Principles And Practices Of Leadership And Management

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Introduction

Leadership is the main function that helps individual to develop his practical skill and lead or guide other individuals, teams or whole organization. They are the person who set direction in order to inspire people and develop a vision so that desired objectives can be attained. However, management of firm is required to implement effective leadership theory such as contingency or trait leadership so that it can be implemented in order to obtain flexible style of working at organization (Tricker, 2015). Furthermore, it is essential for leaders to undertake different skills and competencies of leading such as motivation, flexible working and trustworthy etc. All these skills help in developing a strategic advantage for the organization in order to cope with the requirements and help them in developing the spirit of competitiveness

In the present essay, PepsiCo foods Mexico, Director of Consumer Strategic Insights (CSI), Mr. Jorge Rubio wants to change his part into a more flexible style of organization and bring swiftness and creativity in the marketing research department similar to the CSI. Thus, for this they carried out a qualitative research based upon consumers. In order to undertake this, Jorge dcRubio is adopting different leadership characteristics such as fast, flexibility, trustworthy, efficient and focused upon customers etc, in order to provide benefits to consumers and attain desired objectives (Newman and Jennings, 2012). Apart from this, Jorge Rubio also undertakes different leadership theories in order to make flexibility working within the department. Thus, CSI department undertake transformational leadership theory in order to bring flexibility within the enterprise.

Transformational Leadership Theory

It can be evaluated that this theory was introduced in 1970's in regard to identify the process through which an individual is able to develop interaction with one another so that effective relationship can be build. However, it also helps business to develop a high percentage of trustworthy relationship among employees so that common goals can be attained. Hence, with the help of same, it helps in boosting the motivation level (intrinsic and extrinsic) of both leaders and subordinates so that it helps in bringing flexibility within the operations of firm (Alsagoff and et.al., 2012). However, it is essential for modern leaders to take different factors into consideration and also involve their followers in regard to make effective decision making. It helps in encouraging individual so that active participation can be involved within enterprise. Leaders are required to consider the ideas and opinions of workers so that they feel encouraged and thus help in enhancing the productivity of firm.

Main aim of implementing transformation leadership theory is that leaders are required to alter their followers by using attractive nature and personalities. Transformational leadership theory is highly flexible in nature and thus business is required to adopt it so that best targets can be attained. Through this theory, it can be assessed that a transformational leader possess diverse quality, attributes and behaviour that in turn helps individual to stimulate and encourage their subordinates and followers to work hard towards achieving organizational goals. It also helps firm to develop a democratic vision so that objectives can be attained effectively. Transformational leaders also help the member of the team in order to connect them to other individuals so that set goals can be achieved (Lawrence and Murray, 2013). With the help of this theory which states that leaders are required to develop, influence and encourage each and every individual of the team and direct them to achieve organizational goals, various positive outcomes can be gained. Thus, within transformational leadership which involves a direct relationship between employees and leaders, a good bonding can be created.

Transformational leadership theory is also stated as the modern leadership theory which helps leaders to involve each individual in the decision making process and ascertain their ideas and thoughts so that effective decision can be taken. Involving different individuals helps in building trust and encouragement of employees so that set targets can be attained. It is also essential for leaders to consider the ideas of subordinates so that they feel valuable and satisfy their needs (Straf and Citro, 2013).

Leadership Skills

It involves different leadership skills which are required by leader in order to make marketing research department more effective and flexible as of Consumer Strategic Insights. It is essential for leader to build personal, communication and thinking skills. Within personal skills, it is essential for leader to possess a quality to influence and encourage him as well as others so that team goals can be attained. Leaders should possess the skills in regard to develop the habit of self management and self mastery so that desired objectives can be attained. Another skill which is required to build a leader is thinking skill. It is essential for leader to posses the capability of assessing different situations and then plan different strategies so that desired goals can be attained (Ovaska, Cinotti and Toninelli, 2012). Also, it is essential for leader to identify different problems and thus develop innovative thinking in order to build experience, ideas and innovation. Further, communication is another skill which is required by leaders to bring flexibility in the marketing department of organization. Leader is also required to be active in order to enhance presentation and listening skills.

