Employee relations can be defined as managing employee-employer relationship because employees are the significant part of any business. No business can run effectively without the best skilled employees (Hendrix, Hayes and Kumar, 2012). Therefore, it is crucial for employer to communicate with them regularly so that good relations can be managed at the workplace. However, the goal of employee relations program is to enhance the employee satisfaction and also maintain good morale among workers. Further, happy workers are more productive and they help in fulfilling the mission of an organization (Foster, 2014).
The report undertakes an organization named National Health Services (NHS) which provides a comprehensive range of health services to varied people. NHS is a publicly funded health care system in the countries of UK. However, the main aim of NHS is to develop effective employee relations so that they can provide quality services to its patients. At the end, report also evaluates the description regarding the concept of employee participation as well as involvement.
1.1 The unitary and pluralistic frames of references
The unitary frames starts from the values and assumptions which states that workplace conflict is not expected to between the manager and employee. However, a conflict starts from different behaviour that affect other employees working in the organization (Cullinane and Dundon, 2014). While, the pluralistic frames defines that organization deviates into powerful and different sub groups. Therefore, each group has its own lawful leader (Hendry, 2012). As both these groups have different values and objectives, in accordance to it, organization with pluralistic approach represents to be more suitable and perfect. It also helps in describing better employment relationships.
Both these aspects i.e. unitary and pluralistic are related to the employee relations that helps in providing varied views and interpretations regarding the ways with the help of which relationships exist between employees and employers at NHS. However, the unitarist perspective of employee relations states that it provides authority to make effective decision within business and thus they take decisions related to the management of the company. Therefore, it is essential for the business to develop effective relationship between employees and employers of NHS. While, the pluralistic frame of references states that the workplace consists of different types of attitude, belief, values and behaviours. However, this approach considers that trade unions play a crucial role within organization as it assists in making effective decisions so that results can be attained (Ackers, 2014). Furthermore, it can be considered that both these approaches are essential for NHS to develop effective employee relations (Jackson, Schuler and Werner, 2011). It helps NHS to make effective decisions regarding employees to develop trade unions within organization or not.
1.2 Changes in trade unionism affects employee relations
The trade unionism plays a crucial aspect in developing employee relations and therefore, any changes in it affects the employee relations. However, the trade union is considered as the linkage between workers and union leader which helps in coming together and protecting the common interest of business through reducing conflicts among employees. In the 19th and 20th century the trade union memberships have declined. The main reason behind the decline is that the businesses were concentrating on assaulting unions, bringing change in labour laws etc. Employees often demands from employer things like higher pay, extra benefits and good working conditions. Moreover, it has been noticed that in the 20th century, union movement in UK has been controlled by moderate new model unions. Therefore, it helped factory workers effectively as they joined the union with an aim of getting higher wages and the best working conditions. Further, in the coming years, various changes in the trade unionism has been noticed and this identifies that it directly causes the impact on the relations of employees in NHS (Leonard and Cardy, 2011). Following are the changes in the trade unionism which are enumerated as below-
Political and legal: Through introducing new laws and regulations within the country, it affects the aspect of employee relations in NHS. For instance, if UK government introduces effective policies in regard to provide equal opportunity to workers, they can effectively work within the business enterprise. Thus, it creates conflicts among trade unions and employer. Such type of conflict impacts the relationship between trade unions and management (Martin, 2010).
Technological: Furthermore, introducing new technology in the business helps in reducing the requirements of employees and thus NHS is required to overcome the conflicts so that they can develop good employee relations. Thus, in such type of situation, trade union plays an effective role i.e. of protector and mediator. However, if business retrench employees from work, then people adopt practices such as strikes and lockouts in factories which negatively affects the performance of NHS (Bach and Kessler, 2011).
1.3 The role of main players in employee relations
In any organization, there are various crucial players that are needed to maintain employee relations such as manager, workers and government agencies in order to attain desired goals and objectives. The role of trade union in employee relations is that it provides equal bargaining power and to represent the employees interests in the employment relationship. Thus, union are putting efforts in benefiting employees to receive better payment and working conditions. These individuals play a significant role in maintaining employee relations which are as follows:
Manager: The manager of NHS plays a vital role in maintaining relationship between employees and employers. However, the main responsibility of the manager is to provide effectual environment of working for its workers. Manager is required to play an effective role in order to manage the problems of workers and solve them for attaining the desired results. They should motivate their team members to provide assistance to patients and render them the best quality services by their workers. It also helps in encouraging and developing positive employee relationship among workers so that they can overcome the issues and encourage workers to achieve better outcomes (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).
Employees: They are an integral part of the business as they help in fulfilling the objectives of the firm. Therefore, NHS workers are required to follow effective rules and regulations so that they can provide effectual services to the patients. Thus, through following this activity, effective relationship can be developed among employees and employer. However, if the employees fail to comply the practices designed by the employer, then the conflict arises (Klerck, 2013). Therefore, it is essential for business to provide effective training and development to employees in order to attain the desired goals.
