This industry of visitor's attraction is hard to specify due to its overlapping activities with some other correspondent sectors that are together associated with the tact of travel and tourism. It is where this particular industrial sector of travel and tourism is evident to play a considerate role in enhancing the economic status of a nation (Albrecht, 2014). It is where visitor's attraction usually involves fairground attractions such as theme parks, historical railways and certain other kind of city attractions like Madame Tussaud’s and London Eye in UK. It is hereby on defining the visitor's attraction of UK, Merlin has been proven to be one of the large player in this particular industry with more number of attractive theme parks and other type of city attractions.
At present, it is at number 2 position for being the globe's largest visitor attraction operator after Disney. As a result to which, they are currently operating with near about 13, 500 number of employees where exists approximately 35 million visitors every year. Merlin acquired numerous such attractions such as Legoland Parks in the year 2005, Gardaland in the year 2006 and Tussauds Group in the year 2007 (Berthon and et. al., 2008). All these acquisitions have in turn raised its standard denary in this 3 years. The attractions and parks owned by Merlin involves London Dungeon, Alton Towers, Sea life, Thorpe park, the London eye and Madame Tussauds. This industry is together referred to have a large number of autonomous fairground attractions and theme parks with a majority of them are nearby seaside resorts and are being operated by families.
1.1 Overlap of visitor attractions in relation to particular types of attraction
Visitors attraction plays a greater role in the overall system of tourism in a nation where these are usually considered as natural locations that are either man made or are inherited by the nature and reflects as a major attractive force for the tourists as well as the localities. These are thereby refereed to be leading motivators that are further divided into four major classifications, as stated below-
Constructions within a natural surrounding.
Mad made buildings and structures designed to serve the intent of devising it as a visitor's attraction such as spiritual activity (Del Chiappa, Andreu and Gallarza, 2014). However, in the present time, they are drawing the attention of appreciable strength of travellers who are exploiting them as comforts for leisure.
Man made structures and buildings along with those sites whose scheming is specially done to attract a large set of tourists. This is for instance the theme parks that are specially built with a prime intent of accommodating the demand of visitors approaching for leisure tourism.
Events are together considered to have a specific categorisation in visitor's attraction.
However, to elucidate the fact of overlapping of visitor's attraction, the St. Paul's Cathedral has been taken into consideration over here. It is a famous location with a substantial trait with respect to London skyline as the world's illustrious dome. It is featuring renowned artistic work with complex mosaics that is referred to be a prime reason behind over-joying the visitors with such an exciting interior. Herein, the tourists can together refer to explore the crypt as a way of discovering the tombs and memorials of some notable national heroes (Dickinson and et.al., 2014). Additionally, the tourists can also refer to attempt acoustic quirks in its whispering gallery by climbing onto the Golden gallery to enjoy a fascinated panoramic view throughout London. Furthermore, St. Paul's Cathedral is together referred to be a spiritual attraction to impart the sense of sacredness among the visitors who are not even Christians. Although, depicting a chief purpose of cathedral usually depicts a sacred place for worship by the Christians where it is also referred to be one of the oldest building in London that is constantly being used in its locality. As a result to which, it represents to be an overlapped visitor's attraction in regard to serve as both inherited and cultural prospect of community people.
1.2 Importance of different visitor attractions
This is specially to analyse the significance of visitor's attraction, yet again the St. Paul’s Cathedral has been taken into consideration. It is where the local area is largely benefited from these visitors attractions in the below outlined ways-
- This particular attraction is referred to be amongst the world's largest buildings that are accessible with respect to national use where it is together used as a venue for concerts, degree ceremonies and lectures, etc.
- Paul’s Cathedral is referred to contribute into the development of local area by creating an optimistic social and economic impact (Hathroubi, Peypoch and Robinot, 2014).
- It is together offering varied other facilities by permitting school visits done by the students as a way of touring and trailing workshops based on some informative facts to aid into their classroom learning.
