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Case Study of Marks and Spence

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Project Title

Assessing the impact of employee motivation on sales and profitability in an organisation - A Case Study of Marks and Spence


Motivation play significant role in increasing the profitability and sale of the company. Along with this it also help in retaining employee for loner time and increase productivity

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The purpose of the study

Purpose of this study is to identify the importance of motivation for increasing the performance of employee, so that firm can increase sale and earn profit.

Motivation lead to increase in output of organization it can be stated that highly motivated employee help in increasing the sale and profit of organization, also, motivation is critical elements which lead increase in company productivity, success and increase in sale and profit (Nomura, Halvari and Deci, 2015)

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Summary of the project problem and suggested solutions for issues facing Marks and Spencer due to lack of employee’s motivation, this reasons lead to researcher embarking on this research. Solution for the problem is that employee need to provide monetary and non-monetary benefits. Furthermore, workers should be appreciated for their work this motivate them to work hard for the organization ( Lepper. and Greene, 2015)

In this proposal research approach will be used for analysing the impact of motivation on employee (Shah, Akhtar and Riaz, 2012). There are two type of research approach but in present study inductive approach will be used for getting specific information related to motivation. Furthermore exploratory research design will be used so that whole study can be carried out in best possible manner. Then data will be collected through secondary sources. After collecting data and information data analysis will be done by using qualitative techniques.


1 How has this problem arise?

This problem is arise because it has been identified that employee of Marks and Spencer not show any type of interest in work they feel demotivated from their work. This lead to decrease in profitability and sale of the organization. Further employee are not motivated by manager and leader which make them dissatisfy from their work. At the Marks and Spencer there are not any type of motivational tool used for motivating its employees (Olafsen, Halvari and Deci, 2015). Workers are not rewarded for their best work this make them dissatisfy (Lepper and Greene, 2015).

2. What is the background of the development of this problem of the project?

Manager and leader are not aware of motivational tools and techniques this lead to directly impact the sale and profit of organization. Motivation is a very important part of motivating employee at work place. It helps in increasing the sale and profit of the company. There is a different way through which Marks and Spencer can easily motivate its employee at work place.

There are many current effective solution for this problem that is firm can easily adopt different motivational tools and techniques for motivating its employee (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013). Manager of Marks and Spencer can used reward system for motivating its employee. Marks and Spencer need to provide reward to employee on their best performance this help in motivating other employee to perform best for getting reward (Peters, 2015). Along with this there are many different method which Marks and Spencer can used for motivating its workers at work place.

From the current solution there is way to improve because every employee have some basic need, if employee basic need fulfil they will be motivated toward the work (Lepper and Greene, 2015.. Reward system is one of the best techniques which can be used by firm for motivating employee (Peters, 2015). Further if employee are appreciated for their best work they feel proud and satisfy and try to work hard for organization

Key questions

The research question are made on the basis of research objective so that it become easy for researcher to attain the aims and objectives.

  1. Explain the importance of motivation for increasing sale and profit of Marks and Spencer?
  2. Identify the impact of employee motivation on sale and profitability of Marks and Spencer?
  3. What are the different motivational tool and techniques for motivating the employees of Marks and Spencer?

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Research Objectives

The objective of current study are made on the basis of aim. It help researcher in collecting the reliable information and help in taking out valid outcome. Objectives are as follow

  • To understand the importance of motivation for increasing sale and profit.
  • To identify the impact of employee motivation on sale and profitability of firm.
  • To analyse different motivational tool and techniques for motivating the employees.

Literature Review


A literature review is an important part of a study which helps in gathering large information from different secondary sources (Reeve, 2014.). Along with this, it prepares on the basis of aim and objective of the research.

The specific thesis of my study is Motivation and problem are faced by employees of marks and Spencer because the firm is not using motivation tool and techniques for motivating its employees (Olafsen, Halvari and Deci, 2015). The research question help in making clear what is the relationship between motivation and sale and profit of business.

There is qualitative literature review I am conducting in which survey is conducted for taking a view of employees in relation to their motivation tool and techniques. Along with this secondary research is conducted in which information is collected from books and the internet. Working on learning psychology of employee.

The importance of motivation for increasing sale and profit

Nomura, (2016) explained that Motivation theory play significant role in increasing the sale and profit of business. If employee are motivated toward their work then they work hard for the organization. Along with this if employee get reward for their best performance then they try to put more effort for the organisation which help in increasing the sale and profit.

The impact of employee motivation on sale and profitability of firm

According to Lepper and Greene (2015), there are many positive impacts of motivation on sale and profitability of the company. If employee is motivated they will work hard for an organization which leads to increase in productivity. On the other hand, if employee gets demotivated then they will not work hard and it will lead to decrease in sale and profit.

According to the Mc Gregor's participant theory: It leads to formulating two distinct views of human which is based on participation of worker. In this as per theory X assumptions: people not like to take responsibilities and want that some other guide them. On contrary to this Y theory state that employee like to take responsibilities. If employee are motivated then they may also lead to increase in sale and profitability of company

According to Berwick's Z Theory show, there are two propositions of theories which are in relation to organizational goals. This theory creates strong between organization employees which lead to the success of the organization.

Argyris's Theory: This theory is based on the proposition of way management practices affect the individual behaviour and growth. It states that employee will be motivated if their psychological and safety needs fulfilled. This lead to increase in profit and sale of the organization.

Maslow theory help in motivating the employees. According to Maslow theory organization can easily motivate its employee so that they can perform best in the organization. Further, in Maslow theory, there is five-step of motivation which needs to fulfill by the firm.

