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Primary education system of UK is facing a problem of lack of performance of children and which affect the growth and development of the country. So, author has decided to conduct study on determining different factors which can decline the performance of primary education Children UK. Major objective of this research is to determine reason of the poor performance and impact of parental involvement in primary education children.
Further focus will also be given on effectiveness of teachers and learning methods in performance of students. Author has applied a systematic process for whole investigation which comprise literature review, research methodology and data analysis, etc. Including this, author has collected facts and figures using primary and secondary data collection methods. These collected data has analyzed by thematic and statistical analysis methods.
Findings of the analysis have reflected that major factors which affect performance of primary education of children include Higher number of students in a single section, Single parent students, Use of traditional methods of learning, Incompetent teachers and Lack of parental involvement. Along with this, research has also concluded that effective involvement of parents in education helps in improving performance of children and vice versa.
In addition, study has disclosed that teach and learning methods of UK is not capable enough to improve overall performance. So, education system of UK needs to focus on improving qualities of teachers as well as have to use the following methods of learning such as Learning centered approach, Digital classrooms and learning methods, Play and learn, Involvement of students, Observation method and EPPSE (Effective Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Method).
Improving the learning outcomes of primary school students is one of the biggest challenge for education system. It is very difficult to improve the performance of every students due to the different associated negative factors. The current research project is based on the similar subject and wants to determine the different factors which contribute in the low performance of the primary education performance of students (Adolphus, Lawton and Dye, 2013).
This problem in highly increasing in the UK so, researcher has chosen he primary education students of UK. For conducting investigation author will follow a very systematic process which will comprise different stages such as analysis of the research problem, review of literature, selection of appropriate tools and methods of research methodology and analysis and interpretation of the collected data. The whole process will help in completing the investigation in effective manner as well as also plays very important role in making a final conclusion for the research report.
Literature review is an assessment of academic papers which contain current information with essential findings. It includes theoretical and methodological contribution of that specific study for better understanding and meaningful discovery. The information for literature review is gathered from the secondary sources on the basis of past researches and surveys.
The literature review is on the low performing children in primary schools and the factors behind it. The reason for applying it is to find the loopholes behind the improper performance and to implement right strategies for improvement of students, teachers and schools. It consists of proper critical analysis on the primary education, impact of parents on students, effectiveness of appropriate learning methods and teachers for improving performance of primary students. In the end of literature review, there is research gap which explains crack between the researches with the reason behinds this review including effective key findings and measures.
As per view points of Hollowell, 2016 “Primary education is the one that ranges from grade 1 to six. The emphasis of primary education is on giving a vhild a storng foundation with more emphasis towards reading and mathematics’ (Hollowell, 2016). Primary education is introduced for eight years and the age of children for joining primary schools is from 6 to 13 years.
It has further been found by Alexandar, Gray and Doddington, 2012 that “Age of children for taking admission in primary schools plays essential role for their overall development’ (Alexandar, Gray and Doddington, 2012). As per this, government decides the age by evaluating all the factors which helps in improvement and development of skills and knowledge. But it is still a known fact that Schools are taking admission of those children who are less then the decided age limit which is the main reason behind the low performance of students.
For knowing the student habits Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007, have researched by forming two groups C and D and found that “94% of students in group C read for their enjoyment whereas in D it is only 62% and 59% of students in group D reads comics once a week whereas in C it is only 22%” (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007). From this statement, it is clear that different students have different habits and interest. For their development primary schools needs to use different learning methods as per their habits and area of interest.
Nsamenang and Tchombé, 2012 has found that “Poor academic knowledge of teachers, improper supervision, unsuitable techniques and methods are reasons behind the poor performance” (Nsamenang and Tchombé, 2012). In continue to this statement, large sizes of classes, burden of homework, having single parent and may more factors affects the performance of students.
As per Sousa, 2009 “Poor performance of students are related to the various factors which includes student related, teacher related, school related and family related factors Student related factors includes learning disability, physical disability and less motivation which results to low performance in their schools” (Sousa, 2009).
In the same context Meece, Anderman and Anderman, 2006, have stated that “Before applying the strategies or techniques to improve the performance school needs to determine the factors which are the reason behind it” (Meece, Anderman and Anderman, 2006).
