Professional Ethics Theory
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Voluntary euthanasia is considered as the practice of finishing off life in a painless way. Voluntary euthanasia, as well as physicians, assisted suicide is majorly focused in terms of greater controversy in the present time. In other words, it means when a person feels to die and says so. It comprises of instances that involve begging for help towards dying, refusal of undesirable medical treatment, asking for a medical treatment which needs to be stopped in life which is being supported by machines to be switched off (Durkheim, 2013). This includes refusal to eat and making a decision to die. When any person performs that act of euthanasia then he/ she is bringing about the death of other people. Such is due to the reason related with belief that latter the present existence is so worst that he can better off dead. Therefore the person's motive to committing an act of euthanasia is in order to provide benefit to the one whose death is being bought about. There is greater importance towards focusing on an aim to benefit the person who is being supported to die as well being is considered as the key value related with the morality of euthanasia (Brooks & Dunn, 2011). The capability of contention which someone can be better off dead is subject towards extensive philosophical deliberation.
Euthanasia has come from two Greek literal meaning that is referred to as well as death. At present, it is considered a mercy killing. On the other hand, it can be referred to as bringing the death of the person painlessly (Grace, 2017). It seems to be the ideal solution for certain kind of individuals especially the one having distressing issues with elders and others. Euthanasia is one of the biggest disputations in the present decade. This simply means death but now this is considered as an act of persuading the painless death of an individual in relation to the reason that can be assumed to be merciful. There is the presence of different forms of euthanasia. Such have been enumerated in the manner as below:
Active and Passive Euthanasia
Underactive euthanasia, an individual is directly as well as deliberately causes the death of a patient. On the contrary passive euthanasia, they are not involved in taking the life of the patient but allows them to die (Dzur, 2008).
Voluntary and Involuntary Euthanasia
Voluntary euthanasia takes place at the request of the individual who dies. However involuntary euthanasia is one that takes place when the individual is unconscious or is not able to make a meaningful selection among the living as well as dying. A further suitable person takes a decision on their behalf.
It is referred to as offering treatment that possesses the side effect of speeding the death of the patient (Luban, 2007).
This is concerned with the cases in which the person who is going to die is required to assist in killing themselves as well as ask on this (Bierhoff, Cohen and Greenberg, 2013). This can be considered simply as attaining the drugs for an individual and keeping it in their reach.
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Eternal law can be defined as one that includes the legislation that governs the phenomena of the eternal universe. It is related to the moral legislation, the legislation associated with nature. It is a law that God has made for the formation of man that he has developed within him for his destination as well as preservation. A biased law is considered as a human law that is not being fixed within endless law. It is considered as a theoretical position which suggest that one can through rational reflection on nature make a discovery of the principles of good and bad that is guiding actions in a manner that would move towards human fulfillment (Dent & Whitehead, 2013). Such a position makes the suggestion that human beings possess the ability in themselves towards actualizing their potential. The natural law ethics reflects respect to natural inclinations. It presents that the universe is being governed by the means of rational thinking. There an orderly manner of things. It can or cannot involved God. There is an existence of just order beside such. The theory presents that human is being governed by natural inclinations. In accordance with the ancient philosophers, one is being driven by such basic inclinations. This is comprised of preserve life, propagating human species, search for truth, possessing a peaceful society. This is being stated that God is behind the eternal plan (Warnick & Silverman, 2011). However, the ancient laws present that there is presence something orderly within the universe. The religious twist is being given by Tomas Aquinas which present that one possess moral obligations in relation to the natural law. Critique has been done that demonstrates that positive views of human. It has been determined that a person is considered rational individuals. It is essential that one is required to be a rational, stable association, apart from what is right or wrong or the one that has a social influence on the behavior of others. A natural law demonstrates discounts of human feelings.
There it seemed to be widespread opinions which state Thomistic ethics, natural law ethics. There is a fact that such is considered correct. St Thomas takes into account that the study is right or wrong within the human action. It possesses something that is referred to as natural law that is considered as the major part (Vanaki & Memarian, 2009). However several philosophers are too simplistic as well as reductionistic within their accounts of Thomistic ethics as well as natural law.