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According to of Dörnyei and Ushioda, (2013), there is a different theory which organization can implement for motivating its employees. As per Maslow theory, there are 5 stages of needs of people. If employee basic need fulfill they move toward the second. Within an organization, the manager needs to understand its employees need and want so that employee not gets demotivated from their work. From the Maslow theory, it is clear that people mostly motivated from the there lower level of need hierarchy. On contrary to this Mc George theory x and y which are two set of alternate assumption for motivating the employee. There is the link between Maslow theory and motivation theory. Manager within the organization needs to understand needs of workers and provide them job security. It is also one of the motivational factors of Maslow theory.


From the above literature view it is clear that people can easily motivated toward the work if their is basic need to fulfil by the firm. There are different type of theory which help in motivating employee a work place.


The methodology is system of method which is used in particular area of study. The research method is appropriate plan which help in conducting whole research in systematic manner. There are different type of research method such as data collection, analysis, qualitative etc


It is one of the important part of research proposals which provide detail information of study. It help in carrying out the whole research in organised manner

The aim of the chapter and why is it important

Aim of this chapter to understand different methods which help in carrying out the research.

Research philosophy: For this research, research philosophy is the believer and assumption for the selected topic for study. There are different which can be used by the researcher in present study that is positivism and interpretivism. This both are very important and can be used on the basis of nature of the study (Hooper, and Gunn 2014). In interpretive philosophy, there is only one fact which is followed by the different type of facts. While in positivism there is a particular aspect which trusts upon different aspects. There is positivism philosophy used when research is conducted quantitative technique It is can be stated that Interpretive philosophy proves is one of the best technique at a time when qualitative techniques are used for research (Sessler and Imrey, 2015)In this study, the researcher used Interpretive philosophy for carrying out the research). However, Marks and Spencer is facing issues related to the motivation among employee. This Interpretive philosophy will be used so that researcher can give his own view form for the selected issues.

Research Design; Research design is which helps in presenting the finding of collected information which is related to the aim of the study. There is three type of research design which can be used by the researcher that is exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. In the present study, researcher used descriptive research design because it helps in represent the participant in a systematic way (Sunderland, Chenoweth and Ellem 2015). There is three type of information need to collect in descriptive research that is observation etc. This design also helps in getting valid information which helps in carrying out valid outcome (Hooper and Gunn, 2014.). The main reason for selecting this design is to present the finding in an effective manner for the success of Marks and Spencer.

Research approach: There is two type of research approach that is inductive and deductive. This both approach help in the analysis the collected data in relation to motivating employee at Marks and Spencer. In inductive approach there is only specific data is collected after the generalization of data while in deductive approach firstly data specific information is collected then data is generalized (Sessler and Imrey, 2015.). In the present study, inductive research approach is used because in this study it helps the researcher for the deep understanding of the selected topic with the help of collecting secondary data.

Data collection method: For carrying out the whole research there is two type of data which need to collect that is primary and secondary. Along with this, it is important for the researcher to collect information carefully because it directly impacts the finding. Primary information is that which is not published in books (Hannula, Suoranta and Vadén, 2014). This information is new which can be collected by interview, questionnaire etc. On the other hand, in the secondary information which is already published in books and the internet is used for analysis the information for Marks and Spencer. In present report secondary sources used for collecting the data (Healey, and Tagak Sr, 2014.).

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The method of data analysis: This is very important part of research because it helps in attaining research aim and objective (Nomura, 2016). There are different tools and techniques used for analyzing the data such as quantitative and qualitative techniques. In the present researcher used the qualitative technique for analyzing the collected data.

Reliability, Validity, and Generalisability: There are a different aspect which undertaken by the researcher for the Reliability, Validity and Generalisability. The rationale behind this study is that information used which are copyright protected data sources offer (Saunders and Bezzina, 2015). This help in offering highly reliable information which helps in getting the best solution for collected data.

Ethics: Ethics is very important part because no study can be completed without any ethical consideration (Nakata, 2015) Information which is collected form the internet is cited properly with the evidence.

Limitation of the Methodology: In this present study whole research is conducted in an effective manner and tried to perform in best manner (Karlsson, 2016). There is the limitation of time and resources for getting detailed information which has been undertaken by a researcher. By taking consideration all the aspects survey is conducted on 20 employees of Marks and Spencer (Saunders and Bezzina, 2015). Only 20 employees are selected because it is not too high and low. Further, there are no monetary resources is available because of this high tools and techniques not used by the researcher. Furthermore, qualitative techniques are selected which help in measuring the problem of demotivation among employees (Gioia, Corley and Hamilton, 2013.)

Conclusion of the methodology chapter

From the methodology chapter it is concluded that there are different technique which help in conducting the whole research.


  • Dörnyei, Z. and Ushioda, E., 2013. Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge.
  • Gioia, D.A., Corley, K.G. and Hamilton, A.L., 2013. Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16(1), pp.15-31.
  • Hannula, M., Suoranta, J. and Vadén, T., 2014. Artistic research methodology. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Healey, G.K. and Tagak Sr, A., 2014. Piliriqatigiinniq ‘working in a collaborative way for the common good’: a perspective on the space where health research methodology and Inuit epistemology come together. Int J Crit Indigenous Stud, 7, p.1Á14.
  • Hooper, C.A. and Gunn, R., 2014. Recognition as a framework for ethical participatory research: developing a methodology with looked after young people. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 17(5), pp.475-488.
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