- Paul’s Cathedral is also referred to offer a pivotal scope of learning to the adult's by providing a radio-controlled group of tourers (Kozak and Baloglu, 2010). Wherein, they are together assisting in the evolution of skills through the tact of volunteering.
- It is together known to support in prolonging the custom of English Choral by befitting the local area by involving both the children and adults to get an exceptional learning experience. It is however done with a prime assistance of cathedral music that together aids them to evolve varied transferable qualities.
- The workshop of St. Paul’s Cathedral is also referring to employ a large set of local craftsmen who are having conservation skills (Leask, Fyall and Barron, 2014). This mostly includes stonemasons, discoloured glass specialists and carpenters, etc.
2.1 Needs and motivations of different visitor types
There exists distinct type of visitors who are differently motivated with dissimilar requisitions that in turn reflects to be a major cause behind their visits and are being categorized on the basis of below mentioned visitor's attraction-
- Coca Cola London Eye – It is mostly visited by general tourists who are encouraged by the possibility of screening assorted attractions in London with an enjoyable ride.
- Sea Life London Aquarium – It is together visited by general tourists who enjoys perceiving marine lives by together referring to conduct an educational research work on the same (Mason, 2015). It is therefore referred to be a centre of attraction for those who are related to such analogous subjects of marine management, preservation, conservation and are also interested in educating themselves about the heart of London.
- Tower of London – It is mostly visited by the general tourists to experience the past of a royal mansion, its powerful fortress and armoury, etc.
- Westminster Abbey – It is visited by those who are largely motivated by its long term existence of 700 years that is often reflected to be a prime cause behind drawing the attention of more than one million travellers every year (Page, 2014).
- Paul’s Cathedral – It is visited by those who are willing to experience its breathtaking interior where it mostly involves the general tourists. However, religious tourists are also referred to be a vital part of it who mostly visits to enjoy the sense of holiness over here.
- British Museum – It is visited by those who are greatly drivento experience the artistic works of craftsmen from pre-historical period to modern time from all over the world (Ramaswamy, 2013). This includes a leading observation of attractions like the Rosetta stone, mummies in the Ancient collection of Egypt along with some Pantheon sculptures.
- Royal Museum Greenwich – It is visited by those who are willing to experience National Maritime Museum, Royal Observatory, the Queen’s House and glorious tea clipper Cutty Sark.
- Hampton Court Palace – It is visited by those who are duly motivated by some brilliant discoveries of Henry VIII’s (Wallis and Dockett, 2015). It is by visiting its popular royal house known as Hampton Court Palace to penetrate into the sights of the spirited Base Court over there.
2.2 Impacts of tourism on visitor attractions in London
There exists both positive and negative impact of tourism on visitor's attractions like the London eye, Tower of London, Westminster abbey and St. Paul's Cathedral, etc., and are as described below-
- Economic effect– It is where an intensifying rate of tourism is resulting in various employment opportunities by directly hiring the aspirants in this industry that is indirectly benefiting transportation and retail industrial sectors as well (Culture, heritage & attractions,2016).
- Social impact– A reinforced infrastructure along with new leisure comforts are resulting from tourism that are in turn benefiting the localities. It is where tourism is duly supporting them to preserve their conventional traditions, handcraft work and festivals, etc.
- Environmental impact– It is mainly in context to nature tourism along with another concept of eco tourism that duly encourage preserving wildlife by together conserving the earthy resources such as rain forests, etc., (Beritelli, Bieger and Laesser, 2014). This in turn helps in the reduction of certain problematic situations such as deforestation and over-fishing, etc.
- Economic effect– It is with reference to the jobs created by tourism that are mostly seasonal in nature with a very inferior wage structure for the workers. Also, the monetary funds generated from tourism is not always referred to benefit the local community. It is because a huge portion is mostly being taken up large multinational organizations such as the hotel chains, etc. Moreover, there together exists a large set of destinations that are dependent on tourism are negatively affected by some atrocious events such as natural terrorism, natural disasters as well as economic depression.
- Social impact– It is mainly with reference to any atrocious behaviour of visitors that will negatively impact upon the quality life of the host communities (Connell, Page and Meyer, 2015).
