Management and operations refer to the administration of business practices in order to bring the highest level of efficiency possible within an organization. It is related to the activities including conversion of materials and labor into finished products that can be sold to the targeted customers and maximize the profit of an organization. For this, the management is held responsible to perform its roles and responsibilities in a more effective and efficient manner that will company in achieving huge sales and revenue. The present assignment is based on Tesco Plc which is one of the largest supermarket retailers in UK engaging in providing a wide range of groceries products. The project discusses roles and characteristics of leaders and managers, theories and models of approaches along with their strengths and weaknesses, analysis of external factors, etc.
(A) Differences and similarities between a leader and manager by considering their roles and characteristics
Definition of Manager: It is an individual who is liable to manage and monitor the performance level of employees at workplace with a clear objective of executing business operations more effectively and brings maximum profits to company (Balasubramaniam and et. al., 2016)..
Definition of leader: Leader is an individual who has an ability to get work done from others in more effective and efficient manner by providing them suitable guidance and motivation which indirectly support in increasing their efficiency level as well.
Comparison of leaders and managers:
Manager is having various traits such as Forge vision, visionary, Emphatic etc. which brings employees together to achieve organisational goals.
Leader is goal oriented who follows vision of manager. Along with this, they act as motivator who brings employees into confidence to work hard and provide maximum results.
Roles and responsibilities
Managers is responsible to manage and execute business functions and activities that will bring profitable outcomes to company in near future.
Leaders act as a motivator whose main focus is to increase the performance level and contribution of employees towards organisational goals either through adopting motivational programs or leadership styles.
Authority and power
Manager has power to make suitable planning and policies for betterment of both employees as well as an organisation. For example, incentive programs which enhances the efficiency of employees as well as productivity of organisation.
Leaders has power to control over the performance level of employees by following all the guidelines and policies framed by the managers.
Similarities between leader and manager
Managers and leaders both plays a significant role in the growth and success of an organisation through performing different roles and responsibilities but apart from this, there are having some similarities among their characteristics. For example, manager gives priority people over organisational goals whereas leaders also prefer employees' performance first. It can be further understood as under:
- Leader has an ability to inspire others which is common in managers as they formulate plans and policies for employees and bring motivation to work hard.
- Both leaders and managers have concerned about maintaining health working environment as it directly makes positive impact on the working behaviour and satisfaction level of employees at workplace (Cordray and et. al., 2015).
- Main objective of both leaders and managers is achieve organisational goals within predetermined time period through managing and motivating employees to perform in right direction.
(B) Functions of manager according to Fayol
Manager plays an important role in the growth and success of Tesco Plc by perform its several managerial functions described by Henry Fayol which are given as under:
Planning: It is primary function that to be performed by manager with an objective of directing employees to perform according to the achievement of organisational goals and objectives. Furthermore, manager of Tesco Plc also responsible to prepare backup plans so that if main plan doesn't bring expected outcomes then such backup will be taken into consideration.
Organising: Under this, managers arrange resources such as manpower, funds, equipments etc. so as to execute predetermined plans in an expected way. For this, utilisation of resources are also have a responsibility of manager which gives profitable result to company in near future.
Commanding: Managers are required to direct employees and monitor performance level of employees in order to identify whether the employees performed in right direction or not. They also command employees through implementing various plans and policies for workforce for better performance (Grahn, Johansson and McKelvey, 2014).
Control: Managers should control the business operations in order to reduce wastge of resources which indirectly makes positive impact on the sales and profitability of company. Controlling the activities of employees by manager easily identifies the deviations which restrict their workforce to perform and accordingly provide corrective measures to improve the same.
Coordination: It is important among workforce of Tesco Plc to coordinate with each other in order to provide mutual support for the achievement of organisational and objectives. For this, managers play a vital role through bringing transparency in communication so that every employee can easily interact with others without any hesitations.
All such functions should be performed by the managers of Tesco Plc in order to gain maximum performance level and contribution from their workforce towards organisational goals and objectives.
