Communication plays a vital role in our daily life. This is the only means by which we are able to hear and understand in order to express ideas and information to others.
The entire report is about role of theories, principles and models of communication in teaching, learning and assessment. These models help in knowing more about subjects and related tasks with proper guidance of teachers. It also explains the different ways which helps in teaching and learning effective. The report also throw some lights on positive and negative aspects of theories, principles and models of communication. This report also shows the effectiveness in learning and progression. It also explains the meaning and role of theories and models in the field of curriculum development. It also explains different ways by which theories and model of curriculum development which are applied in math report. Whole report give the scenario of theories and principle with different model of communication help to enhance the level of student with better learning.
A. Role of theories, principles, and models of communication helps in teaching, learning and assessment
Communication is conveying or exchanging ideas, information and knowledge, it can also be related to body language and words. Model of communication help to know about communication process. This is particularly important when managing change in an organisation. These model provide the opportunity to examine closely the roles of teacher, professors, student and media and other information provide in the classroom. These models are :
Lasswell : these model consider 'Five Ws'. It is the essential of all the elements of communication. This is simple model of communication. It is also known as mathametical theory of communication as it gives a technique to the problem of how to convey the maximum information. And it is proposed to noise concept.
William McGuire: . in this theory, added many output factors like attention, linking, comprehension, yielding, remembering and action. And it also used to solve the problem related to maths. There are also three other element that are use for good communication such as : use of language, behaviour, other symbols like presentations, stage props etc.
Monroe's motivation sequence : in this theory, getting audience attention is the need. This can be done only through a detailed story, shocking example, dramatic statistic, quote etc. next step is offering a clear concise statement of the need and establishing expectation .
Reflection is a process of reflecting on the experience in order to learn from that experience. While evaluation is a process of making an assessment or judgement about the person. It is possible to reflect on an experience, especially when reflecting at report level without using evaluating, but it is more difficult to evaluate an experience without reflecting on that experience. Reflection can take place while a person is in act of teaching or supporting role.
Gibbs reflective theory: this cycle helps to encourage, to think systematically about the phases of an experience or activity. This include 5 stages i.e. description, feelings, evaluation conclusion and action. The aim of this theory is to accept the challenges of our assumption, to explore different new ideas and approaches towards things and to promote self improvement
David Kolb: there are 4 stages of Kolb which are helps to learn that is concrete experience which means the learner actively experiences an activity, observation and reflection- when a learner consciously reflects back on the experiment. Third is forming abstract concept- where the learner attempts to conceptualize a theory or model of what is observed. Last is active experimentation which means the learner is trying to plan how to test a model or theory for the next experience.
In order to enhance the way of learning, teaching and assessment there are many ways which help to communicate more some of them are discuss below:
- Learning preference : it include many different teaching and learning methods just to improve the way of teaching for example one-to-one teaching, pairing work may also help to learn more, as researchers told a person can be more good learner if he learn thing with someone else, small group teaching may also affect. A teacher must be used simple language so that student easily understand and can learn things easily
- Communication theory :a teacher can be more effective when he used the way of theories like verbal (speaking), non- verbal (through action), written (help to make notes of each subject). These are different ways of communication which help to became a good learner .
- Management : the length of classroom should not be exceed as it is difficult to handle students and to take care of every student. As all know person can learn more when he sees things practically rather than craming so it should be complusion in every schools to demonstrate every practical thing like making labs where students go and can do practicals which help them to learn more (Strauss, 2017) . Classrom presentation should be done and proper lesson planning can also help to make teaching skills more effective.
- Language : use of language should be proper, if student did not understand any language then teachers should use another and try to explain thing many times. If way of tongue is not proper then how can be a student became a good person.
- There should be proper use of resources to make learning more easier and enjoyable. As learning can be increased and difficulties related to it can be reduced by adapting many resources with great usage and for specific task.
- Applying organisational policies and procedure: every institutions have their own rules and regulations and they should follow them but they may also adopt new and useful policies in order to run it in best way.
- Feedback from the student: after the first couple of week of class, should ask student about the teacher that how he teach and what about their skills. It is necessary to know the teaching skills in order to get more attention, if students feedback is not in favour of teacher then take immediate action.
- Students motivation determine, direct and sustains what they learn from the student. To become self- directed learners, student must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.