The Thomistic interpretation associated with the natural law is being subjected to a greater range of criticism across the history of philosophy as well as theology. All the ethical theories take place based on the description, implicit or explicit of the associated traits of human nature. This is relatively more sound ethical positions that are on the basis of greater sufficient account of human nature. The contemporary advocates associated with natural law ethics are working in relation to the cultural world that is lacking the consensus attached with the objective basis for more moral claims (Bebeau & Monson, 2008). Natural law is being challenged by the means of historicism and naturalism. Historicism claims that reality is comprised of the individual entity and thus there is greater impossibility towards making a claim that has an application towards all the individual. Both naturalisms, as well as historicism, works with the premise that presents that world is being considered as valueless and purposeless expect during the creation of the values and purpose by the choice of individuals (Abdul-Rahman, Wang & Yap, 2010). There is existence no shared humanity, only a vast gathering of the people from similar kind pieces that are locked in several modes of competition against one another.
Natural law ethics is responding towards such a challenge in a greater number of manner. One of the strategies makes recommendation towards returning to the golden age of natural law. The next approach associated with the natural law lays emphasis upon exercising the practical reason in relation to particular cases of problems. The third revisionist position makes an interpretation that natural law within the light of the historical consciousness makes promotion by the Second Vatican Council (Bowen, Pearl & Akintoye, 2007). Tow other innovative approaches that are associated with natural law includes the new natural law theory as well as personalist natural law theory. A new approach associated with the natural law is being devised partly in opposition to both revisionist natural law as well as revived Thomism.
In moral philosophy, deontology can be considered as the normative moral position that makes the judgment for an action that is based upon rules. Sometimes it is being defined as a task or contract or rule that is based on ethics as rules are binding one towards the duty. Deontology is commonly compared with substantial, virtue morals as well as pragmatic morals. With this technique, the action is considered meaningful in comparison with the consequences (Tirri, 2010). On the basis of the system, deontological values in the consideration is a moral obligation which raised from the internal and external source like a set of the rules that is intrinsic to the universe, religious legislation, or set of personal or cultural ethics.
Deontological values are considered as an ethical theory. It is successful in maintaining the sacred writings, natural ethical law as well as inner intuitions. The word deontological has come into view from the Greek word, referred to as deon that implies binding duty. Deontological ethics possess three most essential features. Initially, it presents that duty needs to do for the sake of duty (Corvo, Dutton & Chen, 2009). The accurateness and in-accurateness that is related to the actor rule come as a part of a matter of moral feature that is intrinsic of such kind of act or rule. Examples can be an act of lying, promise, breaking or murder which are wrong and one possesses the duty to do such things.
It does not demonstrate whether consequences with the act are not relevant for the assessment of those acts (Brooks & Dunn, 2011). For instance, a doctor can possess the duty of providing benefits to the patient. It is important that they must know the result of the medical consequences from several treatments for the sake of making a determination of what can and cannot be the advantages of the patient. However, the consequences are not something that makes the action right as in the case with its advantage. Instead at best results assist in determining the action which is more in keeping with what is considered as the duty (Banks, 2009). The results act as an aid in determining what is the duty, they are not what makes something one's duty. On the other hand, it is being featured that humans are treated as objects that belong to the inherent moral values, that is as an end within themselves and never as scant refers to some other end. This kind of notion is difficult to be justified if one is deserting the scriptural doctrine of the man being developed in God's image. Nevertheless, deontological ethics indicates that humans are ends within themselves in inherent values.
Another moral fundamental that can be considered as a categorical imperative that is universalizable is that is it applies for everyone who is in the same moral condition. The moral statements do not refer that whether in case she wants to maximize the pleasure vs pain in this instance, then perform the following. Instead of moral statements are statements asserting whether an action is right or wrong. Moral statements focus on keeping the promises and do not murder and so forth.