(C) Situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency leadership
Leaders also play an important and crucial role in the growth and development of employees as well as an organisation by performing various functions such as application of motivational techniques, leadership styles, training and development practices etc. Thus, leaders of Tesco Plc is considered as a valuable part of an organisation through bringing motivation and confidence among employees to work hard and perform better to support in achievement of organisational goals and objectives (Leadership Styles, 2018). It get adequate support by various leadership styles which are described as under:
Situational theory of leadership: It is considered as an effective style of leadership which changes according to the situations arises at workplace. It means that leader act towards particular situations after analysing the various aspects arises in that situation. For this, leaders must have an analytical skills which assist them in choosing an appropriate leadership style according to the requirement of situations. Such leadership approach is more task oriented. An individual can be a good leader if having flexibility in working as well as having appropriate knowledge to identify and analyse the influencing factors so that an effective decisions can be made which further results in achieving desired results to company. The main characteristics of leadership style is that it can be changed according to the situations arises while executing of business activities. Because of this, it is also known as adjusting style of leader (Grant, Wong and Trautrims, 2017).
Contingency approach of leadership: It is another approach of leadership which emphasises on both personality of leader as well as situation in which leader perform. Leader is the one who remain liable to maintain health relations among employees so that combined efforts can be gained towards achievement of desired target. Under this theory, the leaders can go for two leadership styles which includes people oriented and task oriented. Leader have an ability to deal with the contingent situations that may arises in near future so that it prevents organisation from any losses or damages. With the help of this approach, leaders of M&S can take better decisions by considering features of situations and employee's abilities.
System leadership: Under this approach, the leaders treat an organisation as a system which is related with man made or natural components. The main characteristic of this theory is to provide an opportunity to identify, understand and analyse about the situations of company. According to such theory, organisation is combination of workers, equipments, informations, fixed resources etc. It direct employees to perform in systematic way by following guidelines made by leaders after analysing the situations. It help in maintaining health environment at workplace which ensure completion of business activities in profitable way. With the help of application of such approach, leaders of Tesco Plc can utilise available resources in an optimum manner (Hugos, 2018).
All these are the major approaches of leadership which can be selected by leaders of Tesco Plc in order to deal with the situations arises at workplace, Contingency is considered as most appropriate leadership style as it has been applicable to all kinds of organisation. This enable leader to examine the important elements and take better decisions due to which the leaders of Tesco Plc adopt such leadership style in order to perform well.
(1) Key approaches of operations management and its application in store of Tesco Plc
Operations management is considered as an important part of organisation due to carrying out crucial business activities which starts with manufacturing of quality products and end with final sale to the targeted customers. Here, managers and leaders play equally important role in growth and success of an organisation by executing various approaches of operations management which are determined as under:
Total quality management: This approach mainly focuses on the fact which states that providing quality to customers brings maximum return to company in form of customer's loyalty, brand image etc. Therefore, it will be more useful for Tesco Plc to adopt in order to achieve huge customer strength and brand loyalty through serving customers with best quality.
Just in time: It is an approach which states that an organisation must required to maintain its inventory at all time due to meeting customers demands and requirements on time so that the firm can gain trust and loyalty from their targeted people. For this, Tesco Plc should have good supply chain network which will be agreed to supply them resources whenever company required (Karnani, 2011).
Six sigma: It mainly emphasis on enhancing quality related with operation management by eliminating errors and defects, saving time and reducing cost. It assist Tesco Plc to maximise the operation system which makes them more capable to offer its products and services at an affordable with best quality.
Lean production: It is a systematic approach which directs the operation management to minimise the wastage under production process as well as reducing manual efforts so that quality of products as well as working of employees can be maintained. Further, this help management in creating a health work environment which increases productivity of company as well.
Queuing theory: This approach is based on mathematical analysis of waiting lines. It is more effective to adopt such approach in order to predict the queue lengths and waiting time. Thus, the management of Tesco Plc can adopt such approach so as to make easy for the employees to deal with customers at the time of serving. It ensures customers to get products on time by estimating the time required to be invest while delivering (Luo, Meier and Oberholzer-Gee, 2012).
Continuous improvement: This is the another effective approach which directs the company to make continuous improve changes in their business functions so that the cost of operations can be reduced over a period of time. The main motive of company is to minimise the wastage by enhancing processes and activities. This approach mainly emphasis on five principles which includes order, standardise, sustain, shine and sort. By application of such approach, the management of Tesco Plc can develop a team work which brings innovations to company.
(2) Roles of store manager
Store manager is an important job role within an organisation who gives valuable support in maintaining adequate level of inventory to meet customer's needs and requirements. The roles and responsibilities performed by store manager are described as under:
Prepare budget: The primary role of store manage is to create a budget by receiving support from the finance division in order to execute business operations more effectively and efficiently. Preparation of budget enhances the business efficiency which help in attracting large number of customers.
