This assessment will cover further questions:
- Determine the factors that impact travel and tourism consumer behaviour and attitudes
- Explain how marketers influence the different stages of the travel and tourism consumer decision making procedure.
- Generate the ability to map a path to purchase in a travel and tourism context, including the decision-making process attractions.
- Shift consultancy is business management consultants. Evaluate relevant forms of research for understanding influences on the travel and tourism consumer decision-making process.
Travel and tourism industry works with main goal of providing necessary and desired experiences or services to the travellers. It is said to be fast growing industry in the world and providing employment to local communities. Consumer behaviour is conceptual study which identifies actions and motives for purchasing decisions (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016). Shift consultancy was founded in 2015 by Jane Ginnever with the aim to change the manner the world works. In this report different factors will be analysed that affects consumer behaviour and attitude and role of digital technology on consumer trends as well. Explanation about consumer decision process will be given along with its importance for organisation to understand the process. Differences between B2B and B2C will be compared using examples and approaches will be evaluated to understand decision making process. Al last, evaluation will be done on influencing various step of decision process with the help of example.
P1 Factors influencing consumer behaviour
There are different factors that has direct and indirect impact on consumer behaviour and attitude which influences its buying process. The main factors are as follows:
Cultural: This is one of major factors which is divides into sub-categories and need to understand completely so that travel and tourism organisation can target consumers basis on these factors.
Culture: It comprises of belief of individual, role it plays in society, behaviour of society, values, traditions and customs.
Sub-Culture: It is group of individuals who are characterised to have similar traditions, values and customs like country, religion, geographic location and racial group (Prebensen, Chen and Uysal, 2018).
Social Class: Every society has one or more social class which has same buying behaviour and posses quite similar attitude in decision making. There can be factors like income, educational level, occupation, etc.
Personal: There are number of personal factors and most significant in influencing consumer behaviour and attitude in buying decision. There is need that travel and tourism firms are able to analyse and target customers on there basis.
Life Style: It comprises of activities, interest and opinions that affect pattern of buying in an individual which are having different occupations and culture.
Occupation: Such group has average interest in purchasing products or services of organisation and thus business have distinguish products for such groups (Ukpabi and Karjaluoto, 2017).
Economic Situations: This influences choice of product an individual will buy according to their budget and economical stability.
Psychological: There are different factors like motivation, perception, learning, experience, attitude and belief which affects the buying behaviour strongly. These has impact on thinking, judgement, emotional feeling, past experiences and motivation that consumers have while making decision related to buying product or services.
Social: They are divided into family, reference group, role and status which has impact on buying behaviour of customers. They have different opinion leader, family members, role in families and status in society to maintain so that their expenses are decided accordingly.
P2 Impact of digital technology on consumer trends
The emergence computer and mobile phone over some years there is drastic changes in terms of marketing by companies. In travel and tourism industry it becomes essential to understand the impact technological aspects has created on consumer trends. Some of them are as follows:
Decreased customer attention: There are number of videos and posts posted on internet everyday which make it difficult for audience to consume (Pappas, 2016). This making attention of consumers to reduce and thus it arise need to find a innovative way to attract buyers. For this companies need to personalised experiences by identifying needs and wants.
Ease of access: Before consumers buying decision were based on feedback from friends and relatives but these days technology plays important role in influencing attitude of buyers. Thus it is essential that travel and tourism companies made information of products and services available in adequate content so that it can have impact on buying process of consumers. This can be done making effective presence online and improving image by positive feedback of customers.
Brand Trust: With the help of technology starting online business has become easy by minimum investment. While making decision for such businesses buyers mostly rely on trust audience have on that particular brand. For this travel and tourism need to formulate strategies to become more trustworthy with the help of content marketing so that brand image can be improved.
Customer Expectations: Due to changes in technology and many businesses which are providing similar products has made to increase in customer experience. In case of travel and tourism travellers want that all their needs are fulfilled by one company so that their experience can be enhanced (Santos, Veiga and Águas, 2016). This implies that determinant which can be influence is to meet all travelling demand of guests.
Customer Experience: Due to changes in trend these days customer emphasis more on increasing their experience rather than expectations. If travel and tourism organisations wants to survive and have growth in industry then they need to invest in resources that enhance customer experience so that they become loyal for business.
P3 Stages of consumer decision making process
Consumer buying behaviour is process by which buyers makes decisions related to purchasing a product or availing services (Gibson and O’Rawe, 2018). There are different steps by which consumers passes through to ensure that they are effective in their decision, are as follows:
Need Recognition: This is first step in which consumer recognise that there is need for some product or service. All the factors are analyse like need of product, necessity or luxury, etc. and further decisions are made accordingly. In case of travel and tourism need that can arise is may be of spending family vacations on holiday and thus taking decision related to that.
Search information: The next step is to search all related information regarding vacations locations, number of days, holiday packages, etc. For this different platforms will be use like social media, official websites, commercial news, etc. At this stage consumer might come across information of various travel and tourism companies which are offering competitive packages and facilities.
Comparing alternatives: After gathering all the relevant information next phase is to compare alternatives that are available with customers. In context of travel and tourism industry packages, facilities and accommodations are evaluated of different companies. This can be done with feedback present online, families, friends and relatives so that effective planning can be done.
Purchase decision: In this step consumer make decision related to buying product or availing services based on evaluating alternatives. Best packages with maximum facilities and qualitative accommodations will be selected by consumer so that they can have good experience in travelling with family.
Post Buying Behavior: This phase is concerned with evaluating benefits that consumer gained after spending amount in order to buy product or services. Travel and tourism industry evaluation is done on basis of accommodations, facilities, experience and satisfaction level. If satisfaction level was meeting the expectations of buyer than they will become loyal to travel and tourism company otherwise they will switch to another firm (Models of Consumer Choice, 2019).
