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HRM4002 Change Management Assignment

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Introduction

Change management may be considered as the process to stimulate several resistance and provide various kinds of challenges including habits, beliefs, behaviours and many more. There should be required discipline so that changes can be adopted. This will support in preparing individual and give proper guidelines that how to adopt, equip, prepare and accept several challenges for the purpose of accomplishing set targets or goals. Understanding and leading change is essential that supports in preparing individual to face the challenges or problems and find appropriate solutions (Alkahtani, 2011). This report will define about two different firms as Hilton and Marriott which deals in hospitality industry worldwide. It will compare these firms for analysing impacts of changes on strategies and operations. Internal and external changes affect leadership, team and individual behaviour within the firms also will be discussed. In this, it evaluates measures to minimise negative impacts of changes. Some barriers of change are also determined that influence on leaders decisions-making process for organisation and apply different leadership approaches for dealing with several changes in range of business firm.

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TASK 1

P1 Comparing different organisations and major impact of change on strategy and operations

Change management is essential for the organisation to deal with several challenges and environmental elements for surviving in the market place in an appropriate manner. In this included several components such as organisational culture, policies, various rules or regulations, codes of conducts and company's structure that influence due to occurrence of changes. All these depend on the environmental changes which have major impacts on the business strategies and operations. There must be required to undertake changes and prepare individuals for acceptances or adaptation so that company can accomplish predetermined goals or objectives in an appropriate manner (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). Company focuses on formulating appropriate plans or strategies for the purpose of running the organisation in any situation. It is necessary to make favourable decisions regarding firm that how to accept changes or face challenges to survive effectively in the business environment.

Marriott and Hilton both are the biggest brands which are leading hospitality industries in the international market. There are several industries or organisations who are giving such facilities and dealing in hotel sector at global level. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the tough competitions and make appropriate strategies or plans for achieving target market in more efficient manner. These are requires for making good positions in the market as many of firms try to increase their goodwill and markets share among competitors. Both hotels have good positions and market image because they focus on managing or maintaining brand reputations by adopting suitable strategies or making action plans as well.

Hilton Hotels & Resorts:

It is a global brand and most famous firm which provides number of services regarding hotels as well as resorts to the customers. This was founded by Conrad Hilton in the year of 1919 and now it has more than 570 Hilton hotels & resorts in around 85 countries. Various properties are owned, managed and franchised to operators by Hilton. They targeted at both businesses and leisure travellers by considering important locations such as new airports, popular destinations, conventions centres and major cities around the world (Bingham and Main, 2010).

Marriott international Hotel:

It is an American multinational diversified organisation that deals in the hospitality company. This firm also has good reputations in the market and they manage, franchise huge portfolio of lodges and hotels facilities. It was founded by J. Willard Marriott and now it is leading by his son name Bill Marriott who is chairman. It’s headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland and has more than 6500 properties in around 127 countries in the world. Marriott was listed in 100 top best companies and ranked 33 on fortune. There are around 177000 employees working in this organisation. According to recent data, it has generated revenues approximately US $ 22.894 billion.

Hence, both have strong market image and deals in hospitality sector at the global level. They always focus on increasing brand values among competitors by considering several changes that occur in the market. It is very necessary to achieve predetermined goals or objectives by formulating appropriate strategies and take corrective actions so that company can survive among tough competition (Branson, 2010). They both try to get succeed with adopting numbers of changes and use effective tools or techniques for better services such as quality food, luxury rooms, clean environment, staff service and many more. This will support in attracting more customers towards hotels. There are defined some comparison between Marriott and Hilton such as:

Strategies

Marriott

Hilton

Products

It is very famous firm and known as luxury hotel chain in the world. They have divided its services into 3 major parts such as core, actual and augmented. Organisation is giving number of services including hotel, hospitality management, resorts and lodges etc. they are offering luxury services to the customers. For example, Hotel Marriott monitored their services and adopt best products due to increasing competition.

This hotel is offering number of services in the market for attracting huge customers towards organisation such as child care, laundry, babysitting, wake up call, boutiques, currency exchange, travel desk, florist and maid services etc. for example, Hilton made decisions to modify the services due to losing customers loyalty as per changing environment.

Price

Hotel Marriott is focusing on making better strategies regarding pricing which depends on hotels services, customers as well as locations. They use competitive strategies for prices and change this as per the situations. For example, customers was diverting to the other competitors and Marriott was facing economic crises as decreasing profitability so they took action and reduce costs on booking any room in the Hotel.