Thus, developing all these skills helps in enhancing an individual and helping to become a leader. In regard to given case study, Mr. Jorge Rubio is required to adopt different skills and competencies so that he can bring flexibility within the market research department. Apart from this, the availability of leadership skills is not enough in order to bring flexibility within business but they also need to undertake effective leadership competencies such as managing self, people, projects, programs and leading organization etc. to gain goals (Gonzales and Lambert, 2014).

Managing self- Leader is required to become capable so that they can manage themselves. It is essential for individual to be honest and ethical in order to carry out the actions. They should also develop interpersonal and communication skills so that they are able to solve the problems effectively (Terry, 2015).

Managing people and projects- It is also essential for leaders to develop the ability in order to manage the people and projects effectively. Leaders should possess the capability so that proper staffing requirements can be fulfilled to manage the conflicts within enterprise.

Managing programs and organization- However, in regard to become effective leader, it is essential for individual to manage the programs and develop technical capability so that innovation can be attained within firm. Further, leaders are also required to effectively develop their skills and thus lead the organization so that vision can be attained (Larson, Van Rossum and Schmidt, 2014).

However, if leaders are not able to follow proper leadership skills, then it creates conflicts within the organization and also employees feel de-motivated. Therefore, it is essential for leaders to solve the issues and make effective decisions so that productivity can be enhanced. There are different types of leadership being followed within firm-

Authentic leadership- It is the style that helps the leaders to highly emphasise upon developing the honest and trustworthy relationship among leaders and followers. However, leaders with positive attitude help in achieving the desired objectives of the firm (Northouse, 2016).

Servant leadership- Here, it assesses that individuals are provided with different tasks in order to create the better organizational outcomes. Thus, it is essential for leaders to satisfy the desires of their followers so that they can be satisfied and achieve desired objectives.

Apart from this, there are three different types of skills which are required in order to obtain a successful leadership. It involves technical, human and conceptual skills. As per technical skills, there requires the ability in individual to carry out proper scientific and mathematical operations so that specific task can be fulfilled (Whetten and Cameron, 2011). Furthermore, human skills states that leader should possess effective communication skill that helps them to be capable enough in order to handle their followers and thus manage the activities effectively. Also, conceptual skills are required to indicate the managers that they need to be capable to developing different concepts and ides and overcome the problems effectively.

Ethical Requirements In Leadership

Leaders of PepsiCo are required to be ethical to every consumer and employee so that best relationship can be developed. Leaders are required to be ethical so that they can direct other employees to behave ethically while performing their roles and responsibilities. Ethical leadership indicates that leaders are following different legal rules and regulations in order to manage diverse work practices (Roe, 2014).

Competency Framework Of Leadership

It can be assessed that competency framework helps in focusing upon the three different levels of management and are-

  • Team leaders and supervisors- They play crucial role in managing business operations so that desired targets can be attained.
  • Service managers- Such employees are entitled to bring day-to-day operational management in regard to focus upon the strategic beliefs and aspects (Sharma and Jain, 2013).
  • Junior and middle level managers- Here, they need to look upon the diverse activities for strategic work practices so that desired task can be accomplished.

This particular model helps in developing an effective management so that strategic aims and objectives can be attained. It is also a vital strategy in order to drive cultural change within business and thus PepsiCo helps in improving their performance through emphasising on the innovative procedures and ideas (Tricker, 2015). It helps in focusing upon the employee behavioural aspects in order to bring changes in diverse leadership and business perspectives.

Skills Model Of Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding And Jacobs

It is also known as capability model which helps in demonstrating the relationship between the leader's proficiency and skills so that performance of individual can be enhanced. However, it helps in emphasizing upon the capabilities of individual so that effective leadership skills can be developed (Newman and Jennings, 2012). The components of model are as follows-

  • Individual characteristics
  • Leadership results
  • Competencies
  • Career experience and growth
  • Environmental influences

Skill Model Components

Following are the components of skill model which are as follows-

Job affection- Affection for job comes within leaders and managers at the time when they get emotionally attached with the company and contribute their efforts in order to achieve diverse objectives and goals (Ovaska, Cinotti and Toninelli, 2012).