Create and maintain positive working environment: Manager is the one who put their maximum efforts in managing working environment at store which brings motivation among workers to serve customers more effectively (Marchington and et. al., 2016).
Selection and recruitment: Another role of store manager is to recruit and select skilled candidates which can successfully able to deal with customers of different backgrounds in more convincing manner.
Cost minimisation: The management gives their maximum efforts in reducing cost of operation. For this, manager motivates workers to reduce wastage of resources and ensure optimisation of limited resources so as to give better outcome.
Achieve set sales target: Store manager is the one who encourage employees to perform well and adopt an effective strategies so that the company can attain its set sales objectives.
All such roles and responsibilities are performed by the store manager as it help in achieving its set objectives and enhance profitability of company. Through this, store manager can support maximum to the achievement of organisational goals and objectives.
(3)Value and importance of operations management in achieving business objectives
Operational management includes various functions such as design, monitor and control the production process so that minimum cost has been incurred and profits will get maximised. It always tried to give maximum efforts in improving the systems and procedures of executing business activities with a hope of getting maximum outcome in near future. The main responsibilities of operation management is to transform the raw material into finished products with best utilisation of resources. Apart from this, there are many advantages received by adopting different approaches related with operation management for example reduction in operation cost, utilisation of resources etc. which makes positive impact on the profitability of Tesco Plc. In addition with this, the importance of different types of approaches are given as under:
Reduce wastage of resources: With the help of application of six sigma and lean production technique, it assist managers of Tesco Plc to minimise the wastage of production in order to enhance the quality of products. It support company to achieve brand loyalty as well as enhancing profitability (Penn and Pennix, 2017).
Satisfaction of customer need: Manufacturing quality products by utilisation of resources by operation management enhances the satisfaction level of customers.
Providence of long term benefit to organisation: Application of various approaches of operation management such as Just in Time assist company to meet customer's needs and requirements on time with the help of best supply chain network chain
(4) Factors within business environment which affect the operational management
External factors includes political, social, economical, technological etc. which can influence the business operations either in negative or positive way. To deal with such factors, the management of Tesco Plc should conduct PESTLE analysis which are determined as under:
Political: Such factors consists of fluctuations in political system, taxation policies etc. which affect the decision of management of Tesco Plc to diversify its business to other locations. For example, if taxation policies on grocery products in UK increases then it will impact the pricing policy of Tesco Plc which affect the buying behaviour of customers due to which they may decide to open new outlets in UK (Punyateera and et. al., 2014).
Economical: It includes factors consists of economic fluctuations, inflation etc. which can affect the purchasing power of people. Thus, Tesco Plc should reach its business to developed nations where the people can afford more to buy their groceries products.
Social: It includes factors consists of interest and buying pattern of customers and society as a whole which may bring Tesco Plc comes into danger. To maximise their buying behaviour, Tesco Plc should develop its existing products on regular basis along with giving quality services by skilled employees.
Technological: It includes factors consists of technological advancement which can increases the cost of operations. It makes positive impact on the profitability of company. For example, using online payment facilities can easily attracts the buying behaviour of customers as they may show less willingness to carry cash with them.
Legal factors: It consists of factors including legal laws and legislation which made impact on the existence of an organisation in market. For example, Tesco Plc is primarily located in UK due to which it is important to implement with UK laws and legislations such as equality act, 2010, Data protection act, 1998 etc. which protects the interest and rights of employees as well as crucial information of company from their rivals.
Environmental: It concludes factors related with the environment laws and standards that must required to follow by company operated in particular nation in order to maintain the safety of environment. For example, utilisation of eco-friendly resources by Tesco Plc help in protecting environment from damages as well as enhance their brand image in market as well
(5) Impact of factors on decision making process of store manager
There are various influencing factors present in business environment which can affect the decision-making process of managers and leaders. Tesco Plc is largest retailer organisation which is operates its business at global level due to which it affects most from external factors such as political, economical, social, technological etc. To analyse such factors, PESTLE Analysis should be conducted which makes easy for management to cope up with such influencing factors in more effective and efficient way (Shirae and et. al., 2015). Are you worried about teaching assistant level 2 coursework help from expert writers? Contact the US.
From the above discussion it is concluded that Tesco Plc have different options to enhance their performance level as well as productivity level of employees which includes different management theories and leadership styles such as TQM, Six sigma, continuous improvement model etc. For this, the managers and leaders plays a significant role in implementing such models and techniques.