Government agencies: They introduce various types of laws and regulations which need to be followed by NHS. For instance, business is required to follow practices such as providing proper care to service users and thus employees should provide effective treatment to the patients in order to comply with the government rules and regulations and develop effective relationship between employees and employers ( McClean and Collins, 2011).
2.1 Assessing the procedures that NHS should follow at the time of dealing with different conflict situations
Further, there are various types of procedures that should be followed by NHS at the time of dealing with conflicts situations such as collective disputes and strikes etc. Therefore, such conflicts can be occurred within the business and therefore, management of NHS is required to follow effective procedures in regard to overcome such conflicts. NHS is facing serious challenge of providing better care to patients in order to cope with intensifying pressures and squeezing demands etc. Thus, the management of NHS is required to effectively deal with the situation and thus maintain the budget properly and also allocate the resources effectively in order to satisfy the needs of clients. Collective disputes can occurred at business because of ineffective allocation of work among employees, changes in terms and conditions of employment etc. Therefore, all these situations can be overcome by company through providing effective workplace for employees and assist them to provide best quality services to patients. Also, employees should raise their voice against management so that proper solution can be provided by management regarding the conflicts (Pandilwar and Sarkar, 2012). For instance, ineffective allocation of work is the problem therefore, management is required to allocate the work effectively among employees in order to attain desired results.
Furthermore, in order to resolve such conflicts, NHS is required to adopt effective dispute handling procedure so that effective decision can be taken in regard to overcome the issues. However, if such issues are not solved than it leads to disappointment among employees and thus they lead to strikes and lockouts which affects the performance of firm. Moreover, if the top management of NHS is fails to resolve the conflicts than an alternative dispute resolution procedure should be adopted by company. Through providing equal opportunities to employees and also develop effective workplace environment it assists NHS to resolve the conflicts and fulfil the needs of service providers (Rupp, 2011).
2.2 The key features of employee relations in a selected conflict situation
There are numerous key features of employee relations which need to be discussed in order to resolve the collective disputes conflicting situation. In NHS the dispute arises because of ineffective allocation of workers and thus partiality is done by the management in order to allocate the work effectively and efficiently. Thus, it develops a situation of negative environment within company. Further, it influences the performance of company as it is not able to provide effective services to patients and arises the conflict situation (Sánchez, 2011). The key features of employee relations are discussed below:
Hampering the relationship among employees at the time of ineffective allocation of work: The conflicting situation such as collective disputes that shackles the relationship between employees of NHS as the allocation of work is not done properly. It is all occurred because of improper allocation of work among employees and thus it affects their performance because they are not able to provide effective services to patients (Souza and Zajas, 2006).
Dissatisfaction of employees with NHS: Also, there are several workers who are dissatisfied with the NHS because of the varied rules and regulations of company and thus it creates conflicting situation like ineffective allocation of work. However, it develops a negative relationship between employers and employees (Wright and McMahan, 2011). Therefore, NHS is required to take timely action and provide satisfaction to employees through solving the conflicts (Van Buren, Greenwood and Sheehan, 2011).2.3 The effectiveness of procedures used in the conflict situation
The effectiveness of the procedures adopted by NHS in order to resolve the conflict situation such as collective disputes can be assessed. Therefore, in order to solve the conflicts, business is required to provide assistance through adopting disputed handling procedures. However, NHS should adopt conflict resolution theory in order to resolve the conflict situation faced by company and thus attain desired goals. The management of NHS is required to adopt effective dispute solving techniques at workplace so that desired goals can be attained. This is a crucial step in business that helps NHS to develop effective relationship among employees and employer so that proper allocation of work can be done. Manager is responsible to allocate the work effectively and also solve the issues raised among workers. Also, it is essential for top management of business in order to develop effective action and thus adopt policies so that conflict can be solved and best results can be attained (Devonish, 2013).
In order to manage the conflict situation it is essential for business to satisfy the needs of employees so that they can attain desired results. Also, through managing the collective disputes it helps in solving the identified conflict and solve the issues. The collective disputes that occurred at NHS should be presented by employees so that effective dispute handling procedure can be maintained. Firm should be able to maintain the conflicts among its employees so that effective results can be attained. Adopting effective conflict handling procedure by NHS in order to solve the conflict situation so that workers can solve the conflict situation and proper allocation of work can be done by management (Van Buren III and Greenwood, 2011).