- Environmental impact– Tourism is also posed to threat both the cultural and natural resources of a location due to over utilization of water supplies in the beaches, coral reefs and in certain heritage sites. It together results in raising the pollution level by traffic emissions and littering, etc.
2.3 Effect of different theories of tourist motivation on the management of visitor attractions
It is on the basis of a conceptual fact in whose accordance, motivation defines the realistic needs and demands of the tourists that are required to be fulfilled in an effective manner. It is where these requirements in turn drives the people to act in a considerate manner by duly satisfying them. However, this procedure keeps on changing as per the primary consideration of the users with some more intensified actions to move onto the next steps (Dewhurst and Thwaites, 2014). Herein, motivation is usually rewarded in between behavior and satisfaction where the behavior will result in satisfied customers with fulfilled needs and demands. Also, the reward will tend to motivate the people to attempt similar activities again. It is therefore in context to the tact of tourism, the visitors are referred to travel only in case there preferences are being exchanged by the motivational procedure as depicted below-
It is thus with a correspondent outlook towards it, below are some motivational theories that links to this fact where a person will travel only his or her mental perception will be fulfilled in an efficient manner. These theories are as delineated below-
- Maslow’s need hierarchy theory- It is basically a hierarchical representation of people's need that are arranged in an orderly manner where the fulfillment of the lower requisition will move to the upper one and so on (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2012). On whose basis, five leading demands of tourists have been referred over here with a foremost fulfillment of their psychological needs and safety needs followed by social, self esteem and self actualization needs.
- Alderfer’s ERG theory- It is based upon three communal constituents of existence, relatedness and growth where it is analogous to the above defined theory of Maslow's need hierarchy. The only dissimilarity among both these theories are their sectioned needs where the five hierarchical needs of Maslow is hereby covered under only three.
- Herzberg two factor theory- It is a fascinating conceptual theory of Herzberg based upon two vital factors namely health factor and motivators where in concord to his belief, it has been said that the opposite term of motivation is no motivation instead of de-motivation. It is together based upon yet another conspicuous fact where the absence of health factor leads to de-motivate the tourists with no such effect on being present (Järvensivu, Lukkari and Järvensivu, 2010). However, the motivators duly increases the encouragement level of the tourists with no such impact on being absent.
3.1 Different visitor management strategies
There exists many such industries that are duly involved in the process of sales and marketing as a way of trading their offered commodities. The industry of visitor's attraction is one such industry that is more dependent as compared to others in terms of their customer's experiences (Lawton and Weaver, 2015). It is hereby largely associated with a need base dimension of customer service required to be implemented in the sector of travel and tourism. For which, the tour planners are duly imposed to create some significant opportunities by experiencing a very specific agenda of targeting based on some special anticipations and demands of a segmented market. It should be however done with a strong understanding of the targeted set of market. Wherein, tourist's experience can be distributed in four distinct phases-
- Imagination of travel- It is the foremost consideration of a tourist while referring to begin with a program of travelling. It is therefore after anticipating about the vacation, the visitors began to investigate the areas they can refer to visit by collecting some likely information for it. In this sequel, they hereby start fantasizing those areas that they may travel.
- Choosing a destination for it- It is in continuation of the above discovered tact of a visitor, this refers to yet another prime requisition of selecting a pertinent destination that is often influenced by several number of factors. These are cost, ambiance, packaging, and other affiliated constituents (Losada and et.al., 2016).
- Taking a journey- It is after a successful wind-up of the above two components, this reflects the third phase in which the travellers will hereby refer for a final trip in which, they might experience variety of sensations. This usually involves satisfaction, feelings, dissatisfaction and transmutation, etc.
- Reviewing the journey- It is the last stage in which the views of post trip will be hereby analysed by the travellers where they will together refer to share their experiences with their friends, relatives and peers, etc. Herein, they may either recommend them to visit the area they have travelled as of now or may themselves refer to visit it again (Moutinho, 2011).
