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L/616/1805 Operation And Project Management Unit 21 HND in Hospitality Management

University: Cranfield University

  • Unit No: 14
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 15 / Words 3652
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 6193

Table of Content

  1. Introduction


Operation management is a business administration practices to develop high level of efficiency with in the company in order to enhance quality of product and services. It is manage designing and controlling whole manufacturing process as well as redesigning production to produce goods. Operations management is a very important for an company which aid in dealing with large firms. This is necessary that managers of organisation require to investigate or check workers who are running a business in an effective way. Their are certain activities of enterprise or functions which can linked with one another so it will decline the wastage as well as time of producing a product of unnecessary resources (Antonio Martins and Ramos Martins, 2012). In this assignment it is base on Hot point organisation as it sell and develop home appliances of kitchen. Products offered by organisation are refrigerator, hobs, hoods, dishwashers etc. this organisation is founded in 1911 in UK. In this report they have discussed about principles of management operations as well as their main application of organisation. Plc and its theories show effectiveness of applying of product life cycle. They also plan a continuous improvement plan which is based on operations and management are discussed as well.

Review and critique of execution of operation management principle

Operation management is a key role department in the manufacturing industry. The proper execution of process from materials to final product depends upon operation management. The main significance of the operation management in manufacturing industry is due to meet the availability of product with the current demand. Hence this process works on certain principle.

Given below the few principles:-

  1. Men power planning: The first and primary need to have sufficient work force. The man power should be efficient to perform the task. To produce a sufficient number of item me power should be equivalent to that requirement (Fleming and Koppelman, 2016).
  2. Cost: The next important principle is to have sufficient capital to run these activities. It is required to maintain the proper flow of work and process. The proper management of working capital is necessary to meet the routine demand of funds.
  3. Machine: To produce anything machinery is a vital component. The procurement and maintenance of machinery is another important aspect. With the proper maintenance and management of machinery more output can be produce with less input. This helps to increase productivity and profitability.
  4. Materials: Raw material and semi-finished goods are another key component for production. The quality of finished good depends upon quality of finished goods. The performance and reliability of product is affected by the quality of materials. The inventory management becomes very important because shortage of one material may stop the whole operation function.
  5. Methods: The standardization of methods ensures the consistency of product performance in each product of the company. It establishes the proper execution of each and every step of operation. Each step in process is in continuation of other step and one step must be independent of other step.
  6. Supply chain management: The art of delivering goods from manufacturers to end customer is performed by operation management. It is a task of operation management to make available the good in market as per the demand (Gunasekaran and Ngai, 2012). The availability of goods should not be either more than demand or less than demand. The match between demand and supply is an utmost important principle of operation management.

Application of Six Sigma in operation management:-

The concept of six sigma was introduces in the year 1986 by the Motorola corporation. The six sigma concept aims at improving the quality of goods at each step of production. It improves the efficiency and effectiveness of process. There are certain steps of six sigma known as DMAIC which are given below:-

  1. Define: It is initial step of DMAIC which focuses on identifyingthe process and procedures. It differentiates one step from another step and gives proper weightage to each step. It also describes the value of each step in the process.
  2. Measure: Once the steps and procedures are identified the next step is to measure the effectiveness of each step and procedure in whole process. This is done by keeping records and data of each step.
  3. Analysis: The next step is to critical think about the effectiveness of each step. This gives and feasible idea of performance in every aspect. This analysis may result into changes in former steps (Lenfl and Loch, 2010). The analysis is done by the keeping the whole process in mind.
  4. Improve: Once the benefit and usefulness of each step is analysed the next move is to make necessary changes in the existing set up and improve the process.
  5. Control: Monitoring and controlling is the final and most important element to give a proper direct direction to the former steps which will result into the high performance without making any waste to resources.

Application of Lean principle in operation management:-

The Lean principle was founded by Mr. James P. Womack and Mr. Daniel T. Jones in the year 1997 with an aim to enhance and deliver the high performance and productivity in engineering work. It is a concept which incorporates values in technical work.

  1. Identify Value: Value is always defined by in terms of benefit delivered to customer with respect to the features of the products. It shows that how product will satisfy the customer need.
  2. Map the value stream: Once the value of the product is determined next step is to align each step in process to maximise the value of the product. It also involves the steps which are not contributing in the value enhancement of product.
  3. Create flow: Once those step are identified which are waste the next step is to ensure the flow of all valuable steps (Mir and Pinnington, 2014).
  4. Establish pull: With the effective flow of valuable steps the demand of the product can be effectively met with creating a pull of demand and supply.
  5. Seek perfection: By practicing all these steps in a disciplined way perfection can be achieved.

Continuous improvement plan based on principle of operation management

The term continuous improvement plan means making regular effort to improve the productivity in each step every time. In operation management it is important to achieve continuous improvement in the light of principle of operation management (Antonio Martins and Ramos Martins, 2012). Continuous improved is a way to improve current performance from last performance.

Sr. No.

