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Leadership in Contemporary Organisations

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Introduction to Leadership

Leadership is  the process of motivating and give the direction to their followers. Leadership is the important and systematic process in which one leader and other persons are the followers(Grint, K. 1997). Its help to increase productivity and performance of organisation's employees. In the Sainsbury organisation require has to be manage all the things and activities so this company's employees provide better services to customers. Leadership is the best way to motivate and control all persons. In this process one leader give the directions and instructions to employees, how to they work with effective and efficient manner. Sainsbury wants to applying best theory and concept of leadership because they can provide better services and improve performance of workers. Sainsbury is the largest supermarket that provide all types of products to public and also try to build a effective image in the market. At this time many issues and problems are facing by this organisation in the market so this company wants to complete all the tasks and achieve the all decided objectives(Storey, J., 2004).

Leadership Concept:

Leadership is the systematic process to manage all employees and their activities or working performance regarding their work. In all types of organisation and any society has one effective leader those are help to manage all persons and given the direction to them how to do they work in the effective and efficient manner. Leadership is the best way to coordinate to all persons and improving working performance of employees. Leadership is the ability to to motivate and influence to their group persons regarding their work and achievement of goals and objective on the decided time period. A leader has many kind of skills, abilities, knowledge, experiences about all field so that's why they can easy to manage and motivate towards their work(Colquitt, J.Lepine, J.A. and Wesson, M.J. 2011). This is not require all managers are a good leader but a leader can be a good manager. Its helps to manage all activities in the organisation and provide best services to their customers and clients on the time and also give them fully satisfaction to them. Leadership is the best way to to influence and motivate all employees regarding their work. In the leadership process has one leader and all other are followers those are following leader get proper instructions regarding their work and which one strategy they will apply in the work. Leadership represent individual and group coordination and motivation and in the other hand management shows how to manage all activities and where should invest how much time to complete the task and work with using best way and strategy. In Sainsbury organisation has to be require a good leader to manage all activities and works for improve productivity and performance of their employees. It can help to improve efficiency of working with the effective manner(Moodian, M.A. ed., 2008). In this organisation if manage all activities in the effective manner so easy to increase productivity and performance of their employees and easy to build a effective image in the market. Sainsbury is the supermarket in UK  , its provide many types of products and goods to customers for full fill their wants and needs and get proper and effective feedback through the customers. Its wants to build a effective image in the market and beat all competitors. Leadership is the systematic process in which on person play a lead role regarding their work and motivate to their employees for doing effective work in the efficient manner. A good leader easy to manage all activities and give proper direction to all followers and try to improve their working power and working efficiency in the effective manner(Krantz, J., 1990).

Leadership Theories

In the leadership process, there are many theories those are help to understand leadership and how to manage all activities and works through leadership theories. These are help to motivate all employees toward their works and their performance.  There are many theory those are made for to understand leadership in the effective manner and improve productivity of the organisation, those theories are under the below:

Trait theory

Trait theory is represent a person or a good leader's of self confidence, personality,  honesty and  intelligence( Farh, J.L. and Cheng, B.S., 2000). If a leader has all those quality and good self confidence regarding their work. A good leader of personality, behaviour, communication style and intelligence level is the important elements to lead a person and for give the proper direction to them. Trait theory based on the people can made and with born some effective leadership qualities those are easy to manage all persons and creative in the nature. A leader easy to improve employees or followers performance and their knowledge so they can do work effectively and efficiently. All persons has thinking level, knowledge and experiences, quality of work and ability of working all those are different so all persons has different ability and skills to understand and working quality of persons(Sendjaya, S. Sarros, J.C. and Santora, J.C., 2008). So leader has to be understand their followers and employees those behaviour, skills and ability of working. It can be give negative and positive impact on organisation and organisation productivity. In this theory many limitations those are follows:

  • Trait theory through not easy to identify universal traits in the persons. Because all persons has ability and working power are different its all depends upon their knowledge level and experiences in their past(Hui, C. and Graen, G., 1997). So through this method cannot easy to find out universal traits in the leaders and all types of persons.
  • Through this theory cannot easy and clearly identify there issues and causes regarding leadership and traits. So this theory help to motivate persons and employees for their work but cannot clearly define issues and causes regarding their work. In the other hand there are many issues and limitations those are not easy to understand by their employees and other persons. Through this theory easy to understand a person's behaviour about their work and which one strategy they will applying to complete the task and work those are provided by the leader of Sainsbury organization.

