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Travel is the journey of people between various geographical locations which associates transportation to reach one place to another. Tourism includes activities which contribute effective role for organisation to attract and entertain tourist. Travel and tourism has vast history in which people started travelling to another nation in search of food, shelter, business and education. Now days, people visit different nations for experiencing various types of culture and traditions that are followed in different country (Moutinho, 2011). The present file represents the history and structure of travel and tourism sector in the United Kingdom. It explains the influence of national governments and global agencies on same industry. In addition to this, it describes the impact of supply and demand in this sector. Further, it shows environmental effects on travel and tourism sector in the United Kingdom.
There were many key historical developments happened in travel and tourism sector in London. Government started these activities after the Second World War to increase this industry in city. Authorities have done many key developments in technology, infrastructure, social conditions as well as in many other facilities to increase travel and tourism sector in London.
In 1938, Government of UK launched holiday with pay act which helped travel and tourism sector to develop in an appropriate manner by providing minimum wages to workers in London.
In 1950, Horizon initiated first package of air holiday which helped to improve travel and tourism sector in the city.
Government of United Kingdom had developed proper infrastructure of Airports to increase this sector in 1952. Generally, Second World War had many disadvantages but it gave rapid growth to air industry in order to design better aeroplanes which helped to provide effective facilities for visitors in the city. This thing also contributed effective role for Government to give effective air services for visitors in London. Authorities started fist airline passenger services in 1952 (Navickas and Malakauskaite, 2015). In addition to this, it helped the development of travel and tourism sector in city.
Local authorities had developed proper transportation to render appropriate services to the national and international visitors after 1960 in London. Authorities had improved proper railway services and city buses to render better facilities for visitors to roam one place to another in city (Development of the UK Travel and Tourism Industry, 2015). This process contributed effective role for travel and tourism sector for its effective improvement in London.
Authorities of London emphasized to improve technological environment to increase this sector in London. Further, they also released internet services in 1960 which effective aided travel agencies and tourists to book tickets for bus, rail as well as planes. This development helped travel and tourism sector to increase its business in the city. (Standing, Tang-Taye. and Boyer, 2014).
In 1968, Countryside act released to raise the national parks in London. This law also gave effective advantages to improve travel and tourism sector in London. In addition to this, in 1969, Development of tourism act released for the better improvement of this industry in city.
In 1981, 60 percent London citizens used at least one car in their house. This thing contributed appropriate role to improve this industry in an appropriate manner by enhancing transportation services in London. In 1983, Local authorities provided 4 or 5 days holidays in month to its employees for tourism. This thing also helped this city to develop this sector more by enhancing more income in London city.
In 1992, Department of Heritage established in London. This organisation contributed effective role for travel and tourism sector to develop this city. In 1997, 70 percent UK citizens hold one car at least which was minimum 10 percent greater than the records of 1960 in London.
In 2003, British Tourist Authority and English Tourism Council merged together. Currently, this organisation is recognized as Visit Britain. This corporation also helped travel and tourism sector of London (Hudson and Thal, 2013). In the present years, Local authorities of this city also helps this industry by developing social, technological as well as infrastructure services.
Structure of travel and tourism sector contains many things such as travel and tourism, events accommodation service along with visitor attraction.
Travel and tourism services- Travel and tourism sector also provides services which are effective for rendering optimistic services to the visitors in United Kingdom (Evans, Stonehouse and Campbell, 2012). For example, there are many tours and travel agencies which provide effective transportation facilities to visitors for roaming tourist places of London. Apart from that, public transportation services are also appropriate for travellers to visit this city. In addition to this, government provides full facilities like effective map of tourist destinations and GPS Navigation which give huge reliability to local and foreign travellers for travelling in London (Crouch, 2012).
Accommodation services- Travel and tourism industry provides better accommodation services as per the income level of visitors in United Kingdom. There are many hotels and other living facilities available which provide optimistic reliability for travellers in London (Wilks, Stephen and Moore, 2013). For example, Hospitality organisations like Hilton, Dorchester as well as Marriott offer better food and beverages as per the choice of visitors which attract foreign and domestic people to visit London city. In this way, structure helps travel and tourism sector to increase its income by enhancing the frequency of travellers in city. In addition to this, these hospitality organisations render extra facilities like internet, gaming zones as well as Spa services to attract travellers in London (Capriello and et.al,2013). In addition to this, proper internet network also helps visitors to reserve their bus, rail along with air tickets which are provided by these hospitality organisations in United Kingdom.