Principle of operation management

Current performance

Expected performance


Men Power

The current performance is low due to average skills of man power.

The expected performance of men is to produce more goods in less time. Performance can be improved by giving proper training to labour. Improving skills will enhance the productivity. These training needs to be done time to time to maintain the performance.



Currently the cost of production is high due to poor management of funds (Beringer, Jonas and Kock, 2013).

The expected performance in terms cost is to get more goods at least cost. The expected performance can be achieved by proper management of funds. The proper allocation of funds in the resources is very important.



Currently machinery producing equal goods. It means inputs are equal to output.

The expected performance is to increase the output with less input. This can be done by introducing new technologies in machinery.



In recent time, methods are not competitive as per competition.

The expectation is to improve competitive position by using SIX SIGMA and LEAN approach of operation management. By introducing standardization in the methods in guideline of SIX SIGMA will improve the methodology of production and operation.



In the current scenario the material are of average quality. Whereas company also face the shortage of Raw material sometime. This creates a shortage of product in the market for sometimes. Hence affects the sales turnover of the company.

The expectation is to create a balance between demand and supply. This expectation can be completed by Lean approach which with its various steps will ensure the supply of the product with the demand (Blomquist, and et. al., 2010).


Supply chain management

As stated above shortage of Raw material is there in the company.

The expectation is to deliver the product at right time. In order to make a strong supply chain management It is important to follow all the principle of operation management because these principle ensures the right direction of each step without waste in the resources.

The issues with XYZ Company has discussed with reference to principle of operation management. There needs to formulate competitive strategies to achieve the effectiveness of SIX SIGMA and LEAN approach. These principle of operation management needs to be align with principle of management. Following are the strategies for the continuous improvement in operations:-

  1. Communication and interaction: The effective execution of principle of operation management depends on the level communication within the organisation. In the organisation there should be a proper flow of order and instruction. It creates a clear vision of expectations. It also delivers the message of top management to the employee. This reduces the confusion and doubt. Hence employees work with more focus and enthusiasm. Another important aspect is interaction among the staff (Brauers and Zavadskas, 2010). Organizations where people interact with each other in positive aspect are fruitful for the organisation because employee tends to become team player.
  2. Employee relation: Employee engagement and retention is very important for continuous improvement. Because it is the person who introduces changes and improves. With great employee relationship change contribute in the growth of the organisation. It is employees who improves the existing set up and make it successful to achieve goals. No organisation can achieve its goal without having support of employee. It is important to make them understand the necessity of each step.
  3. Leadership: The kind of leadership firm follows affects the improvement plan. In order to make continuous improvement the firm should make changes in the leadership style. The firm should focus on the transformational style of leadership. The leadership style that empowers employee to perform task with more responsibilities and accountability. Leadership is an essential element for improvement because it leads to the whole organisation in a constructive direction with keeping in mind the each and every aspect of business.
  1. Responsibility and accountability: To do continuous improvement firm should assign responsibility to each and every to each employee with accountability of task (Fernández-Sánchez and Rodríguez-López, 2010). This will create a sense of responsibility and authority in the mind of employee and hence they will perform the task with more dedication and sincerity.
  1. Monitoring and controlling: Monitoring and controlling is important to give right direction to the organisation. This step ensures the zero wastage of the resources. There should be monitoring and controlling of each new step and process. Even if the improvement is happening on daily basis still monitoring and controlling should be there to minimize the threat of any fault.

Application of Product Life Cycle

Management of an organisation develop strategies and plan to launch new product according to market demand. For this, they need to prepare plan related to investment if new production system are used as well as good launches at different market place. There are various available sources in order to launch new commodity in the same industry. Management of the company select and choose best manufacturer for improve productivity at long period of time in business activity.

The research and development division of an organisation used to set up for analysis of needs and wants in order to produce product and services accordingly. They are analysis market situation which are includes production cost, expectation, durability and features (Beringer, Jonas and Kock, 2013). Research and development department have to observe all work element genuinely while analysis in the same industry. The TV must have contain new and innovation feature as compare to their competitors that provide competitive advantage at market place.

Another one of the most important element which helps to analysis market condition of product and services of competitors. They develop strong and effective features in goods to provide high customer's satisfaction. PLC stand for product life cycle that are refer to existence of the good at market place. It is a one of the important function of marketing department. Its provide information related to commodity development in industry. This method are predict that goods have always ended in duration of business. An organisation must analysis liner product life cycle, that means manufacture product which are provide high profits at market.