3.1 Role of negotiation in collective bargaining
Collective bargaining states that labour unions developed to grant employees equal bargaining power to employees and also have the ability to exclusively set the terms and conditions of both work and pay. Negotiation plays a effective role in collective bargaining as it is the process where the group of workers carried out the act called negotiation with the employers in regard to employment such as holidays, pay hours etc. Moreover, it can also be stated that collective bargaining provides varied ways through which healthy discussion between managers and employees can be carried out within NHS. Therefore, in the collective bargaining process, employees of NHS are required to select a leader who undertakes the role of representative of all the employees (Collective disputes. 2015). However, with the helps of this various individuals will be able to present their view in front of leader and thus attain desired results. The NHS Staff Council consists of several UK health departments representing NHS employers. It helps in resolving any issues through managing conflicts and fulfilling their needs.
It assist company to provide employees an effective solution with regard to collective disputes and help NHS employees to negotiate with the conflicts. These are as follows-
Negotiation helps business in terms of reaching an effective solution- It states that the representative selected by all the employees helps in negotiating with the employer for the purpose of setting effective solution and thus solving the problem faced by workers. Thus, negotiation helps workers to carry out healthy relation with the management of company and helps in solving the collective disputes so that results can be attained (Disputes handling procedure. 2015).
Negotiation that assist in enhancing the effectiveness of the collective bargaining process- The process of collective bargaining process plays the main role of resolving the conflicts that are occurring between employees and employers of NHS. Through adopting negotiation process, employers can explain their employees about the reason behind the adoption of specified employment practice. Therefore, NHS is required to effectively allocate the work. Thus, it helps in enabling them to maintain effective relationship so that collective bargaining process so that results can be attained (Hendry, 2012).
3.2 The impact of negotiation strategy
The negotiation strategy impacts the collective disputes related situation of NHS has been assessed. Negotiation is the strategy through which the conflicting situation can be managed in business. Furthermore, in regard to this there are numerous negotiation strategies identified that impacts the situation of business. Further, it also comprises of following varied acts such as compromising, forcing and smoothing etc. Through adopting the compromising strategy, management of company are interested in finding the reasons in order to solve the specific issues which are faced by the employees of firm. Thus, in the collective disputes situation company adopts collective bargaining strategy that impacts the motivation of employees. As in such type of condition it is crucial for one party i.e. employee or employer to compromise their requirements (Bach and Kessler, 2011).
Thus, NHS is required to manage the situation in order to raise the motivation of employees and also provide effective allocation of work. While, forcing is another negotiation strategy which is the main aim of business to attain desired results. Thus, it helps company to adopt collective dispute situation which leads to developing the negative environment in business. Therefore, it is essential for NHS to provide equal opportunities for every employees so that they can adopt effective strategy in business and thus attain desired results (Klerck, 2013).
4.1 Assessing the influence of EU on industrial democracy in UK
Industrial Democracy states that it is an approach to giving workers some control over the conditions of their working lives. It aims to concern for the rights of workers in industry and share the control of industrial decisions (Emery and Thorsrud, 2013). European Union influences the industrial democracy in UK can be assessed. Industrial democracy is the type of structure that exists within the organization where employees provide authority in order to make their own decision at the workplace. Also, such type of democracy is being influenced through the legislation as framed by the EU. For instance, EU passes the act where it should depict the important role of employees in the decision making process of firm. Therefore, it is essential for NHS to follow the EU policies as per the industrial democracy in UK and provide best quality services to patients. However, sometimes it is not followed by the business then it leads to the condition of strikes and lockouts by the employees as their demands are not met (Leonard and Cardy, 2011).
Also, the condition arises of different national and cultural differences in terms of democracy which cause significant impact on the industrial democracy. Thus, it is crucial for NHS to adopt effective policies regarding involving employees in decision making so that best results can be attained. Further the influence of EU on the concept of partnership based relationship that affects the industrial democracy of UK (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). NHS is required to adopt effective European Union Directives so that they can direct and control the employees.
4.2 Comparing the methods to gain employee participation and involvement in decision making process
There are various methods that can be compared by NHS and adopt this with the objective of employee participation and involvement in the decision making process. Different methods such as consultation, survey and suggestion scheme etc. helps in analysing the employee participation and involvement in decision making process within firm. Through consultation it is one of the effective practice that can be adopted by business with the aim of involving employees and make effective decision making process. Thus, it assists business to provide opportunity to employees so that effective action can be performed. It also helps in raising the motivation of employees and help employees to participate and involve in decision making process of NHS (Jackson, Schuler and Werner, 2011). NHS should adopt quality circles, team working and empowerment so that they can develop total quality management, customer service initiatives etc. in order to gain results. Involving employees is crucial because it helps them to take part in decision making.
Also, business invites employees and encourage them to provide their valuable suggestion that assist management of firm to involve it in business and attain desired results. It helps employees to involve themselves in decision making and also provide opportunities to them in order to attain desired results. Through comparing the varied methods it assist NHS to encourage their employees and involve them to participate in the decision making process so that NHS can deliver best services to patients. Thus, it helps business to implement such practices and enhance the working condition of firm (Fost