Visitor attraction- Government of Britain also gives effective efforts to attract and increase the frequency of visitors by maintaining proper tourist places of London. As per the report of London tourism industry, 30 million people come from another countries to visit this city (Gallarza, Gil-Saura and Holbrook, 2012). For example, Buckingham place is the most popular location of London which attracts 15 million travellers each year. These type of efforts also help travel and tourism sector to earn effective income by generating from revenues that come from the global and national visitors in London (London's Tourism Industry, 2015). In addition to this, Authorities of this city renovate other tourist locations like British museum and London tower in order to lure visitors. This way, this thing also helps travel and tourism sector to develop effectively in this nation (Development of the UK Travel and Tourism Industry, 2015).
There are many functions of government, its sponsored bodies as well as international agencies in travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom. It is described below in the paragraph.
Function of Government- Authorities contribute effective role for this industry in many factors like building optimistic infrastructure, advertisement of tourist destinations, executing and development policies in the United Kingdom. These functions help this industry to improve in an appropriate manner (Kennell and Chaperon, 2013). For example, Local government also provides cultural facilities for residents in Britain. In addition, they also help public to manage various facilities like sports field, parks, picnic sites as well as playgrounds in nation. In addition to this, national authorities make strategies and policies which focus on the development of travel and tourism sector in UK. They help this industry by managing foreign exchange and providing employment opportunities to local citizens of United Kingdom for the effective improvement of this sector.
Function of Sponsored bodies- There are many government bodies like Britsh Tourist Authority as well as English Tourism council which help travel and tourism sector to develop in an appropriate manner in United Kingdom (Lee and Brahmasrene, 2013). For example, these organisations render latest information and knowledge to the government authorities regarding tourism industry which help them to develop effective policies for this industry in United Kingdom. They contribute effective role for Travel and tourism sector to promote its tourist destinations in nation.
Functions of International agencies- There are many international agencies like World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and International Air Transport Association which provide effective help to develop travel and tourism sector in every nation (Page, 2014). For example, UNWTO advertises tourism places of nations for the economic growth, environmental sustainability, effective development and support the travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom by providing latest knowledge, tourism policies and rules.
Generally, current economy of United Kingdom is effective in comparison of other countries. Local and national policies can give positive response for the success of travel and tourism sector in the United Kingdom.
Taxes and duties- Government of United Kingdom also takes optimistic taxes and duties from national and global tourists in comparison of other countries in the world. This process also creates positive impact on the travel and tourism sector to grow rapidly in Britain. Due to this reason, many organisations are coming in this field to render effective services to visitors as well as earning profit in United Kingdom (Hall, Gossling and Scott 2015). This way, income of travel and tourism sector has been increased as per the comparison of past years in the nation. For example, many hospitality organisations like Hilton and Dorchester as well as other travel agencies achieve effective income from visitors in nation. Due to these reasons, travel and tourism sector gets optimistic growth which creates effective impact on this industry in United Kingdom (Hall, Scott and Gössling, 2013).
Interest rates- These economic policies put positive effect on this industry in Britain. Generally, interest rates of UK Government is lower than the other nations which is helping travel and tourism industry to develop more in the nation For example, this process helps many tourist organisations to take loan facilities for its further expansion in the country. It also contributes effective role for hospitality and travel enterprises to increase its business activities for the further expansion of tourist areas in nation (Spenceley, 2012). In addition to this, many corporations are developing new tourist destinations to lure travellers in the United Kingdom. This economic policy leaves effective impact for travel and tourism sector to develop in an appropriate manner in nation. Many hospitality and travel enterprises are getting effective revenues by providing effective services to visitors in United Kingdom.
Importance of political change on travel and tourism sector in various countries are described below the paragraph.
This modification is created positive impact on the nation. Importance of effective political change is necessary for the appropriate development of travel and tourism sector in UK (Mariani and et.al., 2014). For example, Government stability, Employment policies, tourism trade as well as decreased corruption level are played important role to improve this sector in United Kingdom. In addition to this, implication of political change is essential for this industry in Britain. This thing contributes appropriate role for travel and tourism sector to increase frequency of visitors in comparison of previous years in UK.
Political change is generated negative impact on china due to their strict political policies. It decreases the frequency of travellers in comparison of past years. For example, Strict laws on public, tourism tax as well as government issues are affected travel and tourism sector in nation. So, political change also keeps importance for the development of this industry in country. In addition to this, Political rules and regulations are made for developing corporate rather travel and tourism sector in country (Estol and Font, 2016). So, this industry is not getting more progress as compare to other industries because these factors do not support travel and tourism industry for effective development in china. So, importance of effective political change is necessary for every nation.
There are many factors like demographics, technological, impact of currency rates as well as political stability which affect tourism’s demand in travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom.