P4 Importance of consumer buying behavior for marketers
There are various models that organisations uses so that consumer buying behavior can be understood clearly and strategies are formulated accordingly. Models provides clear knowledge about factors that influences consumer buying behavior process. Some of them are as follows:
Reasoning View Model: This is one of most rationale model which helps in understanding customer needs and wants by different concept. This model state that without the need recognition step of decision making process buyers do not demand for product or services (Ruiz-Mafe, Tronch and Sanz-Blas, 2016). In this stage travel and tourism company should recognise this step and information related to its product should be attractive and appealing so that buyers do not search for alternatives.
Passive Model: This model of understanding consumer behavior states that promotional tools and technique of marketing department have great influence on decision making. It is important that travel and tourism companies make strategies while marketing their services effectively so that it create impact on mind of buyer. Business needs to have completely information regarding packages, accommodations hotels and other facilities so that buyers decisions can be influenced.
Emotional Perspective Model: This model helps marketers to understand emotional perspective of consumer towards buying particular product or services. This attachment is reason of usage by different generation or over long period of time. In case of travel and tourism industry this may arise due to feedback from friends and relatives or their experiences towards facilities. Thus it is important that firms main objective should be to enhance customer experiences.
Economic Model: This is one of most common model which helps marketers to understand consumer and their respective buying behavior (Disegna and Osti, 2016). This provide information related to prices, purchasing power and substitutes available in market. This implies that packages should be in budgets of travelers which also provide maximum satisfaction and enhances their experience for future references.
P5 Compare and contrast B2B and B2C decision making
B2B businesses are indulge in selling products or services to other organisation.
It involves selling directly to consumers for their personal use.
In case of B2B travel and tourism business uses logical and rational thinking while making purchase decision so it is important that relationships can be build on credibility and trust.
The main goal of marketing is to influence customer buying behaviour so that revenue can be generated and relationships can be build to make them loyal for future (Kozak and Kozak, 2016).
In this case travel and tourism brand will only help in consideration and not for business. In this brand identity is based on experience of clients, quality and marketing efforts.
In selling directly with consumers brand image can influence their buying behaviour, loyalty and in premium pricing policy. This can be done with making brand awareness and positioning in market.
Business buyers are usually sophisticated and want product or services that are profitable, competitive and helps in succession of operations. Thus it must deliver necessary information to the customer only.
Consumer analysed for best prices and evaluate it with other competitors before reaching to buying decision. Thus it is important that customer service improve awareness and trust to generate revenue.
Similarities: There are many factors that are similar for travel and tourism organisations while dealing with B2B and B2C and thus influences buying decision process in both cases. Some of them are as follows:
- while dealing with both customer it is important that there is strong customer service so that their experience can be enhances to make them loyal for company.
- The main objective of marketing in these different field is to improve customer loyalty so that revenue can be generated and business has sustainability in industry (Font and McCabe, 2017).
- There is need that sales process is continuous and customer-centric so that organisational objectives can be achieved.
P5 Different approaches to understanding decision making process
There are different marketing research which also helps in understanding consumer decision-making process for buying, some of them are as follows:
Qualitative Approach: This research method is helpful in collecting data related to behavior, attitude, trends, beliefs, social group, etc. Thus will help in understanding factors that are related to personal and psychological elements in buying behavior process of consumers.
Quantitative Approach: This approach focuses more on mathematical formulas, statistical tools and numerical data so that understand of quantify factors are done respectively.
P7 Marketers influencing various stages of consumer decision making
It is needed that travel and tourism organisation have strategies so that each and every step of consumer buying behavior process can be influenced effectively. The
Content marketing: In the era of digitalisation it is important that travel and tourism companies focuses more on promotional tools and techniques that result in content marketing. In this complete information should be given on official websites or single link would be provided so that buyers does not need to access multiple web pages. This will be helpful when customers are searching information and evaluating alternatives (De Nisco, Papadopoulos and Elliot, 2017). This factor will have impact on buying attitude and thus important for business to employ this as strategy.
Communication and language: While targeting different type of audience it is important that this aspect should be kept in mind. Advertisements campaigns are not only for customers but intended to be for public as well so that it can create larger impacts. To ensure this it is important that communication is done with proper channel which has extensive reach. In case of language it should be according to cultural and diversity so that audience does not that affected by it. This will have impact on search information stage of process and thus important for travel and tourism marketers.
Emotional loyalty: This is one of crucial aspect that marketers need to map so that post buying behavior of consumer is positive and they become loyal for business. While providing services it is important that company has main objective of enhancing experience and satisfaction level of customer so that they becomes loyal for next buying behavior decision (Cetin and Bilgihan, 2016). This model is effective for enriching post buying behavior of consumer decision making process so that loyalty can be build and maintained.
Thus the factors that are discussed above are effective in mapping different stage of buying behavior so that travel and tourism companies can influenced effectively. All such will help in creating impact on various phase of steps which in return generate revenue for company as well.
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It can be concluded from above report that travel and tourism industry is associated with improving travelling experience of guests. Consumer behavior is related to factors like attitude and beliefs which have direct and direct impact on buying decision. There are different personal, culture, psychological and social factors which influences customer buying behavior. There are trends like ease of access, brand trust, customer experience, etc. that are emerging due to technological impact. Customer passes through five stage model of decision-making before making purchase or product or service. B2B is selling to another businesses for manufacturing or production and B2C is selling directly to consumer for personal use, there are differences and similarities for travel and tourism firms while dealing with them. There are qualitative and quantitative research method which will help company to understand buying process of consumer. Need online assignment help in the UK. Contact our experts.