Child development go through different stages and incorporates biological, psychological and emotional changes. This period remains form the time of birth till the end of adolescence. Other than this, with the use of parental training or other other factors can promote child development (Milteer, Ginsburg and Mulligan, 2012). Basically it is a continuous process define predictable sequence having specific course for child. In this, parents play vital role in child development and their life as well by providing them quality of their care. Along with this, it is important to effectively understand cognitive, emotional and educational development of children. Present report is based on different case studies about the child development.
Case Study 1: Gender Differences in Development
Consider the experiences of Thomas and Ella and the relevance of these experiences for 10-12 year old children.
The present case study is highlighting the gender differences in height and weight of children of around 10-12 years of age. According to the case study, it can be depicted that Thomas; an 11 year old boy is having short height problem. He is also among the smallest students in its class. He is also having a small brother who is 9 years old but the height of both brothers is nearly same. This factor has also brought inferiority complex in the mind of Thomas but to overcome this, he has found a way and that is cracking jokes in class or speaking in loud volume so that he can be noticed as well. Thomas has also joined karate classes along with his best friend Harry so that they can become more powerful.
Another personality discussed here is of Ella who is studying in 5th class and is also the tallest girl in her class. She is very self-conscious and takes care of herself very well. But since there are various kinds of complications a girl has to go through while at a growing age so Ella was facing the same. The incident that happened with her related to menstruation was very embarrassing and her mother also didn't allow her to come to school during these days. Ella is also frustrated with all this and wants to leave the school forever (Tabors and Patton, 2014).
Normally, children under this age face these kinds of problems as they face various kinds of developments inside their body. From a research conducted, it was known that from age three, girls spend most of their time in working while boys spend more of their time for play so their body development also happens in different manner. So, it is not a big issue and both Thomas and Ella should give some time to this or their parents should provide them good counselling associated with this.
Provisions for stresses associated with the early stages of puberty.
Puberty can be defined as the stage in which significant changes in the body of every individuals. When these kinds of changes happens in a person, they go through a shocking period as they do not know what is happening to them. It gives a feeling of stress as well as embarrassment to the individuals and they stop meeting people as well (Rush and Shelden, 2011).
Teachers are required to provide good guidance to the students and make them understand that it is now a part of their life and it happens with each and every person. IN case of Thomas, he is not growing so this is giving him the stress and because of this only he is not able to get mixed with people of his age. In case of Ella, she has faced menstruation for the first time and she was very shocked by this. It is obvious that every girl will go into shock if something likes this happens with them for the first time. So, these kinds of stress happens to an individual when they are their in their early stages of puberty.
Steps taken to help the students like Ella and Thomas or will they come out this problem easily
Both Ella and Thomas are under huge stress and it is very necessary for them to come out of this stressful situation in an effective manner because then only they will be able to live their life in an effective manner (Shuler, Levine and Ree, 2012). There are various kinds of steps which will be taken to bring both of them out of this problem:
- They will be proper guidance provided to them when they will feel them and through help of which the individuals become mature as well.
- They will make them understand about this is changes in body in advance only so that if it happens then the people will be ready to face such kind of changes happening inside their body.
- School should also provide special classes in which they will teach students about all the kinds of changes and dealing with them in a proper manner.
Case Study 2: Second-language Acquisition and Reading
Identification of the linguistic, academic and cultural problems encountered by a student
In this case study, Morteza has been lacking the fluency which is required for the acquisition and reading of the second language i.e. English. Cultural is known to be carrying different dimensions such as customs, ideas and skills relating to a group of people. The culture has been known to affect behaviour and cognitive abilities which influences learning, therefore it can be said that different religion carry different approach to learning. A student is exposed to cultural problems as second language is known to be completely different from its first counterpart resulting in confusion and misunderstandings (Larsen-Freeman and Long, 2014). The attempt to learn second language is aimed to attain competency in the same which can be hindered by the cultural differences in the same. There are numerous language transfer obstacles as well which arise with transference. A student is known to use of existing language to learn a new language which has emerged to be a problem in internalisation.
Identification of problem which are encountered by non-English speaking families
It can be said that students belonging from non-English speaking families are encountered with difficulty in learning English as well. It has become essential for a teacher to address cultural and educational background together so that learning can be facilitated. The cultural differences are amongst the barriers which possess different expectations from a student. For instance students are only confined to transmit knowledge in one culture and in other than are required to be form a critique which becomes very difficult (Ortega, 2014). The learning and acquisition of second language is referred to as a crucial. The reason being that primary language have been fed to a student in an natural manner with the help of environment, society and culture. Therefore learning the second language is not as easy as the primary ones as a student have to take in new cultural ingredients and dimensions and understanding so that it can be acquired in the right manner. It is extremely important for teacher to possess intercultural training and cultural perception so that right eduction can be imparted to children. When a teacher is able to create an environment that is culturally and linguistically rich learning can be acquired by a student. If there is a major difference between native language and second language, a student will be exposed to numerous difficulties which are to be countered through forming reliance on the similarities amongst the two. The differences in terms of pronunciation, syntax and structure to be resolved effectively so that stress of learning of new language in context of a student could be minimised.
Appropriation of the strategies used by teacher
The strategies which has been undertaken by the teachers of Morteza were highly appropriate. Teacher tried to understand behaviour of student and tried to cater teaching in the manner which is most suitable for him. The catered his needs with time and space so that he feels like being a part of classroom as she had a similar experience with herself as well. The result which were received with very good as Morteza have become more confident and carries an enhanced participation as well. The bonding with colleagues helps in facilitation learning and participation in numerous activities in the right manner leading to holistic de