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Behavioural Theory

This theory helps to define all persons are behaviours regarding their works and their organisation. This theory related to specific behaviours of leader and differentiate from other persons. Because behaviour of a person help to understand that persons quality and personality and also how they communicate with others. Behaviour can be change according to situations and environment of organisation. Trait theory is represent the leaders qualities are born with their birth, cannot made them but behavioural theory represent leadership quality and behaviour can learn and also can change according to their situation s and also improve their working performance towards their task and objective of organisation. This theory help to identify a person mentally, physically and socially and easy to understand working ability and skills  in the organization(Graham, J.W., 1991). In the other hand, this theory represent leaders can be made, these are not born. Because at this time all persons has many different different abilities and skills and they can do some specific work in the effective manner and some works they cannot do so easy to develop and improve their skills and abilities in those persons and improve working quality. This theory can be applicable in the Sanisbury organisation and help to improve productivity and working performance of their employees. For help this theory can be change the behaviour of a person and improve some effective qualities towards their works. Behaviour of persons is play a important role in any kind of organisation because a person's of way of communication, working quality, working involvement, performance and ability all these are affecting on the organisation in the positive and negative manner(Eagly, A.H. 2007).

Contingency Theory:

Contingency Theory represent the way of different different types of leadership styles and methods those are applicable according to the situations and environment of the organisation . Its help to understand situations and issues in the organisation those are how to be resolve and how to control and manage all activities  and works in the effective manner. Through this theory of leadership easy to understand situations and issues and according to the situation easy to apply leadership styles and methods those are should be suitable in that situations and help to resolve problems(Dering, N.Z., 1998). This theory is the main suitable theory in any kind of organisation and through this theory leaders are more effectively express their leadership style in the effective and efficient manner. Through this leadership theory easy to improve their working quality and efficiency of working and improve performance of workers its help to improve productivity in Sanisbury and give proper satisfaction to customers and receive effective feedback through customers and easy to build image in the market. Leadership style is play an important role in the any type of organisation because there has require to manage activities and works and has to be lead all employees and give proper and clearly direction to them for their work and try motivate them for their work because a leader has many types of skills and abilities to control and lead all persons and give them proper directions to them(Eagly, A.H. and Chin, J.L., 2010).

Transactional leadership theory

Transactional leadership theory is also know as exchange theories of leadership. Its represent the quality and features of transactions between leader and their followers. In this theory help to represent whatever transactions those are transect between one person to another. Transaction of knowledge and work in this process leader provide works to followers for complete the task on the time with effective manner. Leaders through give some instruction and quality of work should be maintain by their followers. If in case they will not full fill their work and task on the decided time so by the leader can be punish to followers. So in the other hand by this theory can easy to understand should be transfer those data in the effective ways those are easy to understand by their followers and they can easy to full fill task and objectives. Its help to improve productivity and performance of working of their employees. This theory help to transfer important information and data leader to followers and they can do work effectively and efficiently manner and they can easy to achieve the task(Trottier, T., Van Wart, M. and Wang, X., 2008.). Transactional leadership theory refers to human  can be transfer thinks and knowledge one person to another  it can be pleasure and un-pleasure experiences those are transnational to individual and group in the effective manner and they can improve their working efficiency and ability of work. In the other hand, this theory thorough can be transfer knowledge and experiences to one person to another person and its help to develop and improve working efficiency of Sainsbury organisation.

Transformational leadership theory

Transformational leadership theory is the process in which interact one person to another to maintain relationship and build effective relationship then build trust and good relationship with employees(Colquitt, J.Lepine, J.A. and Wesson, M.J. 2011 ). Its help to improve working efficiency and working quality of employees its can be intrinsic and extrinsic in the nature. This theory help to motivate persons to transfer knowledge and data one person to another and also improve working efficiency of employees. Through this theory employees are can be made a good relationship and improve efficiency to given proper motivation to others. They follow all rules and regulations those are made by the Sainsbury organisation and give proper satisfaction to customers through their goods and products with good quality and features. In the other hand , this theory help to build a good relationship with on person to another and motivate persons towards their work and organisation development. Transformational leadership theory through easy to build a effective image in the market of this company and also maintain the relationship in the organisation by using this leadership theory(.Dering, N.Z., 1998). This theory through easy to build relationship and make trust on one person to another and easy to give proper satisfaction to them also motivating them towards their work. This leadership theory is the different from another leadership theory its help to be make friendly and healthy relationship in organisation and wants to face all problems and issues in the systematic and effective manner.