This hotel is also consider the price strategy that charges as per the facilities. Their starting price of hotel services are 5,500 to 3,00,00 and vary according to hotel (Brown, 2012). the example of Hilton is that they adopted best pricing strategies as fluctuate prices according to seasons, environment and competitors. This support in attracts huge audiences towards firm.

Place

There are various location or countries in which Marriott established. At least more than 120 countries across the world. They focus on particular locations such as near airports, highways and central market etc. They are trying to capture international market so the strategy is that expand business at different places or countries.

They also serving hospitality services across the country and number of locations bys considering customers requirements or needs. They focus on metropolitan cities, business hubs and tourists places as well. Hilton believes in increasing brand values and market share so they focus on reaching at potential customers.

Promotions

Hotel Marriott is using digital technologies for promotion so that huge customers can be make aware and attracts them to get services from this firm (Carrington, Deppeler and Moss, 2010). for example, Marriott has adopted best tools because they were decreasing their reputations and many of competitors were taking place so they decided to use best methods for increasing demands.

Hilton use advanced tools or techniques for promoting particulars services and hotel by considering internet, media, newspapers, television, billboards, websites and direct mail. Social media is best source for promotion in modern era. The best example is that Hilton took action for adopting promotional tools for promoting their products or services in the international market. This supported in generating demands and profits as well.

People

They focus on making appropriate strategies for people so that targets or goals can bes achieved in an effective manner. Hotel staff play vital role in gaining trust of customers by providing several services to them. Manager provide proper training and motivate to staff members for getting success. Hotel Marriott was facing labour turnover due to lack of motivation and poor leadership so it was difficult to form a proper team and create workforce. They make appropriate decisions and improve the leadership quality to motivate employees.

Hilton also focus on providing better training and development of people so that they can work in an effective manner. Their staffs deliver better services and facilities to clients so that they can be attracted and satisfied their needs or wants (Doppelt, 2017). for example, they face the situation of decreasing productivity due to lack of training and development. The another reason was improper communication skills so they made decisions and adopted best method of communication for better interaction among people.

Process

This firm has its own process for providing services to the customers. They focus on quality of services, effective booking facilities, and make customers feel comfortable by giving such facilities. For example, They have modified their process of services providing and consider appropriate staff for this purpose.

They treats with customers in more efficient manner as their strategy is to consider the customers desired needs or expectations of customers. For example, they use the procedures according to the customers or any situations so that they can achieve competitive advantages.

Physical evidence

Marriott formulate strategies and take actions for giving tangible or intangible services. they consider the satisfaction level of clients so it is the duty of Marriott that to provide some basic objects such as towels, booklets, pens, clean environment and soaps etc.

Hilton also provide various components for satisfying customers needs and wants. For example, they prefer safe and secure climate, cleanness, water purifiers, dining rooms, soaps, shampoo and towels and many more.

M1 Assess the different drivers for change

In this defined number of factors which can be beneficial for accepting number of changes and provide better services to the customers so that they can be attracted towards hotel industry (Fagerström and Salmela, 2010). Factors are related with environmental changes that can affects on business operations in several ways. In this included employees behaviours, attitudes, decision-making process and other activities that depends on the situations. These all are beyond the control but manager can manage this in an effective manner. In the hospitality industries, there are number of factors that drive several changes such as internal and externals. In external forces included political, social, economic and technologies that support in making effective policies, procedures and bring changes within an organisation. These are as following:

  • Political: Government formulates several rules, regulations and policies that every organisations must follow for running their business. Marriott focus on such regulations and modify their norms or code of conducts so that political factors can be overcome in well manner.
  • Economical: this is another way to bring changes as Hotel can make their pricing decisions with the help of analysing economic conditions of country. In this included Tax rate, GDP, exchange rates and many more that can affects company's profitability and productivity as well.
  • Social: Hotel consider people choices, behaviours and current trends that affects on the consumer decisions making process so that they can undertake effective changes for running organisation.
  • Technological: Technologies are introducing day by day so it is necessary to adopt new advanced technologies to make operations smooth. Hotel Marriott also try to make their work more easy so that they can provide effective services and satisfy them.

D1 Draw a conclusion and recommendations with valid justifications

After analysing change system and its importance, it can be concluded that it play vital role in every organisation as they can attain predetermined goals or objectives in limited time period with the helps of adopting several changes and new ideas as well. Therefore, Hotel Marriott requires to undertake some strategies as per the changes which will support in removing or protecting from negative factors. It included internal and external which affects on the business organisation. Hotel Marriott should make appropriate decisions and action plans regarding bringing changes which essential in attaining goals or objectives in well manner.

