abuse.
- Cammarota, J. and Fine, M., 2010.;Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion. Routledge.
- Fergusson, D.M., McLeod, G.F. and Horwood, L.J., 2013. Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: Findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand. Child abuse & neglect.
- Gast, D.L. and Ledford, J.R., 2014.;Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Routledge.
- Godbout, N., Briere, J., Sabourin, S. and Lussier, Y., 2014. Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: The role of parental support. Child abuse & neglect. 38(2). pp.317-325.
- Goldstein, A.L., Faulkner, B. and Wekerle, C., 2013. The relationship among internal resilience, smoking, alcohol use, and depression symptoms in emerging adults transitioning out of child welfare. Child abuse & neglect.
- Neuman, W.L. and Robson, K., 2012. Basics of social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.