Demographics- These factors such as education level, income, age as well as employment help to put positive impact on the demand of travel and tourism sector in Britain. Social status of people has increased as compare to previous years in nation. Further, UK is also one of the developed nations in the world (Leung and Baloglu, 2013). This aspect helps to fulfil the demand of this sector in United Kingdom. These factors also affect the product development team of TUI group to develop its policies in country. For example, education level of UK citizens has also increased as compare to past years. This factor is used to increase the level of awareness about tourism which helps to increase the demand of tourism among people in nation. In addition to this, economic status of people is effective due to their better income in United Kingdom. Many people spend more money for travel and tourism services which creates positive impact on the demand of tourism in Britain (Hughes, Weaver and Pforr, 2015). In addition, TUC group also gets many advantages like higher income and market growth due to effective demographics aspects in nation.
Technological factors- These factors like network coverage, quality and pricing of hospitality and travel services as well as licenses create positive impact on the demand of tourism in United Kingdom. These also contribute effective role for TUI group to design effective strategies for the development of new hospitality services which aid company to enhance the level of tourism’s demand in Britain. Generally, Technological level in UK is also appropriate as compare to other nations in the world (Cohen and et.al., 2014). For example, good internet facilities increase the demand of tourism by using strategies of online marketing for the tourist destinations in United Kingdom. This enhances the knowledge of tourism among the citizens. Due to this reason, People of UK are coming on new places for visiting with their family. In addition to this, Hospitality organisations provide quality services in optimistic prices in the tourist destinations. This thing contributes effective role to increase the demand of tourism by increasing frequency of travellers in the United Kingdom. However, government legislation and inefficacy of services create bad impact on the demand of tourism due to high taxes and inappropriate facilities in hospitality which directly affect the performance and productivity of travel and tourism sector in Britain (John and Susan, 2015).
Impact of currency rates- There are many factors like Inflation rate and Gross domestic product which affect the currency rate in the United Kingdom. For example, higher inflation rate and down GDP rate created adverse effect on tourism in 2008 which decreased the demand of tourism due to shortage of monetary funds in nation. Further, people had no money to spend on travel and tourism (Buckley, 2012). Currency rate generated bad impact on TUI group to design hospitality services in the United Kingdom. On the other side, as per the report, present currency rate is effective due to appropriate economic conditions in comparison of previous years in nation. This also helps to increase the demand of tourism in UK.
Political stability- Political condition of United Kingdom is also appropriate for tourism which help to increase its demand. Government of nation gives many efforts to develop this sector in country. In addition to this, Government tourist boards also emphasize to develop new tourist locations to enhance the demand of tourism in United Kingdom. This helps TUI group to develop new services for local and international visitors in Britain (Dickinson, and et.al., 2013). For example, Government of UK also provides proper security from terrorist attacks and other issues of safety in the respect of tourist destinations and public. This thing also increases the demand of tourism in state. However, sometimes, authorities of UK do not manage proper safety which affects negatively on the tourism activities of nation.
Government of UK gives high efforts on accommodation, tour operators as well as quality services to enhance the level of supply in order to meet the demand of travel and tourism.
Accommodation facilities- Government of UK emphasizes to open new hotels and clubs as per the income group of people at various tourist places. These efforts effectively help tourism to meet the demand of tourists in different tourism locations of county. They are also focused on increasing the number of travellers in the nation (Moutinho, 2011). Due to these reasons, travel and tourism sector is increasing as compare to previous years in the United Kingdom. For example, TUI group also provides effective hospitality services to meet the demand of tourists in country.
Tour operators- Government of UK is concentrating to increase tour operators at tourism place. They give appropriate help like loan facilities and effective guidelines to set up their business in the nation. This way, these organisations contribute effective role for tourism to meet demand by providing appropriate services to the travellers in United Kingdom (Navickas and Malakauskaite, 2015). For example, Great British Trips, pathfinders and TUI Group also work as tour operators at tourist places which provide reliable services to visitors in the nation. This type of efforts also help tourism sector to fulfil the demand of tourists in United Kingdom.
Quality- Government of Britain also renders quality services to its visitors at tourist destinations by giving various facilities of food as well as accommodation. This also increases the number of travellers in the nation. Hospitality organizations contribute their effective role in tourism sector to fulfil demand by providing quality services to the travellers in United Kingdom (Evans, Stonehouse and Campbell, 2012). For example, TUI group provides quality facilities like food, beverages, accommodation as well as games to its visitors at tourist destinations which help to meet the demand of tourism in United Kingdom. Organisation also uses quality models like total quality management to meet quality standards in nation.
There are many positive and negative impacts of economic, environmental and social factors which influence the tourism sector in United Kingdom.
