Management and Organisational Behaviour
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Team work is most useful in changing job contents and employees having limited skills. Teamwork helps the company and staff to become more familiar with each other. Panda is retailing company in Saudi Arabia. It is ninth among top 100 companies of Saudi Arabian market (Abdi and Senin, 2014). In this report, effectiveness of work group and teams are defined. Further, it includes the impact of work group on power and politics. Moreover, the impact of power and politics on the culture of the organization is discussed.
Working in teams have positive impact on the team members as well as on the organisation.Effective work group performs commitment, team roles, leadership and communication. Tuckman theory and Belbin theory are used to support the effectiveness of team work and work group. It also defines the kind of behaviour which every individual of Panda has to behave. The Belbin theory has nine team roles which contributes in managing and well functioning of the organisation. Additionally, it involves the impact of teams on power and politics. The impact may be positive and negative both on the team members. Power and responsibilities of team leader may have positive and negative impact on the team members. In this report, power sharing and effect of politics on the organisation culture are highlighted. In order to explain the effectiveness of work groups and teams on the culture of the organisation, Schien and Handy's models are applied.
The Schien model help in understanding leadership, artefacts, espoused values and basic assumptions. While, Handy model helps in understanding impact of power, task culture, person, role culture etc. on the employees. Both model helps in understanding overall work culture of the Panda organisation. They contribute to organisation by helping its employees to examine the tradition and new strategies of the organisation. They also assist employees to achieve success in desired goals.
There are different ways in which teamwork is essential to the success of Panda and to the development of employees. The work performance of the team is higher than any individual employee when the work requires wide scope knowledge, opinion and judgement. The teamwork and work group helps in achieving significant growth in the area which requires creative solution of task, high degree of adaptability and management (Crawford and Lepine, 2013). The effectiveness of teams on Panda increases as it increases the potential for innovation which may add value to products and services, moves them to less price service market. It also creates an environment which facilitates knowledge and information exchange.
Panda considers its employees as an essential tool for achieving its objectives and long term profits. It has divided its employees into teams to increase its productivity. Different teams are made in order to handle various departments of the company and to ensure well-functioning of these departments (Du Plessis, 2014). Working in groups raises employees morale, builds stronger relationships. Team's goal of organisation are placed before personal feeling which helps in making team stronger by completing task together and achieve success (Dent and Whitehead, 2013). Teamwork makes teams stronger and also raises their potentiality to achieve goals on time which assist the institution to grow exponentially in the market. Group work raises employee’s morale and builds zeal to work more on the projects. Team-building improves personal skills and builds individual self-esteem and encourages others. There are two theories which gives solution to the problems faced by teamwork of Panda.
Tuckman's ideas clearly shows that performing stage take time and every team of the organisation faces ups and downs. This theory of Tuckman has given four phases which are defined as follows:
Forming: In this phase, team members behave independently and meets and learns the opportunities and challenges and starts to handle tasks (Fidalgo-Blanco and et.al., 2015). The positive behaviour helps organisation to attract more customers and stakeholders towards it.
Storming: In this phase, employees builds opinion about character and integrity of other employees. They feel compelled if they find someone is not performing its responsibility and attempting to dominate. This helps Panda to replace employees having negative attitude towards it which gives best and skilled team of employees.
Norming: In norming phase, all workers of team are aware of race and have ambition to work positively to achieve success of the team's goals. They take challenges from other team members and put all efforts to move on. Acceptance of challenges helps the organisation to perform better in critical situations (Galegher Kraut and Egido, 2014).
Performing: In performing phase of Tuckman theory, the workers are motivated and able to handle decision-making process without any supervision. Team leader also participates and whole team actively participate in making necessary decisions. Effective decision-making affects the Panda Company as it leads to better decision about their projects and other important tasksBelbin Theory: Belbin theory is used to measure preference for nine team roles. It assesses how an employee has to behave in team environment. The nine team roles of Belbin are as follows:
Plant: Plant is an effective person which can give solution to the problems. It ignores incidentals. The team has to decide correct way and cannot stop plant from coming up with new solutions and disrupting the implementation process (Girma, 2016).
Resource Investigator: It gives rush of enthusiasm at the start of project. The resource investigator generates possibilities and excellent network and stops momentum towards the end of the project. It benefits the organisation as excellent network and contact helps it to explore its business.
Coordinator: Coordinator helps to focus on the task. They are good at delegating task to correct employees for the job as they examine abilities in others. They are manipulative and tries to delegate all work.
Shaper: Shaper always find possibilities to complete the difficult task on time. He is task focused and pursues objectives with full enthusiasm. They always take obstacles as challenge and have courage to push on when other finds no solution of solving the task.
Monitor evaluator: Monitor evaluator maintain the activities of team and checks whether the team is performing well or not. They always try to make right decision by moving slowly and analytically (Haslam and et.al., 2014). They motivate their team members to enhance their performance in order to achieve goals.
Team worker: It helps in running team smoothly. They are effective listeners, resolves conflicts smoothly and helps employees to understand one another (Herdman, Yang and Arthur, 2014). Team worker helps to coordinate the activities of team which helps Panda company to increase their productivity.
Implementer: Implementer takes advice and suggestions from their colleagues and tries to convert them in positive actions. The company motivates them to take difficult task which everyone avoids or dislikes. They assist company to achieve its objectives on time because they are efficient, self-disciplined and tries to deliver work on time.
Complete finisher: They always focus on their own high standards rather than encouraging team members (Mullins, and Christy, 2013). They are short tempered and frustrate on their subordinates on small mistakes. Complete finisher do not trust anyone and double checks the work of team. Panda is helped by this attitude of finisher as it prevents the team from big mistake.