Deontology is considered as an inquiry which can be further considered as a commitment or study and consequent moral judgment on the actor on whether he or she has followed that. Philosophy and religion are considered as an essential part among the lentic as well as epistemic authority. A common example includes epistemic authority which demonstrates the relation of the teacher and his students (Quinn, 2014). Along with this, a typical example associated with lentic authority comes between the employer and his employee. While making declarative sentences, a teacher possesses epistemic authority which the students are presuming reliable knowledge and are suitable. However, there is no feeling related to acceptance and obeying. In contrast, an employer possesses lentic authority within the act of making the issuance of order which the individual is obliged towards making acceptance or obeying. On the other side, the employer possesses deontic authority for the act of making the issuance of order which the employee is obliged towards making acceptance and obeying regardless of its appropriateness.
There is the presence of a number of formulations that are attached with deontological ethics:
Kantianism- This theory related to ethics is considered as deontological for varied reasons. It has been argued that the act is morally in the right manner and an individual is required to perform from duty (Durkheim, 2013).
Moral autocracy- Regardless of the intention beside them and consequences, Certain deontologists are moral dictators who believe that some actions are absolutely right or wrong.
Angelic Command Theory Not all the deontologists are considered religious, certainly, take it as divine command theory. It is the cluster which is attached to the related hypothesis that demonstrates that action will be considered right in case God has decreed it as correct.
Contemporary Deontology- This is considered as an effort that has been derived from deontological constraints that cohere with considered judgments of the cases when depending majorly on the Kant's categorical imperative.
Distributive justice is the allocation of goods in a society. It includes the available quantities of goods, the process of distributing goods, and finally the allocation of the goods to the members of the society. Thus, distributive justice is perceived fairness that how rewards and costs are shared by the distributed or group members. For example: In an organization when workers are work in the same occupation but do not get the same salary, in this group members believes that it does not right and does not provide any kind of justice in an organization. For determining the position of distributive justice, individual checking out the norms of their groups is compulsory. A norm can be termed as a standard of behavior that is essential within a particular group (Greenberg and Cohen, 2014).
Equity- The result of members is based on the inputs. So that individual to make a higher contribution can get higher input, for example, Time, Money, Energy, etc. Here, members of a large group related to the base allocation of rewards and cost on equity (Lamont, 2017).
Equality- In the equality norm, it refers that every member has an equal right to get equal cost and rewards. For example: In an organisation, if a person contributes only 30% then such person receive 3000 increments in their salary and on the other hand, a person who gives 70% contribution will also receive 3000 increments in the salary, which is not a part of equality. Hence there will be equal chances to receive equal opportunities in an organization (Hough, Jackson and Bradford, 2013).
Power- Power includes control, authority, the status of group members in the workplace. For example, a Higher majority of group members gets the higher authority, status and control in comparison of those who have less majority which receives less power, authority, control or status in a workplace (Bierhoff, Cohen and Greenberg, 2013).
Requirement- Resources should be provided to those who are in greatest needs so that they can meet their needs. They should be given more resources than those who already possess them, regardless of their input.
Responsibilities- Responsibility is control which refers to group members who have shared their resources with those who have less.
Distributive Justice affects the performance when efficiency and productivity are included in it. To make improvement in the justice perception is making a positive impact on the performance, this performance is also increased. Hence, Distributive justice theory argues on the fact that in the time of need, societies have a duty to individuals and that all individuals have a duty to help others in need. Supporters of distributive justice link it to human rights. Distributive justice issues are handled by many governments especially issues including countries with ethnic tensions and geographically distinctive minorities (Lamont and Favor, 2013).
Hence, distributive justice is focused on the just distribution of societal burdens and benefits. Any given society with limited resources has only a certain amount of assorted benefits which it can bestow in a number of different ways on its members (Tedeschi, 2013).
This can be concluded that a person who has been diagnosed with the terminal illness needs to be offered with time and provided with the support for the sake of passing through five stages within the process. This is comprised of denial, anger, bargaining, acceptance, depression as well as killing. This situation can be considered a form of murder. It is being determined that patients having incurable illness sees suicide as the option. As they are the one who is tired of pain or are of restricted lifestyle. They possess the feeling that is attached to a burden upon their family. This can be inferred from the study that person's motive to committing an act of euthanasia is in order to provide benefit to the one whose death is being bought about. There is greater importance towards focusing on an aim to benefit the person who is being supported to die as well being is considered as the key value related to the morality of euthanasia.
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