Fear of losing- Here, the leaders are at a confusing state at the time when they are planning to leave the job. It is because; they are emotionally attached and they possess a fear of receiving similar benefits which this particular job has given to them.

Sense of staying- In such type of commitment, employees feel a sense of obligation so that they posses better opportunities to influence individual to carry out their desired targets (Straf and Citro, 2013).

Importance Of Change And How Important It Is To Leadership

It is essential for individual to implement change within business so that essential transformation can be managed in order to attain success. However, leadership plays a critical role in change management as it helps in directing the employees to adopt new processes and achieve organizational goals. Change helps in improving the productivity of the firm and also helps in enhancing the leadership qualities of individual so that best results can be attained (Terry, 2015). Thus, in order to bring change within firm; it is essential for business enterprise to augment growth and success in order to implement effective leadership within organization.

Myers Briggs Indicator Personality Types

Within Myers Briggs Type Indicator, it is a self report questionnaire which assists in designing and indicating psychological preferences regarding the ways through which people understand the world and also makes effective decisions. It involves several indicators on the basis of which personality of leaders can be assessed (Alsagoff and et.al., 2012)-

  • Extrovert- It is the individual that expresses things by developing proper communication.  
  • Introvert- It is the person who does not prefer to talk much and also keep themselves reserved.
  • Observant- They analyze these things through sensing it and defining the objectives to attain results (Northouse, 2016).

How Different Leadership Skills And Types Are Needed In Different Situations

It is essential for leaders to undertake effective leadership style so that organization can work within different situations. Leaders using autocratic leadership style should switch towards democratic leadership style so that effective results can be attained. However, in regard to manage employee, encouragement within firm is essential for leaders to choose democratic leadership style in order to engage more workers and satisfy their needs. Furthermore, if democratic leadership style is adopted then it raises problems of maintaining disciplinary aspects among workers and thus; it is essential for leaders to posses different skills and styles in order to gain desired results (Gonzales and Lambert, 2014).

CONCLUSION

At the end, it can be articulated that business is required to undertake effective leadership theory and skills so that desired objectives can be attained. Leaders need to build communication, interpersonal and technical skills so that flexibility within enterprise can be attained. For this purpose, use of some models such as Mumford skills development model and 3 skills Katz model enables to derive lucrative results to the organization. Mumford skills development model includes components like individual characteristics, competencies, leadership results as well as career experience and growth which enhance the leadership qualities and capabilities of a leader. Further, from the above study, it can be assessed that Katz 3 skills model is an integrated approach in which leaders escalate their efficiency in three areas that are technical, human and conceptual skills. These are prerequisites for effective leadership.

REFERENCES

  • Alsagoff, L. and et.al., 2012. Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language. Routledge.
  • Gonzales, S. and Lambert, L., 2014. Teacher leadership in professional development schools: Emerging conceptions, identities, and practices. Journal of School Leadership. 11(1). pp.6-24.
  • Larson, E., Van Rossum, W. M. and Schmidt, P., 2014. The Dutch Confession: Compliance, Leadership and National Identity in the Human Rights Order. Utrecht Law Review. 10(1). pp.96-112.
  • Lawrence, B. and Murray, L., 2013. Practitioner-Based Enquiry: Principles and Practices for Postgraduate Research. Routledge.
  • Newman, P. and Jennings, I., 2012. Cities as sustainable ecosystems: principles and practices. Island Press.
  • Northouse, P. G., 2016. Leadership theory and practice. 7th ed. London: Sage.
  • Ovaska, E., Cinotti, T. S. and Toninelli, A., 2012. The design principles and practices of interoperable smart spaces. Advanced Design Approaches to Emerging Software Systems: Principles, Methodology and Tools. pp.18-47.
  • Roe, K., 2014. Leadership: Practice and Perspectives. Gosport: Oxford University.
  • Straf, M. L. and Citro, C. F., 2013. Principles and practices for a federal statistical agency. National Academies Press.
  • Terry, L. D., 2015. Leadership of public bureaucracies: The administrator as conservator. Routledge.
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