Teacher related factors and found that “Lack of experience, improper knowledge of required field, classroom management problem, lack of communication skills and lack of creativeness and innovativeness leads to low results in the end. “School related factors affects more the performance of students as compare to the other factors as it includes improper equipments, use of old techniques, ineffective management and maintenance, less umber of teachers, etc (Huntley, Luna and Kaiser, 2012)”
As per the above statement, if schools do not have sufficient equipment and techniques than it affects the working and performance of skilled teachers as they are not able to give their best for developing children. In this regard it is further true that it is the prime responsibility of schools to provide all facilities which are essential for both teachers and students which results to better outcomes (Spaull, 2013). In some countries approximate 1000 primary schools are failed to achieve their targets and these schools later face take over, closure or converted into an academy.
Schools are focusing on earning profit rather than developing children as the results they are playing with the future of students and country as well (Luo and et.al., 2012). Government needs to change their educational policies and procedures which look after both the issues i.e. profit earning and development of pupils. Martorell, 2012 has asserted that “Government is planning and applying development plans and also upped its educational spendings from 8% of total budget to 23% (Martorell, 2012). As per the above statements, government is trying very hard for improving the condition of students and schools. They are building schools in rural areas with all facilities, hiring skilled teachers, providing training to them and maintaining roads in rural areas.
Involvement of parents in any sought of work gives measurable gains in student's life. Parental involvement is essential in student's life and their schools as it results to produce great rewards (Yi and et.al., 2012). Parental involvements includes two major factors which are level of commitment (encouraging, motivating and understanding students, ) and active participation (activities, parent meetings, parents day, etc. As per this statement, the combination of both the factors results to effective parent involvement which improves performance and skills of students (Bridges, 2013).
Too much involvement of parents makes children dependent which somewhere affects their thought process, decision making power, lifestyle etc (Goose and et.al., 2012).” In context of this Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007, have said that “Parents should involve in only those activities where they find their child in some problem so that their child does not feel dependent” (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007). As per these statements, parents involvement is necessary but they should not be over protective and cared as it results to affect their performance and makes them dependent.
Now a days, parents are more aware of the school policies which results to affect the education of their children. Parents have proper information regarding the child development which later use in motivating their children and also makes them to less punish their children. 95% of students perform well in their exams when they get help of their parents in completing homework (Gentile and et.al., 2014). By conducting research among English students of age limit from 5 to 16 years. 71% parents involve themselves in the activities of their children in primary schools which later declines as children move towards higher classes (Pancer, Nelson, Hasford and Loomis, 2013).
Sometimes school do not welcome parents which later results to feeling of unimportant and unappreciated. The issues of all these statements leads to lack of parental involvement. Some other issues are embarrassment, illiteracy, unable to speak English, memories of parent's failure in their school times and many more which prevents parents to take participate in their children's activities and studies.
Learning-centred teaching is well known teaching method in which students plays essential role in enhancing their knowledge and teachers only guide them so that students can handle the tasks independently. As per this statement, for effective implementation of learner centred method, it is important to provide effective training to the teachers.
On the other hand Moyles, Georgeson and Payler, 2011, have found that “Primary schools of some countries such as Kenya are still using old traditional methods for developing their students” (Moyles, Georgeson and Payler, 2011). Schools resist to change and due to this they feel themselves comfortable in following old traditional methods. In contrast of these statements, schools are need to use effective learning methods which can help students in fast and easy learning.
By obtaining observation learning approach teachers are able to monitor the performance of each and every student and this makes them to give more emphasis to low performers (Spaull, 2013). Observation leads to student curiosity, questioning, innovation and feedbacks which results to better development and learning. These statements are explaining the effectiveness of learning methods for improving the performance of students.
Use of information technology (IT) in learning methods give more effective and better result. As per these statements, IT plays important role in betterment of teaching techniques and learning methods and results to effective development of students and teachers both.
Primary schools are providing effective training to teachers for improving their management skills, communication skills, knowledge, creativeness and problem handling skills. Pre-service training and In-service training helps in improving the skills and capabilities of teachers. Teachers are classified into three categories which are highly effective, effective and moderately effective which helps in understanding the efforts and performance of teachers. These statements shows the effectiveness of teachers in development of student's skills, abilities and knowledge with the better performance.
Experienced teachers are more helpful in providing appropriate and effective knowledge to the students. Experience makes teachers to use effective strategies as per the habits and interest of primary students which makes them enjoy their studies. In favour of these statements, experience leads to enhance the knowledge, skills and management capabilities which results in proper handling of primary students and their problems.
Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007, have researched that “For hiring talented and skilled teachers primary schools are taking three phase of interviews which are background interview, concept mapping interview and personal construct interview” (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2007). Concept interview is for exploring the knowledge and their concepts related to their specific field. Personal construct interviews are for exploring the extra skills, creativeness, beliefs and behaviour of teachers. As per these statements, hiring of appropriate teacher also helps in effective learning and development of primary students (Spaull, 2013).
It is found that there are various factors which are affecting the performance of primary students. Primary schools needs to adopt latest techniques for improving their learning methods also that students take studies as fun rather than burden. Hiring of skilled, experienced and talented teachers also helps in handling the problems of students and helps them in improving performance of students by applying best strategies. Parental involvement in school and studies of students results to great achievements and rewards. But too much involvement makes children dependent which is not good for their development.
Some countries are still using old and traditional methods as they resist to change whereas some are applying new techniques to their schedule for meeting the targets. Numbers of researches are available on the topic of primary students and their performance but no research is conducted on the students of UK which is a big research gap. And due to the unavailability of appropriate surveys and researches on the performance of primary students of UK, so researcher has select this subject for further investigation.
It is a process to collect information and data to conduct a research based on a particular theme. In order to conduct research on the factors that are contributing to low performance in primary education in UK, different kind of tools and techniques have been applied. It is necessary to determine the reasons to degrading the quality of education of primary students (Kriz, Gummesson and Quazi, 2013).
A research philosophy is a belief about the technique and methods, for collecting data for a theme. It consists of gathering and analysing the data gathered for the research (Li, Zhao and Chen, 2012). It helps in understanding the objectives of the research and attracts reader's attention towards the object and subject of the research. There are positivist and interpretivism approach to identify the philosophy based on particular research. For identifying factors affecting the educational system in UK researcher will use positivism philosophy.
It will be applied by researcher because it focuses on the main objective of the study and not on the subjective content. Thus, the researcher will able to accumulate all the related content to the main objective of the research. Positivism will be appropriate for knowing the factors that are affecting education in UK (McMillan and Schumacher, 2014). It is based on the knowledge derived from the sensory experiences of a human. Thus it will prove to beneficiary to use positivist theory in order to understand the factors affecting education in UK.
A research design refers to the blueprint of all the components used to conduct a research. It is basically the outline of how the research findings will be done. Research design will play an important role in in generating findings that will in concluding the basis of the research done on the factors affecting performance of education in UK (Sunil and et.al, 2014). There are three types of research design i.e. experimental, descriptive and cause-effect. Thus to conduct the finding researcher will use descriptive design this will be a reasonable method, that will help in identifying the relevant answers of the question as to “what, how, when and why” of a research problem.
Research approach is used to test the validity of the findings of various other researchers or in developing in new theory to the research theme. Inductive and deductive approach are used for the research (Bhattacharyya, 2009). In order to find the factors that are the major factors in lowering the performance of primary education, deductive approach will be used. This approach will be helpful in finding the measures and concepts of old findings and theories.
This theory is justified to be used in the given theme by the author as it will identify the cogency of the old findings and research, whether they are appropriate or not. It will help the researcher in completion of investigation which will be specific to the object of the research. This approach will highlight the educational system of UK and the factors that are responsible for bringing in low performance to the theme (Daniel and Sam, 2011). Thus, it is the right approach towards identifying the research problem and will enable the author in completing hypothesis that will lead towards finding factors resulting in low performance in primary education.
Techniques are applied to a research as they will guide the author in finding relevant solution to the research problem. In this research, as the primary education is facing issue of low performance, a combined strategy will be helpful in concluding findings of the research (Fiegen, 2010). Thus to conduct the research both qualitative and quantitative technique will be used by the author. Qualitative helps in describing each detail of the problem and solution to the research finding.
Quantitative on the other hand, is beneficial in assessing data that will allow the research to conduct a feasible study to the problem of low performance in primary education of UK. The combination of the above technique will enable the research to complete a valuable and justifiable findings about the research problem. It will be effective in understanding the subjective concept as well as the quantitative part of the research (Flick, 2011). Thus, combined strategy to apply qualitative and quantitative technique will be appropriate in attaining findings for the research theme.