Issues Of Leadership In Contemporary Organisation

In the leadership  many issues and problems are facing in the contemporary organisation those are not easy to manage and handle by the leaders. In all types of organisation has many problems are suddenly created so those has to be mange by the leader and give proper directions and instruction to followers in the effectively way. Leadership is the best way to control and mange all activities and  also help to improving working efficiency of workers. Leaders should be knowledgeable and intelligent in the nature and also motivating to followers towards their work so if leader give proper directions and  instructions to followers so they can do work effectively manner if in case they has any problems and issues so they can easy to ask their leaders so should be manage all problems and issues by their leaders and give proper directions to them. There are many issues and problems faced in the Sainsbury organisation those are under the below:

Developing managerial effectiveness

It is very important to develop managerial effectiveness as it will help the leader in delivering efficient and effective results. To be effective is a challenge and to face this challenge leaders need to develop new relevant skills- such as prioritization, strategic thinking, speeding up with the job and most important is time management(Eagly, A.H. 2007)

Inspiring others:

A leader is the real inspiration behind the subordinates performance. A leader inspires his subordinates which results in their job satisfaction and also it boost them up to work smarter. A leader has to be charismatic and act like a role model as well as a close-associate, it will make his subordinate to feel free and give their best at the job. Motivation is the real factor behind a person good performance and to achieve that level of performance a leader has to be the inspiration for his subordinates.

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Developing Employees

No leader can be successful without developing his own subordinates. It is the job of a leader to provide opportunities to his subordinates for their personal as well as professional growth. So a leader need seek out the opportunities to make them available for his subordinates so that they can grow better and perform better(Eagly, A.H. and Chin, J.L., 2010).

Leading a team

A group of two or more people work for the common goal then this group is known a 'team”. In a  team every one have there different role to do for achieving the small and personal  goals. In every team there is a person how lead the members of the team. The leader have the main and important role in the team(Farh, J.L. and Cheng, B.S., 2000). He have to show the path to the team and personal also.

Guiding change

we know that no body likes to change in their life or work place. But change is thing, if we do not accept we we can not survive in the society. With out it we can not develop on personal level or at the work. So in a team no body likes the change but for the survival or for growth, change is needed. So a team leader have to motivate them for accepting the change(Graham, J.W., 1991).

Managing internal stakeholder and politics

Stakeholder are the main part of the organisation. They help in providing financial help . So a leader have to keep up and manage them so the financial problem will not come. And some time the politics get started Internal environment so leader work have to manage it also.

CONCLUSION

As per this project report, Leadership is the best way to to given proper and systematic motivations one person to another person. Leadership is the process in which one person can lead to another followers so they can work in the effective and efficient manner. Leaders should be motivating in the nature and  they should be communicate with everyone in the effective manner. If followers has any issues and challenges so they easy to ask and face problems. Leader is the one of the manageable person that can be mange all activities and they has to be control on all persons. Sainsbury is the supermarket of goods and products those are provide various types of goods to customers to give proper satisfaction and get positive feedback through the customers.  Sainsbury in leadership play an important role because there are many problems and issues are create suddenly so has to be maintain organisation and control all on the employees. Leadership is the process of motivating and improving performance of working of their employees. In this leadership process has one leader and other all are followers those are follow all rules and directions those are given by the leader to followers. Leaders has some rights to control and build some rules and regulation in the organisation for employees those are has to be follow them and maintain environment of organisation. In this report had been describe some issues and challenges regarding leadership process and also describe some theories of leadership. These leadership theories are help to understand situations and persons behaviour. Its help to understand situations according has to be adopt leadership theory and achieve goals and targets of organisation. In the other hand, leadership in the contemporary organisation is represent the issues and problems and also lead by the one person to another persons.

REFERENCES

  • Colquitt, J.Lepine, J.A. and Wesson, M.J. 2011. Organizational behavior Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
  • Dering, N.Z., 1998. Leadership in quality organizations. The Journal for Quality and Participation 21(1) p.32.
  • Eagly, A.H. 2007. Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of women quarterly 31(1) pp.1-12.
  • Eagly, A.H. and Chin, J.L., 2010. Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist 65(3), p.216.
  • Farh, J.L. and Cheng, B.S., 2000. A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In Management and organizations in the Chinese context (pp. 84-127). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  • Graham, J.W., 1991. Servant-leadership in organizations: Inspirational and moral. The Leadership Quarterly, 2(2), pp.105-119.
  • Grint, K. 1997. Leadership: Classical, contemporary, and critical approaches. Oxford University Press.
  • Hui, C. and Graen, G., 1997. Guanxi and professional leadership in contemporary Sino-American joint ventures in mainland China. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(4), pp.451-465.
  • Krantz, J., 1990. Lessons from the field: An essay on the crisis of leadership in contemporary organizations. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 26(1) pp.49-64.
  • Moodian, M.A. ed., 2008. Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Sage.
  • Sendjaya, S. Sarros, J.C. and Santora, J.C., 2008. Defining and measuring servant leadership behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management studies, 45(2) pp.402-424.
  • Storey, J., 2004. Leadership in organizations Current issues and key trends. Psychology Press.
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