B. Analysis of theories, principle and model of communication
The four theories of press was replaced by the social responsibility theory as the emergence of learning, teaching . Thus the theory apply some obligation on media of society but this will not for longer lasting as this did not fulfill the requirement of people so next theory is produced that is Soviet media/ communist theory, this follow the idea of ruling classes are the ruling ideas and due to this private ownership is diminished and modern technologies must be controlled for enjoying effective freedom. But this also have some drawbacks like it follow only one person rule which did not going to be longer for future times.
As there is no development without communication and this is stated by Development communication theory but it play positive role in the field of communication as it help to develop programs accepting restrictions, and many more. And the weakness of this theory is development is equated with government propaganda (Illeris, 2018). In the early 40's two step flow theory was produced under which study says that informal social relationship played important role in order to select content from media campaign by an individual. But though people may attract each other but on the other hand degree of influence come across them and they mold the way of selecting media.
In model of communication also, many models have their positive and negative points such as in Linear model, it is a one way communication system which is used for mass communication and only receiver receives the message and it is good for audience vision and propaganda setting with intentional result but on the other hand communication is not continuous and no concept of feedback, even also there is no way to know whether the communication is effective or not (Strauss, 2017). Next model is Transactional Model, this is used for personal communication even the feedback is also taken as a message, there is no discrimination between senders and receiver but it has cons like it encourages non – verbal communication with more noise . Third comes Interaction model, this is used for internet and gives slower feedback in returns. The main concept is to experience the field and communication became linear if the receiver does not respond. Positive point about this model that it gives feedback even in mass communication can create many new channels but on the other hand no one knows who the person sending messages and feedback can take very long time to response.
Next is principles of communication which follow oral communication as this is follow in generally to speak and convey our message to others but it is not useful in all over the field as if disable person who loss the ability of hearing cannot listen that time oral communication is not useful (Van Eemeren and Grootendorst, 2016). Other principle is Written communication, it help to communicate different ideas and procedure but sometimes people take time and effort to read written material and preparation of written documents is time- consuming. Oral communication is a method that involves, primarily an oral presentation given by an instructor to a body od student. Many oral presentation are accompanied by some sort of visual aid, like slideshow, word document, an image and a film. Many teachers use white board and many of them use presentation in order to enhance the quality of their teaching method.
With the help of Gibbs model I analyses all the five model in detail that is by Description, use specific and relevant data who give complete detail of Math and next is Feeling, which help to know my past experience and compare it with my present situation, as a math teacher I feel so comfortable by using Gibbs model where firstly I describe all the small topics but earlier I did not. Third model is evaluation, where I feel best and there is no bad experience related to math and overall the whole experience is so good and even I learn many good things while teaching. Fourth one is conclusion- final stage comes where I feel that this model help in change my teaching method before using or knowing about the Gibbs model I used only two method oral and written but after studying it I used many different methods such as presentations, demonstrating etc to understand things in better way. Fifth comes analysis, the cause of action while teaching math are so good that there is no wrong thing happened with me and as a teacher I realize that Gibbs theory actually helps in my other subject too and I used it in my other work.
A. range of theories, principles of formal and informal assessment demonstrated in Math
Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills and values. The ability of learning is depends on its mind that how much it gain. There are many students who learn things very fast but on the other hand some did not, its all depends on their catching power of mind. Good learning help a student to keep the things with him for long time.
Assessment of student means receiving the attention of teacher, parents, researchers, and education system. Current assessment practices are based on changing old ones like change in old syllabus , new knowledge, skills which are necessary in 21st century. Assessment of students achievement is changing the face of today's student like they demand for new knowledge, skills and behavior which is not yet defined.
Primary purpose of assessment is to improve the student performance and assessment for learning and it occurs when teachers feels interfering about student progress. Through this, teachers ascertain student’s knowledge, mistakes and then use this as a evidence to inform curriculum planning and then teacher support him to perform well. Next is assessment as learning, it shows the students role and responsibilities in learning. It helps to engage students in self- and peer assessment which also helps to promote students confidence. Lastly, is assessment of learning, it describes how student achieve learning goals, which includes standard and demonstrations (Georgi, 2018). Overall, a change in assessment culture helps to promote integral learning and teaching process. It also enhances the classroom and school premises to improve the quality of assessment practices and raise overall standard of achievements.
Current learning theory help to know the importance of learning with better understanding in order to provide better opportunities and allow to study in depth. Learners construct knowledge and understanding on the basis of what they learn and know in past. Learning theory may focus on the process of creating good knowledge as well as learning. Assessment may provide feedback that how student learn and they could go through their future