Collection of data is a technique to gather and measure information on variables that will enable the researcher to answer the question arising in a research problem (Goddard and Melville, 2004). Data collections assist the author to research for the data that will help in evaluating the findings of the research. There are two types of method used to collect data i.e. primary and secondary. The application of both of the method has varied according to the type and nature of the research. Primary research is a process of collecting the actual facts and figures by the researcher regarding the particular subject. The benefit of this approach is easily target the issues, better data interpretation, hight level surety of data reliability and accuracy etc.
To identify the factors that are causing bad performance in the education system of UK, a combine method will not be be applied. The information regarding the give issues will be gather from various secondary sources. Secondary data is collected by other than the researcher himself/herself (Kumar, 2014). The main sources of these are journals, websites, books and etc. These cannot be termed as authentic as these are framed by some other person, but after analysis the relevance of the source it is adequate to use these into a report.
The reason behind using secondary source of data by the researcher to address the research is it is economical and increase the understanding of the investigator towards the study. The data which will be collect by the researcher from different secondary sources will be easy to access and feasible that help in generating new insights. Therefore, secondary data collection method will justified the research finding on the factors contributing to performance crisis of primary education in UK.
The major limitation that may arise during a research are the management of cost and time factors. There may be instances when the budget of the research increase or the time might be less as per the content of the theme (Li, Zhao and Chen, 2012). These factors contribute to generate limitations for a researcher and may affect the quality of the research as well. Thus to reduce these, the researcher will have to properly manage the research so as to not increase the cost and time of the searches. Lack in experience of conducting a research may disrupt the quality and content of the research.
Thus the author will make sure that he/she gains appropriate experience before conducting a research. Thus the author will be able to generate in depth and accurate to the standards of a research. Along with this the researcher must have supplement knowledge about the methods and techniques used in a research to eliminate limitation that may occur due to poor knowledge (Ye and Lai, 2012). By applying these above methods the researcher will eliminate the risk of limitation that may hamper research findings.
As per the discussion of the research methodology researcher will apply appropriate techniques for analyzing collected data. Thematic analysis will be used by researcher for examining subjective facts and figures (Adolphus, Lawton and Dye, 2013). In contrast, researcher will use the statistical methods well be used by author for examining statistical facts and figures of the organization. Analysis of the collected data is as under
Theme 1: Major reasons behind the poor academic performance of primary education children in UK
From the different literature reviews, author has disclosed that there are different factors of the education system and environment of students which affect the academic performance of children. The literature review has showed that lack of parental involvement is major negative factor. On the other hand, some evidence of the different researches has shown that large number of students in single class, traditional and ineffective methods of learning are also considered as major factors of the poor performance. In addition, the researcher has concluded from various studies that single parents, incompetent teachers and low performance in particular subjects are also major factors which can affect the academic performance of primary education students. Therefore, from the above discussion, it can be concluded that there are some major reasons of poor academic performance of primary education children of UK. These reasons are such as large number of students in a single class, use of traditional method of learning, lack of parent involvement etc
Theme 2: Major qualities which are required for an effective teacher of primary education children in UK
LR has concluded that teachers of primary education students of UK must have appropriate capabilities to improve performance of students, so, author has included this question in questionnaire. After collecting facts and analysis, researcher has found that skills and knowledge, training and development and qualifications are major qualities which are required in teacher. The lack of any skill in the educator has affected its knowledge power. The result of this is activity is he has not effectively deliver the quality education to the primary students. Along with this, the researcher has also found from the studies of the different literature reviews that patience, problem solving attitude and effective behavior are also required for an effective teacher. Therefore, being an effective teacher in a primary school, the educator has required some special and common qualities.
The research concludes that there are various factors that are contributing to low performance of education in primary field in UK. This is because children are performing poorly in their academics. This is due to the fact that there are traditional methods of teaching and learnings used in the classes. It was found that these methods are outdated and do not relate to the advanced structure of the coursework pro-founded for primary classes. The research found that low parental involvement with children has led to the poor performance as well. There is low involvement of parents as there are high number of teenage and single parents who are not able to provide eminent time for the kids education after school hours.
Parents do not pay attention to their wards and in many cases it was evident that this affected the quality of homework and assignment carried out by the child. From the research was relevant that non availability of effective methods of learning lead to poor academic performance in primary education. This was due to the reason that teachers were not qualified up to the standards of primary level. They did not possess skills that were necessary requires to teach primary student. Thus it can be concluded that the above factors lead to poor performance. Further recommendations are presented to improve the performance of primary classes.
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