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- Discuss about the Stages of Criminal Justice Procedure.
- Discuss about the role and responsibilities of criminal justice process.
Present report is based upon the study of the criminal justice process which is started by undertaking investigation in the criminal matter and ended with resolving the matter either through punishing the guilty or releasing the accused if he is not convicted any of the crime under the criminal justice process (Martin, 2019). In this the agency which deal in resolving the criminal matters is relating to the Crown prosecution services which main role is to provide judicial advice to police and other agency which are dealing in the matters of the criminal attributes. This agency carries to be the non ministerial government department in which the business is influenced through the activities committed by the Attorney general for English and Wales. This report carries the matters as identifying the stakeholder which are engaging under the criminal justice procedure.
Stages of Criminal Justice Procedure
Whenever a crime is caused, investigation is decided by the police. The process of criminal process is conducted in the following manner
Criminal Justice Process Police: The police are referred to as the key gate keepers associated with the criminal justice system. They are the first person who tends to make contact with the accused offenders. They are; in the effective position to make relevant set of important decision.
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS): They are of key relevance importance in relevance with the criminal justice system. CPS are the lawyers who in turn are highly responsible for effectively examining the evidence which has been collected by the police. They are the ones who help in deciding whether to carry out the criminal proceeding with the help of court prosecution stage. CPS is also responsible for carrying out prosecutions and preparing the cases for the court.
Court and Tribunal : Legal document by grand jury of the data by prosecuting officer. HM Courts and Tribunal services are responsible for administering civil, criminal and family tribunals and courts in England & Wales. Magistrate court deal with offences that; are less serious, like motoring, minor criminal damages or disorderly or being drunk. Youth court is court of special magistrates that deals with major and serious charges against the people ageing between ten to seventeen. Crown court deal with serious offences such as murders, rape and like that can be tried by judges or jury. All the cases are presented before the courts for trial and getting decisions.;
Sentencing : At the time when the accused are found guilty, judges metes out the sentence. The possible sentence includes fines, probation period, imprisonment or as deemed fit by judges.
Investigation : There is an investigation of crime by police. Investigation are conducted for gathering evidences and identifying suspects & supporting arrests. Investigation are conducted for identifying the proofs in search.
Arrest : Suspects of crime are arrested by the business. It involves taking accused person into the custody to hold suspect till presented before; court (Martin, 2019). Cause of arrest is legal requirement of arrest. When it appears to be linkage between crime suspect and person who has been arrested. Prosecution Criminal defendant are prosecuted against district attorney. Charge for crimes are decided on basis of weighing of factors and the seriousness of offences and strength of evidences. CPS are the lawyers who in turn are highly responsible for effectively examining the evidence which has been collected by the police.
Arraignment : Before the trials are conducted defendants are required to appear in court for entering the plea. The plea are related to whether person is guilty or not.
Bail or Pretrial detention : It refers to temporary custody for a defined period before the court trials. Bail refers to amount in terms of money which is paid by defendant for ensuring the the individual will be present for trial.
Adjudication of Guilt : This is a trial process for the judgment of the guilty conscience by jury, along with prosecutors and defence attorney participation. Trials are held before judges or jury. Standards of the information for criminal final judgment are the guilty conscience beyond the sensible doubts that is lower than hundred percent certainty but also high than the higher probability. If doubts are supported by reasons, suspected persons is eligible to be acquitted.
Appeals : The appeal filed by attorney in the appellate court & then ruled by the; appellate judges. If a cases are reversed by appellate court, cases are sent back to trial courts for the retrial (Newbury-Birch, and et.al., 2016). With reversal original trials become moot. Ask for assignment writing help from our experts!
Stakeholders working together for delivering justice.
Role and responsibilities of a range of public services and related organizations involved in the criminal justice process
Stakeholders in criminal justice are person affected with system of criminal justice system. It includes internal & external stakeholders. The internal stakeholders could be considered as criminal justice system, and external stakeholders refers to those served by criminal justice and are affected in one or other way.
Internal stakeholders It includes judges, probation officers, police officers, correctional officers, parole officers courts, lawyers & the other individuals. These people are the ones that have the responsibility of enforcing law and interpretation of law (Stakeholders in Criminal Justice System, 2019). They are the part of internal criminal justice systems. Adding to these, also person who are suspicious of crime or are convicted can be also considered as the internal stakeholders in criminal justice systems. All the above stakeholders are linked to one another and affect each other. These stakeholders are required to perform their duties and undertake their responsibilities carefully for prevention of crimes and ensuring that justice is delivered. Lawyers ensure that the laws are not manipulated for saving the convicted people or for money but, ensure that the real culprits are punished. Judges have to ensure that adequate evidences and proofs are assessed and critically analysed for taking decisions.
External stakeholder It includes the media, elected officials, groups serving as victims of crimes, families, business, schools as well as society in general. Every victim of is impacted in some or other way. Media is impacted when the crimes are reported by them. Also the persons receiving news reports from media about the crimes are impacted. Everyone in one or the other way have effects of criminal justice (MacManus and Wood,2017). Starting from laws passed to the treatment of the offenders, whole society is influenced. Stakeholders are required to work together for providing the support that every person accused is punished and the person suffered gets the justice. Both internal and external stakeholders are required to work together so that everyone gets justice and the accused people are punished. Media should report news that is right the information should not presented in the manner which influences the people. The educational institutes should take the responsibilities of educating the students to exercise morality in their life. Elected officials should ensure that people are complying with the laws and regulations set for maintaining peace and for protecting people from harm.