TASK 2

P2 Evaluate ways in which internal and external drivers affects leadership, team and individual behaviour

Leadership may be concern with qualities and abilities to influence the human behaviours for getting work done an d achieve predetermined goals or objectives. Every organisation focus on leadership styles and approaches for achieving set goals or targets with limited time period. Leaders or manager always try to give right path and provide better guidelines towards attaining goals or objectives in more effective manner (Fullan, 2014). It must be required to consider the leadership styles or approaches for enhancing growth and accomplish particular goals in better ways.

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Marriott is an American multinational hospitality organisation that provides various facilities or services regarding hotels, restaurants, and lodges etc. this is very famous organisation that deals in hotel industry and serve number of services to the clients for satisfying their needs or wants in more appropriate manner. They considered the effective facilities such as luxury rooms, wash rooms, clean environment, good infrastructure and various things that are necessary to increase level of satisfaction of consumers. Leaders play an important role in formulating best strategies and adopt tools or techniques according to environment situations so that company can achieve business goals or objectives in well manner.

Internal factors:

Internal forces are those that have direct impacts on the organisational operations and it effects inside of the firm. It included company structure, rules or regulations, system, events and systems that influence by such factors. There are several components that related with internal environment of the organisation including vision, missions statements, cultures and leadership styles and many others. It must be require to make better decisions and adopt best strategies so that these factors can be managed or controlled (Hallinger and Heck, 2011). These can impacts on business activities, performance, and decision-making process and employees behaviours etc.

SWOT analysis for defining the impacts on internal environment such as:

Strengths

Weaknesses

Leadership style is very necessary for achieving business success in an effective manner. Every organisation focus on formulating business strategies and make effective plan so that critical situations can be handled. There should be requires to motivate every individual and boost their moral for increasing productivity in highest level. It will support in increasing confidence level and work for accomplishing targets (Malenfant, 2010).

In this defined some weak points of the Marriott that they have to provide effective training and development programs to every employees so that they can improve their performances and focus on achieving task in an effective ways. There is requires appropriate coordination among people so that goals can be achieved in well manner.

Threats

Opportunities

There is requires an appropriate structure because it is very difficult to formulate such organisation culture and create it in better manner.

There are several opportunities for the firms regarding achieving business goals or objectives as well as competitive advantages.

External Factors:

External environment have major impacts on the business performance and its activities . Factors can occur outside the organisation and influence to the firm. These forces are beyond control of management. In this included various elements such as competitors, technologies, customers, political and many more which affects on the business in several ways. There are define some external factors such as:

Political factors: In this included number of aspects such as rules, regulations, tax rates, legal legislations and laws that can affects on the business decisions due to legal issues. Government formulates such policies so they can change these as per the requirements.

Economical factors: It also affects on the business operations because it associated with fluctuations of economy, GDP, growth rates etc. that have major impacts on the business operations. It is necessary to formulate effective strategies that effects on the individual, leadership and teams as well (Parsons and Cornett, 2011).

Social factors: changes can be occur in the social people including their behaviours, attitudes, customers choices, trends, and preferences that affects on the production process as company requires to formulate strategies and conduct market survey or research for analysing demands of people. It dynamic in nature so can be affects on the leadership and team as well.

Technologies factors: There are number of new technologies and innovation launching because of environmental changes so it can be affects on the production of goods and services. therefore, it is necessary for considering the innovative and advanced technologies by the hotel Marriott for achieving set targets or goals in an effective manner.

P3 Evaluate measures which minimise the negative impacts of change

In the present world, every firm is trying to adopt best techniques and changes to survive in the competitive environment. They try to increase market shares best possible results or outcomes by running business operations so that predetermined goals or objectives can be achieved. Therefore, Marriott is trying to considering these methods or technologies so that negative impacts can be minimised (Salmela, Eriksson and Fagerström, 2012). It is necessary to adopt some important changes so that negative factors can remove. Marriott focus on several measure that will support in reducing the negative aspects or effects on the business operations as well. These are as following:

Training: It is an essential to accept and adopt number of changes so that company can run its business in an appropriate manner. In this requires proper leadership styles as well as approaches that will support in managing workforce and motivate to every individuals towards achieving set objectives. Marriott Hotel also focus on providing appropriate training and learning sessions that are very important for treating customers in well manner. They teach to staff members that how to handle clients problems and make them feel more relax or good with effectively.