Product life cycle stages

  • Introduction stage- It is a starting phase of goods development as well as first step of product life cycle. It is a very essential stage because all other steps are depended on completion of this stage effectively. In this stage firm develop plan to produce product and services. Manager are plays important role in initial stage of product development, they are analysis market situations accordingly produce commodity and forecast demand to gain effective outcome in given time frame (Blomquist, and et. al., 2010). They are conducting marketing research to know customer's needs and wants. They are play important role with in Hot point is to analysis market situations, they take necessary step for launching new good in industry. There are various rivalry of company at market place which are produce large size TV. In that stage where commodity sales are low, company make effective plan and policies to promote launching new product and services in between potential customers at market place. It takes around 5 to 6 week.
  • Growth stage- In that stage where commodity of firm may stable at market most of clients are aware about new goods. Through this, firm profitability and sale is enhance that provide high market share, income and revenue in better ways in limited period of time. New product take 7 to 8 week in become stable at market place.
  • Maturity stage- Maturity stage is a that stage where products are fully absorbed by market and there are not other scope of development in their sale in future. But with modification in existing goods firm are capable to gain profits which are continue in future period also (Brauers and Zavadskas, 2010). Management of the company develop innovation in order to take high position at market place and commodity will move toward decline stage.
  • Decline stage- In this stage product sale are continuously decrease and on that time clients are can not prefer to take goods as there is a no new feature added in existing product. Management of the company want to remove this kind of commodity form their product line in order to maintain profitability effectively.

This kind of method are analysis management efforts with in firm that increase probability. There are various important role of leaders which are improve quality of goods. Through this, company are able to gain high market share as well as profits. Along with this, operations manager are need to develop strategies to enhance employees performance and productivity.

Management of the company may ask opinion by their employees in order to give best activities which are improve career opportunities. The main objectives of product life cycle is develop quality of product and services which helps to gain higher market position as compare to their competitors at large industry (Fernández-Sánchez and Rodríguez-López, 2010). There are several workers which should used leadership approaches and style in order to achieve goals and objectives in given time frame.

Effectiveness of product life cycle in application of project

Hot point try to enter in a large market with their new goods. Organisation has make their goodwill within a large area of market as well as it is difficult to maintain firms image. It is very important role of manager to motivate their employees by providing them best facilities to their buyers in an effective way. Also manager of Hot point say that if organisation can grow their expectation for making workers growth as it is possible. Product life cycle is not an easy to implement with its future planning within a limited time. It is important that techniques as well as policies are aid in achieving targets and goals in an effective way. Leaders and managers require to analysed which help in satisfying all companies objectives (Fleming and Koppelman, 2016). It is stated clearly that all followed discussion require to utilize various changes as per their needs and demands of buyers. This is important for taking consumers preferences as well as taste into consideration.

Product life cycle is important for executing proper policies as well as techniques which are linked to services and goods. Hot point in entered with their new good so it is necessary to maintain their quality properly. Many of organisations are dealing with this domain, firms is an difficult work for accomplishing with them. It can be completed when company give better quality as it is based on its facilities and services at a cheaper rate. Manager of Hotpoint can effectively take care of their competitors strategies and policies. PLC is im portant for applying plans which are linked to new products as well as it is important to correct functions when it is needed. As it is not using a theoretical task but it is necessary for implementing proper policies.

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Their are various sources which are needed within a large market. Also manger of company should consider it is an cheap and best rate (Gunasekaran and Ngai, 2012). Various department are dream for evaluating their project. This involve logistic administration, inventory control etc. that will help in reducing wastage materials as well as manage cost in an effective way.


As per above report it is concluded that it can analysed the operations of management which is very important for company which aid in dealing with a large firms. This is necessary that manger of organisation require to investigate workers which are doing within business in an effective way. Their is some main role of leaders for giving evaluation and measure how to improve position of proper services as well as products in higher area of market. It is very main role of manager is to motivate employees for giving their best productivity in an efficient way. Operational activities helps to reduce waste as well as effectively manage inventory cut down production cost as well as selling price of product and services.

Read Also- Hospitality Management- Enhancing Customer Experience


  • Antonio Martins, V. and Ramos Martins, M., 2012. Outsourcing operations in project management offices: The reality of Brazilian companies. Project management journal. 43(2). pp.68-83.
  • Beringer, C., Jonas, D. and Kock, A., 2013. Behavior of internal stakeholders in project portfolio management and its impact on success. International Journal of Project Management. 31(6). pp.830-846.
  • Blomquist, T. and et. al., 2010. Projectaspractice: In search of project management research that matters. Project Management Journal. 41(1). pp.5-16.
  • Brauers, W. K. M. and Zavadskas, E. K., 2010. Project management by MULTIMOORA as an instrument for transition economies. Technological and Economic Development of Economy. 16(1). pp.5-24.
  • Fernández-Sánchez, G. and Rodríguez-López, F., 2010. A methodology to identify sustainability indicators in construction project management—Application to infrastructure projects in Spain. Ecological Indicators. 10(6). pp.1193-1201.
  • Fleming, Q. W. and Koppelman, J. M., 2016, December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute.
  • Gunasekaran, A. and Ngai, E. W., 2012. The future of operations management: an outlook and analysis. International Journal of Production Economics. 135(2). pp.687-701.
  • Lenfle, S. and Loch, C., 2010. Lost roots: how project management came to emphasize control over flexibility and novelty. California Management Review. 53(1). pp.32-55.
  • Mir, F. A. and Pinnington, A. H., 2014. Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management. 32(2). pp.202-217.
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