Based upon the above four vital phases of a tourist's experiences, it is thereby recommended to the administrative bodies of National Tourism Agency VisitBritain to follow some effective tactics to maximize the visitor's attraction in a strategic way-
- Research- It is a foremost step that is further divided into three definite proportions with a foremost consideration of establishing the core values of a destination on the basis of visitor's experience (Pearce and Wu, 2016). This will be based upon the four leading features that includes durability, relevance along with a communicative and spectacular depiction. After which, the management is required to survey the contemporary preferences of the visitors by together making a comparison between the present image of the destination with that to the contenders.
- Identification of personality and positioning- This is firstly to represent the nation with a precise delineation of its attributional traits such as its people and their culture with the landscape and adventure. Wherein, these identified measures will in turn provide a prosperous opportunity of getting converted into brand personality. Such vital generation will in turn assists the concerned bodies to make an emotional relationship with the targeted set of market. It is where crafting of brand will symbolize the identity of the destination based upon its cultural values that resultantly encourages the tour related organisations to considerably communicate those to their associated clients and users. This particular step is together composed of yet another preposition of positioning where it needs a tag line to symbolize the oriented brand to interact with external audiences as well. It is in case of large destination, multiple tag lines can be used for multiple segments.
- Enforcing the brand- It is yet another principle requirement in which distinct channels are being used to communicate the positioned brand to the targeted number of users (Stark, 2015). This usually involves the tact of advertising via various interactive tools of media like internet, etc., or done by arranging public relation events and applying the procedures of direct marketing, etc. It is with a fundamental consideration of the management to market the brand via media and events to create awareness among the targeted set of users.
- Long term maintenance of brand- This is basically referred to a long term tact of marketing as a way of retaining the brand personality. Although, the stipulated values are constantly refined and adapted by carrying out regular exploration of recent market trends so as to make a consistent position in the market with the help of long term planning.
3.2 Management techniques in relation to sustainability
This is with a chief consideration of assuring a sustainable impact of tourism on tour destinations and the local community that will get affected. In regard to which, it is important to realize the chain of supply and demand in the market of tourism. Beside this, a principal interpretation of tourism among the community members is together an essential outlook where the residents are the first to sense the effect of tourism in the nation (Wang, Li, Zhen and Zhang, 2016). It is where they are hereby represented as an important stakeholder of this industrial sector whose standpoints are referred to play an important role in defining the sustainability of tourism in a nation. It is in evidence to a fact where a measured tourism leads to enhance the wealthiness of a country like UK by together assisting the preservation of earth's natural and cultural resources.
Whereas, the local people may suffer from the invasion of tourists whose extent can be measured by conducting a resident survey. This will in turn provide a base line info regarding the mental attitude of the occupants that can then be in turn used with the intent of observing and managing the information in affiliated to the development of tourism in UK (Dewhurst and Thwaites, 2014). There exists several such parameters that can be measured through the resident survey and can also serve as reg flags to analyze those potent factors that could estrange the assailable population due to tourism related activities. Also, the study results can be used to ensure the fulfillment of certain developmental agendas from tourism by assuring improvement in social, economic and environmental issues that are related to tourism. This data can together be used to edify the assemblage about both risks and benefits related to tourism where they can also get proud of their inheritance.
The above report has discussed about the concept of visitor's attraction with distinct prospects of processing an individual's understanding in regard to well-defined attractions for the visitor's and there types, etc. It has together discoursed about different motivational theories and factors that duly impacts upon this developmental procedure by also enlightening the managerial techniques and their influence on sustainability of a tourist destination. This has in turn reflected such influential factors that subsequently attracts a large set of visitors to a particular destination with the use of several motivational theories to be applied in acknowledging the factors that in turn encourages the travelers to visit a particular destination. There existed yet another unit which has exemplified those issues that impacts upon the developmental procedure of a particular tour destination. This has been done by together ascertaining the modes through which the tourist destination can refer to generate funds. Lastly, some well-defined managerial strategies have been elaborated to attract a large set of visitors to a particular tour destination by together acknowledging the role of these strategies on the sustainability of a tour destination.
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