Research and Development: In this consider a proper study and environment analysis that are require for making better decisions and provide appropriate products or services to the customers in well manner. Marriott also conduct such study to identify customers needs or wants and also analyse their desired expectations so that better goods and services can be provided to them. It includes market trends, competitors, customers and preferences regarding any hotel services.

Technologies: It is another aspects of measurements which is an essential for analysing the environment and define appropriate conditions or situations so that company can adopt such changes in smooth manner. Marriott always focus on adopting innovative ideas and various advance technologies so that better services can be provided. It will support in reducing several expenses as well as costs by using new technologies and utilise available resources in an effective way.

Manage the relationship with people: It is necessary to manage or maintain the relations among every individual so that they will feel motivated and valued person within an organisation. It is very beneficial in removing the negative impacts and ready to accept such changes so that goals can be achieved.

M2 Change management model

In this defined that Marriott is using the Lewin's Change model accepting the various changes so that it also support in managing or maintaining the business operations in an effective ways. In this model, it included three stages such as unfreezing, change and refreeze. Unfreeze helps in realising the particular change and its requirements within the firm. Next step is consider as the changes which is requires for further stage (Suchman, 2011). Refreeze is a last phase in which company can feedbacks from the employees regarding changes that should be in positive manner. Change must be required in every industries because it depends on the environmental factors that drives several changes and helps in surviving from complex situations as well. Hotel Marriott can undertake such change model for bringing positive changes and make healthy environment within firm.

Lewin's Change Model:

Unfreezing: It is the first phase where organisation decide to take step for adopting some changes. This is necessary to implement various business policies and procedures before plan executions which is known as Unfreezing stage.

Changing: In this phase, organisations are ready to move for further changes and prepared to accept as well as adopt changes within organisation. It is very important to understand the several changes and its effects on the business.

Refreezing: It is last phase where organisation review the performance and its results after changing the system.

TASK 3

P4 Different barriers for change and how they influence leadership decision-making

There are number of changes occurs which have positive and negative affects on the business firms. They are requires to accept and make appropriate strategies for achieving competitive advantages in an effective manner. Changes always brings many of challenges whenever occur within the firm. They can be create various barriers or conflicts while running an organisation. Therefore , every organisation needs to focus and consider the changes which will helps in bringing effectiveness so that company can make its work more easy and effective with the help of changes. Marriott hotel also should consider such as things and try to attracts huge audiences towards firm. It is difficult to face such kinds of problems that can be arise while operating or running the business organisation. These can influence on the leadership decision-making and these are as following:

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Improper communication: This is a major factors which have direct impacts on business performance and productivity because of lack of communication. Therefore, company always consider the communication process for providing informations to the employees in more efficient manner. It is the duty of leaders or manager that to provide proper information regarding business decisions, rules, regulations and policies so that they will be aware and try to achieve set goals or targets with acceptances of changes.

Lack of employee's involvement: This is another reason behind barriers that company generally does this mistakes and do not involve other employees while making decisions. Therefore, it is major responsibility of the manager that allows to every employees during business decisions and take corrective actions in well manner. This can be create barriers or conflicts while accepting any changes or facing any changes at the working place.

Organisational cultural planning: There should be require to have better organisation and effective environment so that business goals or objectives can be achieved. It is very necessary to form an appropriate culture or structure of the organisation which will support in boosting employees morale and motivate them to work hard so that company will able to getting success (Thomas, 2013).

There is defined Force Field Analysis that helps in identifying the barriers and find appropriate solutions in an effective manner such as:

Force Field Analysis:

Step 1. Proposal for change: This is the first phase in which barriers or conflicts are identified including changing culture as well as environmental factors. These can be create complexities while understanding the change systems in the organisation.

Step 2. Identifies change forces: It is further step where Marriott can identify the particular reason behind the barriers which occurred during business running. They take responsibility to reduce these conflicts with the help of adoption of strategies as well as several tools or techniques to develop business.

Step 3. Identify factors against changes: In this identify the major mistake such as do not involve employees while making decisions. It can be create complex situations when accept the change. Employees may feel scary to adopt such changes.

Step 4. Assign scores: In this requires that management should focus adopting changes and ensure about healthy relationship among employees so that better outcomes can be achieved. This is an essential to achieve success by reducing communication barriers.

Step 5. Analysing and applying: In this ensure about the positive or better working environment which is necessary to achieve business goals or objectives in well manner.

M3: Use force field analysis to analyse the driving and resisting forces and show how they influence decision-making

This model is supportive in adopting changes and making business plans in well manner so that particular goals or objectives can be achieved. Organisation can consider this for increasings growth and generate revenues. In this consider Force Field Analysis that helps in providing better ideas, techniques and specific plans for the purpose of running an organisation in an appropriate manner. There are various steps included in this model that have explained above.