Economic factors- There are many economic factors like direct and indirect income, contribution to gross national product and generation of government revenues which is created positive impact on travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom (Surugiu and Surugiu, 2013). For example income of people, growth of GDP and GNP (Gross national product) are increased as comparison of previous years in Britain. These aspects contribute effective role for travel and tourism sector to develop effectively in nation. According to Crouch (2012), employment opportunities, currency fluctuation as well as inflation rates also creates negative impact on the tourism in United Kingdom. For example, employment opportunities do not increased in this sector which creates economic issues for nation. In addition to this, inflation rates also fluctuates which directly impact current GDP of UK (Crouch, 2012). These things generate complexities to develop this sector in a appropriate manner.
Environmental factors- Security and increased of natural areas and increasing environmental awareness by visitors and other communities help to generate positive impact on travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom. These factors play important role to develop and improve this industry in nation. As per the DeLacy and et.al (2012), Security and expansion of natural areas help to manage pollution level and maintain greenery which attract the visitors to visit natural places in nation (DeLacy and et.al., 2012). In addition to this, enhancing environment awareness help to reduce gas emissions and other activities which provides huge advantages to environment of UK. Hall and Page (2014), Infrastructure development and huge expansion of cultural sites are created adverse impact on the climate of Britain because these things destroy natural place to build new infrastructure for tourism in United Kingdom. These aspects are creating negative impact on climate and nation (Hall and Page, 2014).
Social factors- There are many social factors which leaves positive impact on travel and tourism sector. Conservation of cultural heritage and exchange of cultural activities also creates positive impact on the tourism industry to develop nation. Further, preservation of cultural heritage also contribute effective role to secure ancient historical places which attract visitors to visit these kinds of places in United Kingdom (Wilks, Stephen and Moore, 2013). These things help to increase income government as well as travel and tourism sector in nation. In addition to this, exchange of culture provides huge opportunities to know foreign culture in country. It also help to give knowledge of Local of culture of UK to visitors. On the other side, high frequency of foreigners also increases chances of terrorist attacks in United Kingdom (Capriellon and et.al,2013). For example, many terrorist try to damage ancient property of government in last of attacks of country which conducted in 2005. This thing creates negative impact for security agencies in UK. In addition to this, overcrowding people area have major chances to rise the crime due to lack of security which creates problem for authorities to manage security and safety of local and foreign visitors in United Kingdom.
There are many strategies which can be used to negative impacts and maximise the positive impacts in the United Kingdom.
Government of UK should encourage people to increase commercialisation for improving the GDP, GDP and their income. This thing can help to maximise positive impact which can give effective aid to develop tourism sector in United Kingdom. Government of Britain should take suggestions from experts to develop any economic polices. In addition to this, they should encourage private and public organisations to increase export activities which help to maintain inflation rate in the United Kingdom (Surugiu and Surugiu, 2013). This way, government can earn more income from the other nations. As a result, Government of UK will never face shortage of monetary funds. This process can increase employment opportunities due to increased operations of every sector in nation. This way, tourism industry can get effective benefits for its better improvement in United Kingdom.
Government of UK can increase environment awareness by adding the subject as environment in school for students subject. They should encourage climate safety activities like plantation of tree and marathon activities (Hall and Page, 2014). These things help to maximise positive impacts in UK. This process can also creates positive impact on travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom.
Government should make strict laws an regulations to reduce pollution activities in nation. In addition to this, Authorities should stop more infrastructure developments because this process reduce forest and trees in nation (DeLacy and et.al., 2012). This way, government can reduce negative impacts of pollution.
Government of UK should take help of security agencies for safety of historical places in United Kingdom. They should encourage to people of UK to make books and conduct cultural activities to promote their culture front foreign travellers. In addition to this, they should also focus on education activities which help to maximise positive impact in United Kingdom (Hall, Gossling and Scott, 2015). These things can help the tourism industry to develop in a appropriate manner.
Government of Britain can utilize the latest techniques to reduce terrorist attack. So they should follow proper security measures to know about foreign and suspected people in UK. Security agencies should use digital techniques like CCTV camera to monitor activities of people. They should manage database of criminals to know the suspected threat at tourist and other places. This way, they can reduce this type crime activities in United Kingdom. These things contribute effective role to expand travel and tourism operations to generate more revenues in country.
From the report, it is found that structure of travel and tourism sector provide huge reliability to develop in United Kingdom by managing their operations in appropriate manner. Government, sponsored organisations like British tourist authority and international agencies like WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council) help the tourism sector of UK by providing effective guidance to design proper strategies for its effective development. In addition, demographics, technological, currency exchange rates as well as political stability also help to increase demand of travel and tourism sector by enhancing frequency of travellers in UK. It can be concluded that strategies for social, environmental and economic contribute effective role to increase maximise result of positive aspects and decrease impact of negative factors in United Kingdom. It gives huge advantages to travel and tourism sector of UK.
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