Different methods of measuring the effectiveness of criminal justice process
It is really difficult to measure the effectiveness of CJP. It can be measured by seeing whether the right person is being arrested and also they are not being involved in doing crime further. So, it is the duty of the police to perform their duty in respect of providing security to the defendant who admit their crime. They need to perform the testimonials so that they can keep hold on local agencies and preventing them to commit crime. In relation to improving the criminal justice process, it carries various method which is used by the polices or judges in court in respect of:
- Not discrimination is done on person on the bases of caste, sex, colour, region and religion. As every person are equal in the eyers of the law. If the criminal person are committed any of the illegal activity in group, then equivalent punishment is imposed upon the parties, if they indulge in any of the crime.
- Under the criminal justice process, every person are presented in the police station for conducting the pre trail bases regarding examining the reason behind committing the crime. In such manner, fair trails is to be undertaken so that the accused can easily accept their guilt and also they are to be protected if they disclosed the truth in front of the police (Ost and et.al., 2017). So, it is the duty of the police to perform their duty in respect of providing security to the defendant who admit their crime.
- Methods which is used by the judges regarding finding alternative instead of sending the person to infringement. As every person is given the chance to bring changes in their life and thus, it is not necessary that harsh punishment is to be imposed upon the person to punish for his guilt activities. Through this manner, it promotes the community safety through undertaking the alternatives to Incarceration.
- Prosecutors must enhances their integrity through maintaining ethics at work place. As this is necessary things which is carried by the prosecutor during presenting their case before the judges. As corruption is one of the major criminal charge which results in increasing the criminal procedure regarding collecting the evidence (Manikis, 2017). Thus, resulting in carrying the work ethics regarding dealing with various person and collecting evidence to prove the crime in better way.
- Method regarding ensuring decent detention punishment is the basic right of the parties. As it is also mentioned in the constitution, the criminal are to be treated in liberal way a and thus not take any strict action in respect of facing any injuries or death to any of the prisoner in jail. Thus, this is one of the major method which is mainly demanded by the prisoner by writing a letter to the superior court regarding granting relief from the strict proceeding in jail. Need Assignment Examples?Talk to our Experts!
Performance data in measuring effectiveness of Criminal Justice process
Crime statistics could be used by the professionals to analyse the increase in the crimes in the region during the specified time period. This could be followed by the law enforcement interventions for preventing the predicted crimes to occur. The performance data regarding the criminal cases and records helps in analysing the effectiveness of CJP. A strong and effective process will show lower cases and criminal incidents as compared with regions having weak CJP. There is no set criteria to measure the effectiveness of Justice process but the satisfaction level of people living states how much safe they feel reveals about the effectiveness of criminal justice process. The performance helps over great extent to measure effectiveness of the CJP and also helps to analyse the steps that could be taken for improving the justice process.
Stakeholders effectiveness in reducing the reoffending
Reoffending mainly exist in respect of committing the crime in near future but it can be reduced in respect of providing various facilities such as accommodation to the prisoners, providing stationary equipment which helps in building their knowledges and also became familiar with the external world (Birks and Douglas, eds., 2018). In respect of stakeholders such as:
Police: In respect of reoffending, police can stop the person to commit crime through imposing penalties as in case of traffic penality, it is imposed through imputing higher penalties which results in not committing crime in near future.
Probation service: They are such person who are working and managing the activities through working with the offenders. Their main role is to minutely examine the working of the criminal through making the community safer. They help the prisoner to get back to their normal routine life, once they convicted with their illegal crime (Weare and 2019). In respect of reducing the reoffending activities, it results in allotting their interest work to them, so that they are busy in their work and results in; scheduling their day to day activities in better way.;
Prison service: They play the role in respect of managing the day to day activities of the prisoner in jail. Thus, they carry the huge liabilities regarding undertaking such activity which helps in managing the life of the prisoner in better way. As most of the chances of reoffending arise under jail and thus, the prison service is to be managed through reducing the offensive activities by involving them to work in jail only. Through this manner they get busy in their life and also get some source to earn money. Get Law assignment help from our Experts!
From the above report, the study discussed in context of criminal justice process as it refers to such process which provide justice to the parties and protect the right of the society in case of infringing any rights. Stakeholder carries various right in respect of securing the right of the person through facing any illegal activity. Every stakeholder carry different rights in the laws and thus their role in protecting the person and suspecting the criminals is also different. Various methods are examined ensuing the effectiveness of the criminal justice process, as it is the right of the person which are mentioned in the constitution. In context of matters related to reoffending, it is mainly undertaken when the person are proved to commit the crime again which affects their strategies regarding reducing the crime in better way. The role of public prosecutors are important in the criminal justice process as they carry the right regarding securing any person or giving them chances to bring changes in their life.
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