D2: Critically evaluate the use of force field analysis in the context of meeting organisational objectives

In this defined that Force Field Analysis model is suitable which helps in bringing effectiveness within the organisation and make several changes in well manner. Many of companies use this for effective changes and make appropriate decisions so that they can achieve defined goals or objectives in an appropriated manner.

TASK 4

P5 Apply different leadership approaches for dealing with changes in the organisation

Leadership approaches can be described as those techniques or methods that are utilised by leaders to lead other people effectively as well as efficiently. Various kinds if modifications are observed in current scenario of changing trends of market. It is necessary to adopt new fashion and provide desired product or services to customers by Hotel Marriott. Some of these leadership styles which are usually use by leaders are given below:

Autocratic style :- This can be defined as an approach which is centred to boss that means every authority or rights to make any decision should be of superiors only. In such kind of leadership style, employees have to just follow the orders and indications of their boss to achieve desired targets in Hotel Marriott.

Democratic style :- In this style of leadership, staff members also have special role in making effective decisions about any aspect of company. Hotel Marriott may apply this technique so that employees solve some of minor problems without wasting time and remove such threats immediately to render accurate service to people (Thomas, 2013).

Laissez-Faire style :- This method includes to give some of authority to employees for building an effective decisions for improving their productivity or profitability. Hotel Marriott may apply this technique as per suitability but it is not much effective and satisfying management approach.

Transformational style :- It basically facilitate to introduce new change in strategies or skills of employees to make their performance better in terms of knowledge and outcomes on regular basis. Hotel Marriott can apply this method as it provide support to achieve personal as well as professional growth in career.

Transactional style :- It based on policy of maintaining standards of organisation in terms of providing rewards to employees, exchange procedures of manufacturing and so on. It includes to first clear about expectations of sub- ordinates and provide appropriate favour to them. This will help to improve their performance which are helpful to achieve desired targets of Hotel Marriott (Salmela, Eriksson and Fagerström, 2012).

The above mentioned leadership styles have their own benefits in several circumstances and conditions of an enterprise. These approaches have to observe and analyse their impacts in terms to determine that it is suitable or not.

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M4: Evaluate the extent to which leadership approaches can deliver organisational change effectively applying appropriate models and frameworks

For the successful organisation, there is needed to adopt changes and accept challenges which can occur while running business operations because several situations can be created and affected on the business that known as employees working approach. Therefore, firms requires to consider various kinds of leadership theories and models including situational, contingency and system theory as well. These are helpful in making various kinds of changes in the leaders behaviours and their attitudes regarding organisational goals or objectives.

D3: Critically evaluate the effectiveness of leadership approaches and models of change management

It defines that changes must be required for every organisation because it helps in bringing various opportunities and chances to increasing productivity and profitability while running organisation and its functions in well manner. As per the Kotter's Model is very supportive for large firms as it help in achieving competitive advantages in an effective manner.

Conclusion

From the above report, it has been concluded that change management is an essential tool for every business firm that helps in accepting and adopting these changes in an effective way. In this consist a system regarding changes with including policies or procedures. These all depends on the environmental aspects or factors that can affects on the business operations. There are two major factors such as internal or external which can influence on decisions regarding business activities and functions as well.

References

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  • Branson, C.M., 2010. Leading educational change wisely. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
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  • Fullan, M., 2014. Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hallinger, P. and Heck, R.H., 2011. Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. In International handbook of leadership for learning (pp. 469-485). Springer Netherlands.
  • Malenfant, K.J., 2010. Leading change in the system of scholarly communication: A case study of engaging liaison librarians for outreach to faculty. College & Research Libraries. 71(1). pp.63-76.
  • Parsons, M.L. and Cornett, P.A., 2011. Leading change for sustainability. Nurse leader. 9(4). pp.36-40.
  • Salmela, S., Eriksson, K. and Fagerström, L., 2012. Leading change: a three‐dimensional model of nurse leaders’ main tasks and roles during a change process. Journal of advanced nursing. 68(2). pp.423-433.
  • Suchman, A.L., 2011. Leading change in healthcare: Transforming organizations using complexity, positive psychology and relationship-centered care. Radcliffe Publishing.
  • Thomas, T., 2013. Leading change and innovation in teacher preparation: A blueprint for developing TPACK ready teacher candidates. TechTrends. 57(5). pp.55-63.
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