Specialist: Specialist are very curious to learn new things and they always enjoy to share their knowledge with others. They bring high level of concentration, skill and ability in their role to the team. The Specialist are less interested towards the things which lies outside their field. This behaviour of specialist impacts positively on employees to focus their target.
Power and politics influences teamwork in both positive and negative manner. Power and politics may be motivators as well as demotivation for the employees, depends on the team leader. Power is the ability to persuade others to do what leaders want, and do it in the manner of the leader. Panda does not allow personal agendas to interfere with the business growth and important decisions. Organisational politics have negative effect on employees moral, loyalty and trust. The leaders which have power to take decision on the behalf of their employee’s growth can demotivate their employees by imposing pressure on them to work beyond their limit. These may create conflicts among employees which may be proved as dangerous to the image of Panda (.Kozlowski and et.al., 2015). The conflicts may arises due to misunderstandings of task and high workloads on the workers. These may affect the retail market of Panda.
The company have to face financial crises due to its bad popularity among the public.On the other hand, team leader can take effective decision to enhance the performance of their employees. They can motivate their employees by rewarding them and appreciating them individually or in the group (Pozin, 2017). The supervisor can ensure overall performance of its employees by giving feedbacks and conducting regular meetings. Effective communication among employees and team leader can solve the conflicts. Conduction of regular meetings gives effective solution of the problems which are faced by staff members (Ritzer and Stepnisky, 2017). It assists team members to achieve desired results on time with better quality. All these factors increases the confidence of teammates. The employee's productivity and Panda's growth can be raised if its supervisor uses their power properly.
Power sharing in Panda is closely related to mutual decision-making and leadership participation. Politics of Panda must be handled carefully because it is the major factor that affects company's reputation. This is the only factor which can popularise it or leads to vain. It also defines individual or team behaviour which is unofficial (Welford, 2016). There are two models which helps in understanding the culture of Panda:
Schein Model:Schein gives the model of organisational culture where visible part of culture are assumptions and values shapes practices and behaviour. Schien believes that Panda does not adopt culture in single day but learns from its experiences. There are three levels in an organisation.
Artefacts: It measures the surface of culture in Panda. The visitor can notice visible part of the culture in following aspects:
Physical artefacts: Architecture and interior design are the main factor through which it can be found. Modes of speaking, special expression, level and types of sound and slogan are given by language. Effective language also affects the politics of Panda. It helps in influencing the customers and attracting them towards services and product of the company. Various stories and myths circulating around the employees shows the behaviour of person and acts are considered as heroic (Wood, 2016).
Technology is also an essential part of the culture of Panda. Technology reflects and shapes the values and assumptions through knowledge. It impacts the organisation as whole market is now based on technologies, and regular updating with these new technologies is very important to make progress.
Values: Values reflects shared opinions on how things would be in the future. It helps Panda's staff members to classify situations and actions which may be desirable or undesirable. It directly leads to basic assumption in spite of values been articulated, listed and arranged according to their priority (Grint and Woolgar, 2013). The customer of the company only find patterns which are opposite with observed behaviour. These impacts positively on the organisation as it helps in understanding the behaviour of the company.
Basic assumptions: When the basic assumption are clearly understood, the confusing artefacts and values of the organisation becomes coherent. There are different assumptions are given by Schein to understand the working culture of Panda which are as follows: These assumptions are about:
Handy model has defined four levels of culture which the Panda has to follow:
Power: The power is the key factor in achieving success. Power is mainly given to the supervisors of the company and only they are authorized to take decisions in the workplace. In such culture, the employees has no option and has to strictly follow the instructions of superiors. The manager sometimes can be partial and to someone or other. This kind of power demotivate employees and results in conflicts among employees and supervisor. Panda has not given whole power to its supervisor but it also included its employees to make decision.
Task Culture: Task culture is followed by Panda which forms teams and to achieve the targets or solve critical problems. Employees with common interest and specialization come together to form team. In task culture every team member has to contribute equally in order to achieve desired goal (Guelpa 2014).
Person Culture: Panda follow person culture where their employees feel that they are most important for their organisation. In this culture, individual are more concerned about their own self instead of their organisation. This culture is not beneficial for the organisation as employees comes for money and never gives concentration on the benefits of the organisation.
Role culture: In role culture every employee is given roles and responsibilities according to their potentiality, qualification, interest and specialization in order to extract best out of him. In this culture employees take challenges and decide what they can do achieve the target. The politics of Panda get affected by this culture as employees itself takes challenge and put their best effort to achieve organisational goals.
On the basis of above report, it is inferred that team work plays essential role in the growth of organization. Panda is a retailing company which consider team work as a key on success. Team work is effective in order to increase knowledge, opinion and scope for an organization. Along with this innovation and creativity is implemented into services. In order to identify various effectiveness various theories are available such as Tuck-man and Belbin theory. In Tuckman, various stages are involved in order to analysis performance of team.
Where in Belbin, performance is measured but team should contain nine members. Therefore, Tuckman theory is generally preferred due to the provided flexibility. Along with this, impact on organization is also considered on the basis power and politics. They are used to motivate staff, but sometime they get demotivate by the behaviors of leader. In order to identify role of power and policies into company various approaches are available such as Schein and Handy model. These model is considered in order to find the work culture followed by firm. These styles are used by Panda, in order to analysis surface as well as leveled cultural structure of organization. Where Handy is divided into four levels.
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